Presentation on theme: "Types of Swimming Pools"— Presentation transcript:
1Types of Swimming Pools EOTypes of Swimming PoolsTP 9
2Types of Swimming Pools References:CFP 213, Health Manual, Chapter 4CFAO CFAO SANITARY CONTROL OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR POOLS AND SWIMMING AREASGeneral Safety Program – Safety Standards Manual, Chapter 17, Electricity safetySaskatchewan Health, Water Theme Facility Design/Operational Standards Updated 02/00
3Types of Swimming Pools General:By definition, a swimming pool means “any structure, basin, chamber, or tank containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving, or recreational bathing and having a water depth of two feet and six inches or more at any point”. A swimming area is any natural body of water which is used in a similar manner to a swimming pool. Swimming pools may be indoor or outdoor and are of three types:
4Types of Swimming Pools Fill and Draw Pools:Pools of this type are static, they are filled with water which is periodically run off to waste and replaced. In general, such pools are no longer approved for communal use, because of the difficulty in keeping the pool water in sanitary, disinfected condition.
6Types of Swimming Pools Flow-through Pools:In flow through pools there is continuous flow, so that when the pool is in use water is simply flowing in at one end and out to waste at the other, ensuring continuous displacement. Sanitary control of this type of pool is largely dependent upon controlling the quality of the up-stream water. The out-flowing water may become a source of pollution downstream.
9Types of Swimming Pools Recirculating Pools:DesignBasically, a recirculation system continuouslypumps the same water throughfiltration/disinfection apparatus and equipmentand returns it to the pool, Make up water beingadded when necessary.DesignBasically, a recirculation system continuously pumps the same water through filtration/disinfection apparatus and equipment and returns it to the pool, make-up water being added when necessary. Pools, having a rectangular shape sloping floors which permit gradation from shallow to deep ends, and vertical walls are the patterns in common use. The pool must be so sited, built, equipped, and finished that cleanliness and safety are facilitated. Pool walls and floor surfaces require a smooth, impervious, and easily cleanable finish.
11Types of Swimming Pools Recirculating Pools:The recirculation system provides:circulation of the water through the pool by pumps;withdrawal of the water from the pool for treatment and return to the pool as clean water; andtreatment of the water by filtration and disinfection to approved standards, and by the application of any other treatment processes which may be found necessary.the Recirculating pool is regarded as the most desirable, from the health standpoint, of the three types of swimming pools discussed.
12Types of Swimming Pools Pool Operation:A typical swimming pool piping system is illustrated inFig Various modifications exist but all conform tothe same principles:the pool is filled with water from a potable source;the water is continuously circulated by pumping through the filters after having hair and lint removed by a straining device; andthe filtered water is disinfected and returned to the pool.
13Types of Swimming Pools Pool Water Supply:The water supply must satisfy the normal bacteriological and chemical requirements for drinking water. Of special importance to recirculation pool operation is a supply which has low turbidity and a neutral pH. The water supply to the pool must be protected against contamination from back siphonage or cross connection.
14Types of Swimming Pools Filters:Swimming pool filters are commonly of two types:Rapid Sand; andDiatomaceous earth.
15Types of Swimming Pools Filters:Filters must be of such capacity that the entire pool volume can be recirculated through them not less than three time in 24 hours of operation.CFHS personnel should note that efficient swimming pool filtration requires a flow rate of two to three gallons per square foot of filter surface per minute while operating, and 10 to 15 gallons per square foot per minute when the filter is being backwashed. The flow rate will be reduced as the filter becomes clogged with matter removed from the water. A flow meter is therefore required so that the filter may be backwashed as soon as the rate drops.
16Types of Swimming Pools pH of Pool Water: It has been shown that a high pH in water retards disinfection by chlorine and may favour algal growths. However, a drop in pH (below 7.2) may cause conjunctivitis or dermatitis and will certainly give rise to a strong chlorine odour. Accurate control of the pH of pool water is essential, especially so where hypochlorite solutions are used for pool water disinfection as these have a tendency to drop the pH. It must also be remembered that to ensure proper alum flocculation a pH range of 7.2 – 7.6 is desirable.
