2 Definitions Biological containment cabinet (all classes) Biomedical waste Collection Colour-coding Container Cytotoxic Disposal Health care facility (all classes) High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter Health care facility (all classes) High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter Refrigerated storage Segregation Storage Storage areas Intermediate storage area Primary storage area Treatment Veterinary health care facility
3 Occupational Hazards & Health Risks To minimize the occupational health risks associated with the handling and disposal of health care and veterinary waste, occupational health considerations should: –Introduce safe or less hazardous substitutes for chemical agents with exposure hazards; –Require closed storage for volatile agents in cases where traces of the agents, or brief exposure to them, constitute a health hazard; –Require the use of proper ventilating and exhausting IAW established principles of occupational hygiene; –Provide appropriate PPE –Include an assessment and/or evaluation of waste management procedures (SOPs), to ensure compliance with applicable regulations;
4 Occupational Hazards & Health Risks –Include a training program for all personnel handling waste; –Include hand washing facilities; –Include a written procedure to handle and report occupational exposure to human blood and body fluids, as well as other waste handling incidents; –Include a written procedure to handle emergency response procedures for chemical spills and exposure to human blood and body fluids; –See the Canadian Immunization Guide for recommendations on immunizations (Hepatitis, Tetanus); and –Provide appropriate assessment of waste management procedures to minimize the potential risk of exsposure to infections or other harmful material to the waste handler.
5 General Waste Management Considerations All waste shall be handled in a manner to ensure it is segregated at the point of generation, contained in packaging that holds the contents to the point of disposal, and disposed of in a manner that is practical and efficient, yet minimizes any hazard.
6 Protective Apparel Puncture-resistant gloves should be worn over disposable gloves at the final storage area when handling containers of biomedical waste. Other protective apparel (eg, respirator) should be considered when handling other types of wastes such as chemicals. When personnel are engaged in the cleaning of reusable waste containers, carts, final storage areas, or biomedical waste treatment equipment, they shall wear the following protective apparel: Coveralls, gowns, or aprons; Heavy-duty waterproof gloves; and Protective goggles or face shields. If protective apparel is contaminated during the cleaning process, it should be cleaned or discarded. If an incinerator is being cleaned, the following apparel shall be worn: Rubber safety boots Fire-resistant apparel Puncture resistant gloves; and A particulate respirator, when removing ash from an incinerator.
7 Segregation of Wastes Wastes shall be segregated according to the following categories: General; Biomedical; Cytotoxic; Pharmaceutical; Chemical; Hazardous; Radioactive; or Pressure container.
8 Packaging (Containers) A container is a receptacle for the storage of waste. Various containers are suitable for packaging different types of waste. Containers shall be classified into two subgroups: Reusable waste containers; and Single-use waste containers.
9 Packaging (reusable waste containers) A reusable waste containers shall be: Reusable; Fabricated of metal, plastic, or other rigid material; Resistant to burning, impact, corrosion, and leakage; Suitable for the waste it is to contain; Colour coded or identified according to the type of waste for which it is intended Constructed of materials that can be cleaned and disinfected
10 Packaging (Single-use waste containers) A single use waste container shall be for one time use. It can be one of the following: Sharps container; Waste-holding plastic bag; Cardboard container; Specialized container; or rigid or impervious container.
11 Sharps Container A sharps container shall: Be sturdy enough to resist puncture under usage conditions and to the point of disposal; Be clearly identified as containing sharps; Have a lid(s) capable of being tightly secured; Have the cytotoxic hazard symbol displayed clearly and visibly, if used for cytotoxic wastes; Have a fill line; Have features that prevent withdrawal of contents; Have handles or other carrying mechanism; Where feasible, have a mounting bracket and lock in client and public access areas
12 Waste-Holding Plastic Bags A waste-holding plastic bag shall: Be colour-coded or identified according to the type of waste for which it is intended; and Be sturdy enough to resist leaking and breaking under individual usage conditions and to the point of disposal Exceptions: 1.Where provincial regulations governing the off-site disposal of waste requires bags of a specific thickness; 2.Municipal or other local authorities responsible for sanitary landfill sites requires bags of specific thickness; or 3.Where facility administrators have established procedures involving specified bag thickness.
13 Cardboard Containers A cardboard container shall be: Colour coded or identified according to the type of waste for which it is intended; Rigid; and Leak-resistant or, where appropriate, lined with plastic bags so that leakage is avoided during periods of storage or transportation.
14 Other Specialized Containers These containers shall be colour-coded or identified according to the type of waste for which they are intended.
