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EO 001.02 Prepare Military Correspondence. References Land Force Doctrine and Training System, Staff and Writing Procedures Manual of Abbreviation Department.

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Presentation on theme: "EO 001.02 Prepare Military Correspondence. References Land Force Doctrine and Training System, Staff and Writing Procedures Manual of Abbreviation Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 EO Prepare Military Correspondence

2 References Land Force Doctrine and Training System, Staff and Writing Procedures Manual of Abbreviation Department of National Defense and the CF, A-AD-121-F01/JX-000 DAOD , Format for signature blocks in correspondence Writing Format and Production of technical Publications, Annex B (Writers' guide) C /AG-006) CFSATE Military Writing and Correspondence 2006 CFSAL Military Writing guide 2007

3 Teaching Points Purpose Application Characteristics: –accuracy –clarity –brevity –relevance –logic

4 Teaching Points Definitions: –drafter –originator Capitalization

5 Teaching Points Punctuation Marks: –apostrophe –brackets –period –colon –semi-colon –comma

6 Teaching Points Abbreviations and acronyms Date and time Use of numbers Sentence structure Paragraph structure File numbers References

7 Teaching Points Address block Signature block Annex and appendix Enclosure Distribution list Page number Security markings

8 Teaching Points Correspondence: –General –Parts/types of letters –Memorandum –Minute –Agenda –Minutes of a meeting –Service paper – s –Annex –Appendix

9 Purpose The purpose of this document is to highlight the basic rules and formats for preparing documents within the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Canadian Forces (CF). Conforming to the provisions of references A through E (CFSAL Military Writing Guide 2007), balanced with DND/CF requirements, the principal objectives are: –to develop a familiarity and understanding of the components of administrative correspondence; –to simplify formats for administrative documents while still meeting government and NATO regulations; and –to provide examples of and guidance in the application of good administrative practices.

10 Application/Aim –The main aim of effective military correspondence is the clear transmission of information from the author to the reader. –Other aims include: Comprehensive description of the subject matter; Communicating effectively to become efficient; and Conveying a single meaning to the audience in order to achieve desired results.

11 Characteristics In order to achieve these aims, five characteristics must be used in military correspondence: - Clarity - Accuracy - Relevance - Brevity - Logic

12 Characteristics Clarity To ensure it is clear, a military document must always have a singular aim. If several topics need be discussed, several documents are produced. Writing must be explicit, detailed, definite, complete, intelligible and unambiguous. The text must be phrased and readily understood at the first reading. Any chances of ambiguity and implications from which false inferences may be drawn must be eliminated.

13 Characteristics Clarity Several principles are helpful in achieving clarity: (1) constructing direct statements and preferring the active voice to the passive; (2) using concrete rather than abstract phrases; (3) punctuating skilfully; (4) keeping the sentences shortbut avoiding monotony

14 Characteristics Clarity contd: - Using correct syntax/grammar and not relying on word-processor spelling checks as the sole verification as shown below: Eye halve a spelling chequer, It came with my pea sea it plainly marques four my revue. Miss steaks eye kin knot sea. Eye strike a key and type a word, And weight four it two say weather eye am wrong oar write,It shows me strait a weigh. As soon as a mist ache is maid,It nose bee fore two long and eye can put the error rite, Its rare lea ever wrong. Eye have run this poem threw it, I am shore your pleased to no its letter perfect awl the weigh, My chequer tolled me sew Sauce unknown

15 Characteristics Accuracy: –military writing must be exact in detail and truth; –the author is trusted in having determined the correctness of the information presented; –this is important in gaining the recipients confidence and imperative when the correspondence deals with operational matters

16 Characteristics Relevance: The characteristics of the audience for which the author is writingsuch as experience, frame of mind, expertise and beliefs - must be well understood if the correspondence is to be effective. This will allow the inclusion of all relevant information without the use of irrelevant words, phrases and ideas.

17 Characteristics Brevity: Particularly in the case of short military documents such as messages and memoranda, the objective is to communicate information rather than please the reader. Ideas and facts must be expressed as briefly as possible, but not at the expense of clarity, accuracy or relevance. This objective is best achieved through a careful revision of the document to: (1)eliminate unnecessary words and phrases; (2)replace multiple words or phrases by one word of the same meaning; and (3)remove all redundant material.

18 Characteristics Logic Logic is essential to the effectiveness of a document directed at a critical and experienced audience; One train of thought must be carried to its conclusion before another is begun; Evidence and premises must be stated clearly; The discussion must be balanced rather than biased; and The development of ideas must be in an orderly fashion, so that the evidence upon which it is based precedes each deduction/conclusion.