17Types of Swimming Pools pH of Pool Water:To adjust pH upwards soda ash is added by means ofA chemical feeder. To lower the pH, sodiumbisulphate, hydrochloric, or phosphoric acid may beused. Tests for pH are usually made colorimetrically,although electronic devices exist for this purpose. InCanadian Forces pools it is required that pH must beMaintained between 7.2 and 7.6 when there is a freeavailable chlorine residual between 0.4 and 1 mg/l.High pH readings (8.0 to 8.9) are permitted where ahigh free chlorine residual (over 1mg/l) is required.
18Types of Swimming Pools Coagulants – Alum:Where alum is used in a rapid sand filter it is usuallyapplied ahead of the filters. The amount required isgenerally two ounces per square foot of filter surface.Alum solution should be applied rather slowly, six toEight hours to feed the amount needed. It is highlyimportant that the alum should be thoroughly mixedwith the influent, otherwise, being acid, the alum willfloc in the pool instead of on the filters.
19Types of Swimming Pools Chlorination:Swimming pool water should, when disinfectedby chlorination, show a free available chlorineresidual of not less than 0.5 mg/l or higher inall parts of the pool.
20Types of Swimming Pools Temperature:Where a pool is artificially heated the watertemperature is maintained at 23°C to 26°C.Ambient air temperature in an indoor pool where thewater is heated is required to be not more than 4°Cwarmer or more than 1°C cooler than the pool water atany time when in use. Ventilation must be so adjustedthat draughts are prevented. CFHS personnel must beIn possession of suitably calibrated thermometerswhen making this part of an inspection.
21Types of Swimming Pools Bather Load:The number of bathers in the pool at any timemust not exceed one person per 25 squarefeet of water surface area.
22Types of Swimming Pools Pool Cleaning:The frequency of pool cleaning depends uponsuch factors as the type of pool, bather load,efficiency of filter operation, chemicaltreatment and disinfection, and the results oflaboratory tests. Visible dirt in small quantitiesmay be removed by vacuuming.
23Types of Swimming Pools Pool Cleaning:The presence of scum or floating debris calls forimmediate removal. Generally, the pool should beemptied and thoroughly cleaned with sufficientfrequency to, at all times, maintain a high standard ofsanitation and attractive appearance. The adherenceto strict rules of personal hygiene, coupled with theprovision of adequate bathing and toilet facilities, havea distinct bearing upon the pool’s water quality andappearance.
24Types of Swimming Pools Sanitary facilities:Sanitary facilities shall be provided as follows:Bath-houses:Separate sections must be provided for men and women. The construction must be such as to facilitate thorough daily cleaning.
25Types of Swimming Pools Sanitary facilities:Barriers shall be placed at the entrances and exits of dressing rooms to break the line of sight. Floors shall be of impervious material, have a pitch of 1/4 inch per foot, slope to a proper drain. Walls and partitions shall be of smooth material without open cracks or joints.
26Types of Swimming Pools Sanitary facilities:Showers - Separate shower facilities shall be provided for each sex. A minimum of one shower per 40 bathers shall be provided. The use of shower boards is not recommended; instead, shower floors should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected daily.
27Types of Swimming Pools Sanitary facilities:Toilets - The men’s bath-house shall have a minimum of one toilet and one urinal per 60 males. The women’s bath-house shall have a minimum of one toilet per 40 females.
28Types of Swimming Pools Personal Hygiene:The Canadian Forces require a high standardof personal hygiene from users of swimmingpools, and the following precautions are to betaken:
29Types of Swimming Pools Personal Hygiene:Suitable instructions, covering personalhygiene shall be displayed prominently in thelocker rooms: i.e..all persons using the swimming pool must take a cleansing shower, using warm water and soap, before entering the pool;all bathers who have used the toilet must shower before entering the pool;
30Types of Swimming Pools Personal Hygiene:persons having skin disease, sore or inflamed eyes, cold, nasal or ear discharges, or any communicable diseases will not be allowed in the pool;spitting, spouting of water, blowing the nose, etc, in the pool is prohibited. If spitting is necessary, scum gutters must be used;
31Types of Swimming Pools Personal Hygiene:blowing the nose to remove water may force infectious matter into the sinuses and inner ear and cause serious consequences;no articles of food are permitted in the bath-house or pool enclosure;no smoking is permitted in the pool area; and
32Types of Swimming Pools Personal Hygiene:no boisterous or rough play, except supervised water sports, is permitted in the pool, on runways, on diving boards, floats, platforms, or in dressing rooms and shower rooms.