15 In-House Control (Administration) The in-house control of waste produced by class A,B, and D health care facilities should be managed according to the provisions of the CSA Standard under the supervision of the facilitys waste management committee and/or EHS committee, in conjunction with the infection prevention and control committee or qualified person. Veterinary health care facilities and Class C health care facilities should also consider the requirements.
16 In-House Control (Educations and Training) A training program designed with input from the occupational health and safety committee and infection prevention and control committee shall be established for all staff.
17 In-House Control (Educations and Training) The training shall familiarize staff with: (a) procedures specified in the CSA Standards regarding waste, such as: –segregation; –packaging; –collection; –storage; –labelling; and movement.
18 In-House Control (Educations and Training) (b) The importance of: Proper filling, fill level, and closure of waste containment equipment Use of appropriate PPE; and Proper techniques for carrying or transporting waste (c) Personal hygiene, especially hand washing; and (d) The principles of disease transmission and the hazards of those materials to which workers may be exposed.
19 Intermediate Storage Areas Intermediate storage areas shall, at a minimum, be areas where waste may be temporarily stored out of the way of general traffic and in rigid secondary containers prior to being taken to the facilitys final storage area.
20 Final Storage Areas Are areas within Class A, B, and D health care facilities or on the facility premises that shall: be totally enclosed; Be separate from supply rooms or food preparation areas; Have provisions for being locked; Have access restricted to authorized personnel only; and Have negative pressure ventilation
21 Final Storage Final storage containers (such as a locked freezer or cupboard) in veterinary health care facilities and Class C health care facilities shall: Be totally enclosed; Have provisions for being locked; and Have access restricted to authorized personnel only
22 Waste Storage Facilities shall prepare a contingency plan for dealing with the storage of refrigerated waste in the event of: Excess waste production; On-site cold storage unit becomes inoperative; or Other disruption of disposal services.
23 Movement of Wastes Routes for the movement of wastes in Class A, B, and D health care facilities shall be planned in order to minimize their passage through client care. Public, and other clean areas. Passage through food and linen areas should be avoided.
24 Movement of Wastes Carts used for carrying waste shall be: Capable of containing the waste; Designed to prevent spillage and leakage; Constructed of materials that permit effective cleaning and disinfection; and Designed to minimize the physical strain of loading and unloading materials.
25 Disposal The facility shall dispose of all wastes in accordance with federal, provincial, and municipal regulations a legislation.
26 Maintenance & Cleaning Reusable waste containers and waste-movement carts shall be thoroughly cleaned and inspected IAW the facilitys established procedures. All carts used in the collection, storage, and disposal process should have a cleaning and disinfection protocol that addresses the interior and exterior (including the wheels) of the container. The need for constant cleaning and durability should be considered during the purchase process and the selection of the type of container. Reusable waste containers or waste-movement carts shall be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before maintenance operations are performed.
27 Storage Sites Floors, walls, ceilings, and vents in intermediate and final storage areas shall be thoroughly cleaned in accordance with frequencies outlined by the facilitys infection prevention and control committee or a qualified person.
28 Spill or Accident Cleanup Every possible effort should be made to avoid escape of any hazardous material in the course of normal operations. As in the handling of all hazardous substances, the most important elements in dealing with major spills are common sense and having a contingency plan prepared in advance, and staff trained to implement it. Facilities shall have documented policy and procedures for managing spilled substances.
29 Spill or Accident Clean-up Turn to page 11 in your book. Read para
30 Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling (Basic Guidelines) One important component of waste management is the 3 Rs: reduce, reuse, and recycle. The first approach is to avoid creating or to reduce waste. Secondly, items should be reused where possible. Finally, waste that is unavoidable should be recycled where possible.
31 Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling (Purchasing Decisions) Purchasing guidelines should be established that consider the waste generated by the packaging as well as the product when making purchasing decisions.
32 Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling (Reduction of Specific Types of Waste) A program should be developed to identify and reduce the types of wastes that are produced within facilities.
33 Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling (Reuse) Wherever possible, facilities should consider reusable rather than single-use items, and reuse equipment or supplies, provided this does not conflict with infection control requirements and is one within federal, provincial, or municipal guidelines.
34 Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling (recyclable waste) Recyclable waste is any waste that leaves the facility and is then reused or recycled. This includes, but is not limited to, aluminum cans, glass bottles, paper, cardboard, food, or packaging material.
35 Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling (disposal of recyclable waste) Recyclable waste should be separated at the point of generation but may be moved and stored in the facility using the same methods as for general waste. Where appropriate, items should be rinsed prior to disposal.
36 Waste Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling (Recycling Program) Facilities should establish a recycling program. Components of the program should include: Lists and examples of recyclable and non-recyclable materials; Information on the type and location of containers for recyclable materials; Regular and frequent off-site removal of materials; Clear definitions of responsibility and authority; and All the guidelines for recycling set out in the CSA standard.