19 Definitions Drafter composes the document for the originator; and position/appointment normally is shown after the file number as the suffix. Example of file number: (PMed) Drafter in this example is a PMed Tech Suffix

20 Definitions Originator The originator is the individual whose signature block is on a document. 12/31/

21 Definitions Capitalization Capital letters have three basic uses: to give emphases to distinguish proper nouns and adjectives to highlight words in headings and captions 12/31/

22 Definitions Capitalization Full capitalization shall be used for: – acronyms; –security classifications; –subject line (s); and –annexes, appendices, glossaries, indices. 12/31/

23 Definitions Capitalization Initial Capitalization –first word of a sentence; –Important words in run-in headings; –proper names and nouns; –each important word in a contents; and –the word Government (referring to Canadian Government). 12/31/

24 Definitions Punctuation and Capitalization of Subparagraphs: Punctuation and Capitalization Used. The punctuation used for paragraphs and all subsequent subparagraph levels shall be as follows: a. Sentence that introduces subparagraphs shall end in a colon; b. Subparagraphs (and all subsequent subparagraph levels) consisting of complete sentences shall begin with an upper-case letter and end in a period.

25 Definitions Punctuation and Capitalization Used. c. Subparagraph (and all subsequent subparagraph levels) consisting of clauses shall begin with a lower-case letter and end in a semicolon. (If the subparagraphs consist of steps in a procedure, or explanations of items identified by run-in headings the subparagraphs may be punctuated as a normal paragraph, i.e., beginning with an upper-case letter and ending with a period.)

26 Definitions Punctuation and Capitalization Used contd. d. When a subparagraph (or subsequent subparagraph levels) is dependent on the d'alinéa) introductory sentence and consists of a number of sentences, those sentences shall be phrases punctuated in the normal manner, except that the first word of the subparagraph shall begin with a lower-case letter and the last sentence of the subparagraph shall end with a semicolon.

27 Definitions Punctuation and Capitalization Used contd: e. If subparagraphs (or subsequent subparagraph levels) consist of phrases or lists, and if the text of no subparagraph at any one level requires further punctuation, the subparagraphs at that level may begin with lower-case letters and be followed by commas f. The second to last subparagraph for any one level of subparagraph that does not end in a period, shall end with the appropriate punctuation followed by the word(s) and/& or as applicable. g. The last subparagraph for any one level of subparagraph shall end either in a period or the punctuation mark of the next highest level of subparagraph.

28 Punctuation Marks Spacing - Standard grammar and punctuation shall be used in correspondence: - Two spaces follow: colons (:), question marks (?), exclamation marks (!) and periods (.) at the end of a sentence. - One space follows: commas (,) and semi-colons (;)

29 Punctuation Marks Apostrophe The apostrophe (') is used to indicate: - the omission of letters, e.g., req'd for required - the possessive of nouns, e.g., the mechanic's tools - the plural of letters, numbers and symbols, e.g., ABCs

30 Punctuation Marks Brackets Brackets ([ ]) are used within parentheses to: –indicate changes or additions to quoted passages –mark off words only indirectly related to the parenthetical material –Example: (Contractors shall submit a detailed plan to the Documentation Support Officer [DSO] before commencing such a publication).

31 Punctuation Marks Period The period (.) is used: –is used at the end of a declarative sentence (i.e., the sentence is neither an exclamation nor a question); –after abbreviations when the abbreviation is also a word, e.g., No.

32 Punctuation Marks Colon The colon (:) is used to: –is used to indicate a pause or degree of separation that is less than a period and greater than a semicolon; –introduce a formal statement that explains, proves or amplifies a preceding; –formal statement (in this case, substituting for such words or phrases as for, via, namely, that is to say); –introduce a list or a formal quotation; and –introduce a final clause that summarizes preceding text.

33 Punctuation Marks Semi-colon The semicolon (;) is used to: –mark a longer pause or a definite break in a sentence; –join statements that are too closely related in meaning to be written as separate sentences e.g., On start-up, open all vents; on shut-down, reclose vents and... ;

34 Punctuation Marks Semi-colon contd join clauses of a sentence when the connecting conjunction is omitted, e.g., To complete disassembly, remove both pins; place pins in storage slots before raising... ; and form a link between the clauses of a compound sentence in which there is a contrast of ideas e.g., The winners will progress to further completion; the losers will return to standard activities.