33Types of Swimming Pools Chemistry:Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH) - it may be noted that pH levels above8.1 can favour the growth of algae, particularly where the water maycontain free carbon dioxide. Of the various chemicals recommended forpH adjustment, the following appraisal should be made before using anyone of them:Soda ash (Sodium carbonate). Use to raise pH. Generally safe. Less effective than caustic soda.Caustic soda. Hazardous to handle or use without protective clothing, especially goggles. Not considered to be a safe chemical.Sodium bisulphate. Used to lower pH. Generally safe.Hydrochloric & Sulphuric acids. Can be used to lower pH but is highly unsafe.
34Types of Swimming Pools Alum (Aluminum Sulphate):A pressure sand filter can not be operatedwithout using a coagulant; the coagulant ofchoice being alum. Other alum compoundssuch as ammonium aluminum sulphate maybe used provided that there is chemicalsupervision, because these compounds arecomplex in themselves and may add to theWater treatment problem.
35Types of Swimming Pools Alum (Aluminum Sulphate):Alum, in an aqueous solution, has an acidreaction. On mixing alum with water in the correctproportions, aluminum hydroxide is formed, as a whitegelatinous precipitate which adheres to the sandgrains in the filter forming a mat having similarproperties to biological film formed in a slow sand filter.This mat enables the filter to remove and retainsuspended matter present in the water.
36Types of Swimming Pools Alkalinity:Alkalinity and pH. The pH is not a complete measurement of water alkalinity because carbonate and bi-carbonate alkalinity does not react to a pH test. This is specially important when complaints of eye and skin irritation are received in those cases where the pool pH is over 8.3
37Types of Swimming Pools Tests for alkalinity. Carbonate - bicarbonate alkalinity can be determined by the reaction of the water with phenolphthalein solution. A pinkish colour reaction to three to four drops of phenolphthalein solution in 50 mg/l of the water indicated carbonate. Reducing the pH to 8.3 or below removes carbonate alkalinity. The total alkalinity is best determined by titration in a laboratory. In swimming pool waters a total alkalinity of mg/l is desirable.
38Types of Swimming Pools Chemical Disinfection:Three elements of the halogen group or theircompounds have been used in the disinfectionof swimming pool water:chlorinebromineiodineGeneral. Three elements of the halogen group or their compounds have been used in disinfection of swimming pool water - chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Of these, chlorine is the disinfectant most commonly used in swimming pool water treatment. The method of application of chlorine in a recirculation system may utilize liquified chlorine gas in cylinders or prepared solutions of sodium or calcium hypochlorite.
39Types of Swimming Pools Effects on pH:The application of chlorine to water as a gas results inthe formation of acids which lower the pH. It is for thisreason that treatment with soda ash is necessary.Calcium hypochlorite only slightly affects pH, but thisdepends on the chemistry of the water at source.Sodium hypochlorite is prepared by bubbling chlorinegas through a caustic alkali in the solution which willcause the pool water pH to rise, rendering the use ofsodium bisulphate necessary.
40Types of Swimming Pools Chloramines:These compounds are formed from chlorineand ammonia. they have been used fordisinfection of pool water but their bactericidaleffect is slower than chlorine or iodine.
41Types of Swimming Pools MAINTENANCE - Control of Algal Growths:Algal growths are favoured by a pH below 8.1.An incipient algal growth may be detected by aSudden rise in pH, caused by algae removingcarbon dioxide. Algae will also deviate chlorine,increasing chlorine demand. The free residualchlorine treatment, properly applied, preventsgrowth of algae
42Types of Swimming Pools MAINTENANCE - Control of Algal Growths:Shaded pools are less susceptible to algalproblems because of reduction in directsunlight. Routine superchlorination is anexcellent preventive. Where a massive algalgrowth has developed the pool must bedrained, scrubbed with strong (5 %)hypochlorite or copper sulphate solution, andthoroughly flushed.