38 Biomedical Waste The definition of biomedical waste, as per the CSA Standard, is based on principles of disease transmission and aesthetic concerns. Biomedical waste represents a small proportion (typically less than 10%) of the total amount of waste generated by health care facilities.
39 Biomedical Waste (General) It is not considered practical or necessary to treat all items having contact with a body fluid as biomedical waste. Items contaminated, but not dripping, with blood or body fluids and contained in an impervious plastic bag before being sent to landfill pose no threat to the public health.
40 Biomedical Waste (General) Soiled dressings; Sponges; Surgery drapes; Lavage tubes; Dialysis wastes such as tubing, filters, towels etc; IV bags and tubing; Diapers; Disposable pads; Soiled feminine hygiene products; Disposable gloves Catheters; Specimen containers; Casts; Syringes without needles; Medication containers Lab coats & aprons. The following items are some examples of general waste:
41 Biomedical Waste (General) Biomedical Waste is waste that belongs to one or more of the following categories: Human anatomic waste; Animal biomedical waste; Microbiologic waste; Human blood or body fluid waste; or Contaminated sharps
42 Biomedical Waste (Human Anatomic Waste) Consists of: Human tissues; Organs; and Body parts * This category does not include teeth, hair, or nails, which should be considered as general waste
43 Biomedical Waste (Animal Biomedical Waste) The following examples are only considered biomedical waste if they are contaminated with organisms listed under the Health of Animals Act and Regulations: All animal anatomic waste (carcass, tissues, organs, body parts); Bedding contaminated with infectious organisms; Fluid blood and blood products; Items contaminated with blood; and Body fluids removed for diagnosis or removed during surgery, treatment, or autopsy.
44 Biomedical Waste (Microbiologic Waste) This waste includes: All laboratory cultures; Stocks or specimens of microorganisms; Human diagnostic specimens (not including feces, urine, vomitus, or tears); Vaccines for human use (live, attenuated, or recombinant); and Disposable lab material that has come into contact with any of the preceding items.
45 Biomedical Waste (Human Blood or Body Fluid Waste) This waste includes: Human fluid blood and blood products; Items saturated or dripping with blood; Body fluids contaminated with blood; and Body fluids removed for diagnosis during surgery, treatment, or autopsy. * This category does not include saliva, urine, feces, vomitus or tears, which should be considered as general waste.
46 Biomedical Waste (Contaminated Sharps) Contaminated sharps are materials that can puncture, penetrate, or cut the skin, and have come in contact with a body or microorganism. Examples include: Needles, Lancets; Laboratory glass that is broken or easily broken; and Scalpel blades. * Empty drug vials and ampoules are not contaminated sharps.
47 Biomedical Waste Biomedical waste does not include microbiology laboratory waste, human blood and body fluid waste, or waste sharps after these wastes have been disinfected or decontaminated. Local regulatory authorities shall be consulted for methods of disposing of treated biomedical waste.
48 Biomedical Waste Biomedical waste does not include waste that is: Of household origin; Controlled in accordance with the health of animals act; Generated in food production, general building maintenance, and office administration activities of those facilities to which the CSA Standard applies; General waste from clients on isolation precautions; and Sharps that are not contaminated with body fluid or microorganisms.
49 Packaging and/or collection (Human Anatomic Waste) Human anatomic waste shall be placed within a rigid and leak-resistant container that is colour coded.
50 Packaging and/or collection (Animal Biomedical Anatomic Waste) Animal biomedical anatomic waste shall be placed within a rigid waste container where feasible, considering the size of the animal waste, with a non-removable lid that is colour-coded orange.
51 Packaging and/or collection (Contaminated Sharps) Sharps and similar wastes shall be placed in sharps containers. Sharps containers shall not be completely filled, as overfilling may pose a hazard to those persons using and discarding the containers.