35 Punctuation Marks Comma The comma (,) is used to: Indicate a slight pause in the text; Separate words or phrases in a series e.g., red, orange, and yellow…; Separate two words or phrases that might otherwise be misunderstood; Replace a word that is common to two parts of a sentence; With the conjunction and to achieve clarity;

36 Punctuation Marks Comma contd –set off independent clauses that are joined by such co-ordinating conjunctions as and, but, so, nor and for, e.g., Slight warming of the surface is acceptable, but temperatures above 104 degrees may damage the …; –Set off partial phrases, e.g., shrouding the photo cell, rotate the dial clockwise…; and –Set off subordinate clauses that are joined by conjunctions, e.g., When replacing the valve stem, ensure there are no leaks.

37 Abbreviations/Acronyms An abbreviation is usually a shortened form of a word; An acronym is usually created from the initial letters of a group of words; An abbreviation or acronym is used in correspondence external to the originator's unit, it is to be identified in brackets preceded by the full word or phrase for its first use; and Acronyms are written in capital letters without spaces or punctuation; are usually created from the initial letters of a group of words.

38 Abbreviations/Acronyms Rule The use of abbreviations and acronyms is encouraged but care should be exercised to avoid possible ambiguity. Abbreviations may be used in most types of military correspondence and particularly in messages where time is in short supply. IFTHEN an abbreviation or acronym is it is recommended that the words or words used (in a document addressedrepresented be written in full on the first to Allied forces or civilian appearance, followed by the appropriate addressees) abbreviation or acronym in brackets (i.e., "National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ)"). Acronyms are written in capital letters without spaces or punctuation.

39 Date and Time Date For routine correspondence and orders, the author must use the abbreviated date format, composed of: –the day of the month in Arabic digits (leading zeros or ciphers are not to be used) followed by a space; –the abbreviated month (see paragraph 29.g) followed by a space; and –the last two digits of the year. –1 Sep 11

40 Date and Time Date Where the correspondence is more formal (e.g., when addressed to agencies outside of the originators unit), the author will use the full date format, which consists of: –the day of the month in Arabic digits (leading zeros or ciphers are not to be used) followed by a space; –the unabbreviated month; and –the four digits of the year. –1 September 2011

41 Date and Time - Messages Messages require a more precise indication of the moment at which they are released The date-time group (DTG) was created to represent the time the message is signed by the releasing officer The date time group consist of fourteen capitalized characters: –the first six characters are digits representing the day of the month and then the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) –the letter Z to indicate the specified time is in the ZULU time zone (i.e., the UTC time zone); –a space; –the habitual three-letter abbreviation of the month; –a space; and –the last two digits of the year

42 Date and Time - Messages Date-Time Group Example The following DTG indicates that the message was released at 1437 UTC on the 9th of September 2010: Z SEP 10

43 Use of Numbers Numbers Spelled Out –numbers from zero to nine inclusive; –ordinal numbers from first to ninth inclusive; –numbers that begin a sentence; –numbers used in conjunction with numbers that begin a sentence, e.g., Nine or ten shall be taken…;

44 Use of Numbers Numbers Spelled Out contd –in monetary expressions of ninety-nine cents or less, e.g., twenty-five cents; –either of two adjacent numbers, e.g., five 2-inch bolts or 153 ten-point characters; and –either of two adjacent numbers that are used in fractions (one half) or compound adjectives (three-phase plan), and that do not describe units of measurement.

45 Use of Numbers Numbers Written as Figures cardinal numbers above nine, e.g., 10, 25; ordinal numbers above ninth, with the appropriate suffix, e.g., 10 th and 23 rd ; Cardinal and ordinal numbers below 10 when they are used in conjunction with higher numbers, e.g., Storage areas may contain 4, 8 or 10 racks: the 3 rd, 7 th and 11 th racks respectively shall be reserved for files; numbers with a decimal point; numbers in equations, formulae or mathematical expressions, e.g., subtract 2 and divide by 5;

46 Use of Numbers Numbers Written as Figures numbers that represent organizational positions, e.g., pay level 3; a part or unit considered as one of a series, e.g., unit No. 1 or rack No. 3; monetary expressions over ninety-nine cents; number that express percentage, proportion, distance, dimensions, weight, volume, temperature, dates, clock time, latitude, longitude and other units of measurement; and mixed numbers, e.g., 1-1/4 inch bolts.