43Types of Swimming Pools MAINTENANCE - Filter Sand Purging:Failure to properly backwash filters will give rise to:Calcification caused by calcium compoundsadhering to grains of sand, resulting in the formation of impermeable masses or (cakes); andMud balls which are of biological origin, caused by the multiplication of bacteria. This causes solid aggregation of sand, dirt, and hair into “mud balls”. These mud balls disrupt the filter bed, so that uniform filtration is impossible.
44Types of Swimming Pools MAINTENANCE - Filter Sand Purging:Corrective Measures (Purging). When either of the two conditionspreviously described arises, the filter, or filters, must be purged.The methods commonly used are:replacement of the entire sand bed if the condition is of long standing in either case.calcification, if not too far advanced, may be corrected by purging with an acid wash. The filter is opened and drained and the chemical spread over the surface. The filter is then closed and sufficient water admitted to just cover the surface. After six hours, the filter is thoroughly backwashed.for mud balls, the same procedure as under 2b above is used. Lye or calcium hypochlorite may be substituted for sodium biusulphate, but involve special hazards and are better avoided.
45Types of Swimming Pools BATHING PLACES - Wading Pools:This type of pool is designed for outdoor used by smallchildren. A continuous flow, shallow, spray type poolis the design most favoured by sanitarians. The watersupply may be fresh, potable water which is rapidly runto waste, or recirculated, in which case treatment is thesame as for recirculation swimming pools. Wadingpools require the same precautions with regard toconstruction, operation, and safety as swimming pools.
46Types of Swimming Pools BATHING PLACES - Wading Pools: Such pools can, unless carefully supervised, become foci of infection, especially for those communicable diseases peculiar to children. Contact with a wading pool should be ascertained when investigating any case caused by droplet infection, or direct contact, and involving small children, during the summer months. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, a wading pool in which the water is adequately treated, and where those wading are supervised, is infinitely safer than a beach wading area.
47Types of Swimming Pools Inspection:Records:Daily pool records are maintained by the BCEO. Copies of these records should be available either at the pool, or through the BCEO, or the PERI staff. Of special importance to CFMS preventive medicine personnel are those records pertaining to:chemical tests for chlorine residual, pH, and alkalinity;
48Types of Swimming Pools Inspection:Records:bacteriological water samples;number of bather per day - if bathing is on a unit basis the unit designation should be recorded; anddates and time of tests of emergency telephone, or for electrical ground fault.
49Types of Swimming Pools Inspection:Inspection Procedure:So many enter-related factors, which bear upon health, exist at a swimming pool that a check-list type of inspection form should be utilized. A suggested form for this purpose is appended as Annex A to this chapter. When making a routine inspection, CFHS personnel should conduct tests for chlorine residual and pH, also alkalinity if required. Samples for bacteriological examination should also be secured, first aid kits inspected, and emergency communication system tested. Any existing adjacent facilities for refreshment service must also be include in this inspection.
50Types of Swimming Pools Annex A – Swimming Pool ReportCFP 213, Chapter 4 – Section 416INSPECTION, Records & InspectionProcedureAnnex A – Swimming Pool Inspection Report
51Types of Swimming Pools Water Theme Facility Design/Operational StandardsSafetyElectricalDisinfection (play equipment in pods)Operational of wave pools and water slidesProblem solving (wave pools and water slides)TP #9 (j) (3)-(7)Instructor: Discuss in general terms
52Types of Swimming Pools Salt Water Pools & Spas:Saltwater swimming pools and spas rely on chlorine- or bromine-generating devices to sanitize the water. They require the same basic care as traditional pools and spas to control disease-causing microorganisms, algae and organic matter.The main difference is that saltwater pools and spas rely on chlorine- or bromine-generating devices to sanitize the water whereas traditional pools and spas can use chlorine or bromine chemical products. As with traditional pools and spas, the minimum free available chlorine or equivalent bromine levels must be maintained at 1-3 ppm for swimming pool water and at 3-5 ppm for spa water.(misc)Health Canada – Residential Swimming Pool and Spa Sanitation