47 Sentence Structure and Length A sentence consists of at least a subject and a verb; A sentence should be one thought; The subject may be a noun, pronoun, phrase; The verb shall agree with the subject in number, and may be complemented by an adverb or a direct/indirect object, adverbial phrase or a clause; Complicated clauses shall be avoided as they often result in ambiguity;

48 Sentence Structure and Length Syntax is the wording and arranging of the parts of a sentence to form a coherent whole. Proper arrangement consists in placing related words as close to each other as possible so that their meaning is clear. The reader should be able to understand descriptions, explanations and instructions quickly, without having to consult other sources for clarification. The recorder operates quietly and with smoothness (bad); The recorder operates quietly and smoothly (better) e.g., Check for lube oil, grease, hydraulic fluid, fuel oil and water leaks and if leaks are discovered, report them to the maintenance supervisor. (poor) Check for lube oil, grease, hydraulic fluid and water leaks. If any leaks are discovered, report them to the maintenance supervisor. (better)

49 Paragraph Structure Paragraphs shall be short, usually three to five sentences in length; Shall deal with only one idea and include as much information as the reader can grasp easily; Each paragraph shall be organized around a topic sentence; Sentences shall be arranged in a logical order; Paragraphs may carry run-in headings followed by a period; Paragraphs shall be limited to no more than three levels of subdivision

50 File Numbers FILE NUMBER AND DRAFTER IDENTIFICATION each new document must be assigned a file number by the author; it consists of a combination of digits and letters organized as specified in orders; the position or function of the drafter (which may be the same as the person signing the correspondence) must then be indicated, within brackets, immediately following the file number

51 Definitions Example of file number: (PMed) Drafter in this example is a PMed Tech Suffix

52 References References are often used within the body of a document, to refer to telephonic conversations, other correspondence, orders, regulations, and policy documents. References that are not mentioned in the text must not appear in the reference list. Reference Paragraph Vertically, one empty line separates the reference paragraph from the preceding subject statement and it is also separated from the subsequent introduction by one empty line.

53 References Reference List - Immediately following the word Reference: are two spaces then the first (or only) reference; - If there are more than one, they are sequentially numbered using capitalized letters then a period and two spaces; - The references must be listed in the order they are first referred to in the text;

54 References References are described in one of several manners, depending on their nature : Messages - by presenting the originating unit, then the originators message number, followed by the date-time group; Other Correspondence - by presenting the originating unit, then the file number and drafter identification, then the release date;

55 References Discussions - For letters: by stating Discussion, then the rank, name, position, and organization of the higher-ranked interlocutor, then an oblique, then the rank, name, position, and organization of the other interlocutor, followed by date of discussion occurred for memos: the organization can be left out, if both are part of the same unit

56 References Telephone Conversations - by stating Telecon, then the name and unit of the calls originator, then an oblique, then the name and unit of the interlocutor, then the date on which the conversation occurred. - is the same as telecon Canadian Forces Publications - by presenting all of the NDID code fields assigned to the document, then the date of issue or of the latest change, whichever is later. Part, section, chapter and paragraph numbers may be used to guide the recipient, but page numbers are never to be used

57 References Orders - by presenting the order type (e.g., CFAO, DAOD, QR&O, etc.) then its number. Part, section, chapter and paragraph numbers may also be used to guide the recipient. Page numbers are never to be used. Description Suffixes - two expressions with a specific meaning are used in some circumstances to further assist the recipient;

58 References Enclosed when the reference is physically provided with the correspondence, the reference description is followed by (enclosed); and NOTAL when the reference is not available to every recipient of the correspondence, its description is followed by (NOTAL). This is in the case of enclosures too bulky to send to all recipients or, if a previous series of communications was conducted prior to adding an addressee to the chain of correspondence, then certain referenced letters and messages will not have been received by the new addressee.

59 References Example of a Reference list in a document: AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING References: A. Telecon Capt Smith CFSATE/Capt George 1 Wing HQ 3 Aug 2000 B. 1 CAD HQ A4 MAINT Z JUL 00 (enclosed) C. Our (ARO) 22 Jul 00 (NOTAL) D. QR&O A meeting was held on 31 Aug 11, ……… Subject is always underlined First paragraph

60 Addressee The addressee is the intended recipient of the correspondence Two formats are used, depending on the type of correspondence: –Correspondence to CF, DND and NATO a position or appointment designator, never the persons name, always indicates the addressee –The full address of the addressees unit is also included in the case of letters

61 Addressee Letters to Agencies Outside the CF, DND, NATO –The full address of the recipient is indicated –The persons name may be used when proper protocol or etiquette dictates

62 Signature Blocks A handwritten or stamped signature must always appear on the original document, except for correspondence transmitted electronically. the use of initials is discretionary normally the person named in the signature block signs the correspondence in some cases, however, that person may be away and someone else for the sake of timeliness may sign the correspondence

63 Signature Blocks Components of a signature block: Name of the sender Rank (for military personnel only) Position or title Telephone number (optional) Authority line (when required)

64 Signature Blocks For internal correspondence such as memo, minutes, reports, agendas and so on – Abbreviated English Signature Block It is typed on the sixth line or text leaving five clear spaces. 1 space 2 space 3 space 4 space 5 space(Start writing on the 6 th line) I.M. Boss Initials and last name of the sender Maj Rank of the sender BSurgPosition of the sender 1234Telephone number (optional) 12/31/

65 Signature Blocks Correspondence to NATO or civilian organization (letter) – Complete English Signature Block It is typed on the sixth line of text leaving five clear spaces. 1 space 2 space 3 space 4 space 5 space(Start writing on the 6 th line) I.M. BossName of the sender MajorRank (for military only) Base SurgeonPosition or title (705) extension 1234Telephone no. (optional) 12/31/

66 Annexes Separated from the last line of the signature block by one empty line, the list consists of: - the word Annex: (or Annexes); - one empty line; - an inventory of the annexes and their respective appendices, each accompanied, on the same line, by their respective subject

67 Annexes Identification – always beginning a new page an informational paragraph in the upper left corner of the first page, (never put in the header) - the word Annex followed by a space and its sequential number in capitalized letters (a single annex is Annex A) - the file number and drafter identification of the parent correspondence - date of document - one space, then the subject line (must match to the document)

68 Annexes Format. Annexes are subject to the same conventions as the other types of correspondence. For instance, they must have their own subject, may make use of headings, and may list references as required; and Page Numbering. When the annex contains only one page, it is not numbered. Should there be more than one page, all are numbered in the same fashion as for other correspondence with the exception that the number of the annex (a capitalized letter) and a hyphen immediately precede the page numbers (e.g., B-4/7 would appear on page four of Annex B, which consists of seven pages). 12/31/

69 Appendices Used to further amplify material from an annex, they are subject to the same conventions The only two differences are: 1- An additional line precedes the identification paragraph. It consists of the word Appendix followed by a space and its sequential number in Arabic numerals (a single appendix is Appendix 1) 2- The number of the appendix is added to the page numbering, immediately following the letter representing its parent annex (e.g., C4-2/3 would appear on page two of Appendix 4 - consisting of three pages - to Annex C).

70 Appendices - shall have their own subject heading; - must be referred to in the Annex; - single form of appendices - appendix - after the signature block the headings Annex(es) shall appear, followed by a list of Annexes and appendices

71 Enclosure An enclosure is additional material included with a document other than annexes, appendices or references. They may consist of previous correspondence, extracts from publications, or other simple written material; bulky items such as photographs, analysis samples may likewise accompany correspondence as enclosures. When that is the case, all enclosures must be listed as references (with a short description) and mentioned in the text of the correspondence.

72 Enclosure Enclosures The word Enclosure: (or Enclosures:) is printed after one empty line below the end of the annexes-and-appendices list; or below the signature block if there are no annexes; and Enclosures do not form an inherent component of the correspondence.

73 Example J. Woods Capt D/SAMEO 3693 Annexes: Annex A Damage Description Appendix 1 Diagram of the Aircraft Appendix 2 Damaged Ancillary Equipment Annex B Wreckage Area Annex C Rented Salvage Equipment Enclosures: Accident Pictures (three boxes) CF349 Ser No

74 Distribution List When a document is intended for more than one recipient, the addressee line states Distribution List or Dist List for memos and a dist list is used to indicate to whom the correspondence has been forwarded. Format: –The distribution list is located under the enclosure list, separated by one empty line; and –When appropriate, it is broken down into two distinct componentsAction and Information addressees.

75 Distribution List Each category of action or information addressee shall be listed in a logical sequence. Examples are: external/internal addressees (titles are not required under distribution list); by seniority (in alphabetical order if they are of equal status); or by geographical or functional grouping. Distribution List are never used in correspondence to public addressees.

76 Distribution List Example of a Distribution list on a memo: Annex C Manpower Requirements Distribution List Action ARO ASO LSO Information AMCRO

77 Distribution List Rule Correspondence to military addressee(s) shall be identified by position or appointment, not by name. IF it is distributed to THEN it is identified a single addressee at the heading of the correspondence. multiple addressees in a distribution list in the close of the correspondence.

78 Page Numbering all pages are numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals; Left justified and at 1 inch from the bottom of the page – usually in the footer; single page document is not numbered; shall be indicated using an oblique, actual page number/total page number (excluding annexes and appendices) e.g., 2/4 numbering of annexes shall have the annex letter prior to the page number e.g.,A-2/4

79 Security Classification PROTECTED A applies to information that is sensitive in other than the national interest, where the injury that would result from compromise would be minimal. This information, while safeguarded in government, is commonly found in the public domain. Examples include: – personal names, addresses and dates of birth; – personal identifiers; – an individuals linguistic profile; or – third-party business information provided in confidence.

80 Security Classification PROTECTED B applies to particularly sensitive information, that when compromised, could reasonably be expected to cause serious injury to non-national interests. It is commonly employed to prevent substantial distress to individuals due to the loss of privacy. Broad categories of such information would include: – medical, psychiatric or psychological information; – information pertaining to an individuals finances, income, assets or bank balances; – personal recommendations or evaluations; – character references; or – an individuals racial or ethnic origin, or religious or political beliefs, and associations or lifestyle.

81 Correspondence General Written correspondence in the military context is used by, and for, a large number of personnel of mixed background. They have now become the types of military correspondence approved for use within the Canadian Forces. These formats may be grouped in four classifications. Each will be described later on: –Communication within a unit (internal) –Intended for recipients outside a unit (external) –Functions of a specialized nature (agenda, minutes of a meeting) –

82 Correspondence Parts of a Letter The Heading contains the following: Letterhead Security Marking File Number Date Originators Identification (when necessary) Addressee (unless Dist List is used) Subject References

83 Correspondence The following guidance applies particularly to memorandums, letters, messages, s, and service papers. The information the originator wishes to convey, whether objective or subjective, is entirely contained within the body. The author will introduce the topic (in the introduction), elaborate on it (in the discussion), and ultimately conclude the matter (in the conclusion).

84 Correspondence Parts of a Letter The Body Introduction. The introduction is specifically aimed at helping the reader understand the remainder of the document. It must present a concise, clear statement of the problemor of the objective of the discussion and provide the reason for the authors need to correspond.

85 Correspondence Parts of a Letter The Body The introduction will situate the reader in terms of space and time. As well (unless the author is absolutely certain all potential readers are familiar with the situation), background information required to understand the discussion must also be provided, such as: a.conclusions reached in earlier meetings or conversations; b.decisions expressed in previous correspondence; and c.occasionally, the particulars of individuals or organizations consulted by the author.

86 Correspondence Parts of a Letter The Body Discussion. The manner in which the facts and the authors arguments are presented in the discussion has a substantial impact on how well the document is received. It often determines how it will be understood, its credibility, and ultimately, whether it will be acted upon or ignored.

87 Correspondence Parts of a Letter The Body Generally, each paragraph will serve to make one point, which is often introduced in the lead sentence. In addition, headings and sub-headings are commonly used to further clarify logical demarcations within the text; Annexes are used for cumbersome details that are part of the discussion material, but whose presence therein would interfere with a clear line of reasoning; and Tables and figures may be used, but with restraint. Each must stand alone and have a descriptive caption that can be easily referred to.

88 Correspondence Parts of a Letter The Conclusion Two Purposes: The author summarizes the consequential conclusions reached, and where appropriate, re-emphasizes the opinions debated within the discussion; and The summary leads naturally and logically to either of the following, depending on the nature of the correspondence: –Action Request. The ultimate purpose of most memoranda, letters and messages is to indicate what action the recipients must take; and –Recommendations. Where the correspondence represents a staffs suggestion to superiors, the conclusion clearly delineates the recommended courses of action. The conclusion simply brings the text of the document to an end and never introduces new discussion elements.

89 Correspondence Parts of a Letter The Close The Signature Block List of Annexes/Appendices (when required) Information on enclosures (when required) Distribution List (when required)

90 Correspondence Types of Letters CF/DND NATO Public

91 Correspondence Memorandum Most common form of correspondence –Prepared like a letter –no unit addressee –short titles used –maximum use of abbreviations and acronyms

92 Correspondence Memorandum

93 Correspondence Minute

94 Correspondence Agenda

95 Correspondence Minutes of a meeting

96 Correspondence Service paper

97 Correspondence s

98 Questions??? Confused!!!

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