Packaging and/or collection (non-anatomic biomedical waste) Non-anatomic biomedical waste shall be placed within a waste container that is colour-coded yellow. 52
Packaging and/or collection (Liquid biomedical waste) Liquid biomedical waste shall be: Contained in sealed, single-use containers before being placed within a waste container that is colour coded yellow; and Where means of containment of the aforementioned waste is considered inappropriate, the disposal of such liquids into sanitary sewers shall conform to municipal sewer bylaws and provincial regulations and legislation. 53
Storage Requirements Storage of biomedical waste shall meet the following requirements: Anatomic biomedical waste shall be stored at 4ºC or lower unless contained in formaldehyde; Biomedical waste, other than sharps, shall be stored at 4ºC or lower if stored for more than 4 days. 54
Animal Biomedical Anatomic Waste Animal biomedical anatomic waste shall be collected and moved to its final designated storage area by the most direct route possible, avoiding client areas. This waste shall not be combined with other wastes during its collection. 55
Storage Requirements All biomedical waste shall be stored in a secure, locked facility or domestic-type refrigeration unit that is dedicated to the accumulation of waste for disposal; and Biomedical waste storage facilities shall display the biohazard symbol. 56
Human Anatomic Waste Human anatomic waste shall be collected and moved to its final designated storage area by the most direct route possible, avoiding client areas. 57
Contaminated Sharps Containers for contaminated sharps shall be removed from the point of use when suitably full. Before a sharps container is moved, the lids shall be securely in place. 58
Final Storage Areas If non-anatomic waste is to be stored for more than four days, it should be stored at a temperature of less than 4ºC in order to reduce the risk of putrescence and bad odours. 59
Treatment (Human anatomic waste) Human anatomic waste shall be incinerated in accordance with federal, provincial, and municipal regulations and legislation. 60
Treatment (Animal Biomedical Anatomic Waste) Animal biomedical anatomic waste shall be incinerated in accordance with federal, provincial, and municipal regulations and legislation, unless otherwise regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency guidelines. The handling and disposal of animal biomedical anatomic waste is subject to the Health of Animals Act and provincial regulations and legislation. 61
Treatment (Biologicals) Biologicals, such as live attenuated vaccines for human use, shall be handled and disposed of in a manner that they cannot be reused. Some biologicals may require inactivation prior to handling for disposal. 62
Treatment (Contaminated Sharps) Filled sharps containers shall be treated or handled for disposal by any of the following methods: Incineration: decontaminates and renders sharps unusable. The sharps container shall be made of material suitable for incineration. Landfill: authorities having jurisdiction over landfill sites may allow burial of sharps containers with compacted or uncompacted waste, provided it is immediately buried. New technology: The two previously mentioned methods take into account existing technology and handling methods. New handling and disposal methods may be considered by facilities as they arise and are approved by federal, provincial or municipal governing bodies. 63
Pharmaceutical Waste Pharmaceutical waste includes pharmaceutical products, such as drugs and medicinal chemicals, that: Are no longer usable in clients treatment; Have become outdated or contaminated; Have been stored improperly; or Are no longer required 64
Basic Waste Disposal Guidelines The amount of pharmaceutical waste generated shall be minimized through preplanning. Provision for disposal of waste shall be considered before material is purchased or produced within the pharmacy. 65
Basic Waste Disposal Guidelines The following requirements shall be followed: Quantities of materials purchased shall reflect the needs; Materials with special disposal requirements (i.e. chemicals, cytotoxics, and biologicals) shall be purchased in quantities to match the immediate needs; Nonhazardous materials shall be substituted for hazardous ones when appropriate; and Materials shall be recovered for reuse when appropriate. 66
Packaging Appropriate precautions in packaging products for transport shall be taken to prevent handlers from accidental exposure due to breakage. Transportation packages containing hazardous products shall be labelled in conformity with the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations to indicate the hazards involved and precautions to be taken in the event of breakage. 67
Handling & Disposal of Pharmaceuticals (other than cytotoxics) Pharmaceuticals shall be disposed of in such a manner that they cannot be reused. Once rendered unusable, pharmaceutical waste other than cytotoxic pharmaceutical waste shall be placed within a waste container that is clearly identified as containing pharmaceutical waste, in accordance with a coding system recognized by the facility or province. 68
Disposal of Narcotics and Controlled Drugs Narcotics, controlled drugs, and targeted substances shall be disposed of in accordance with federal legislation, the directives of Health Canada and facility policies and procedures. The destruction process shall ensure that there is no opportunity for diversion of the drug into illegal channels. 69
Radiopharmaceuticals The release of waste containing radioactive materials or nuclear substances is regulated by conditions of licences issued by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. Generally, radioactive waste must be transferred to a licensed facility, and only trace quantities are permitted to be released to municipal garbage or sewer. 70
Cytotoxic Pharmaceuticals 71 Cytotoxic pharmaceutical waste shall be placed within a waste container that clearly and visibly displays the cytotoxic symbol.
Cytotoxic Pharmaceuticals Cytotoxic pharmaceutical waste and associated contaminated materials (needles, syringes, tubing, vials etc…) shall be separated from general wastes and discarded into designated cytotoxic waste containers. Sharp objects contaminated with cytotoxics, such as needles and broken glass, shall be placed into designated cytotoxic sharps containers. These shall be sharps containers labelled with a cytotoxic hazard symbol. 72
Cytotoxic Pharmaceuticals Cytotoxic pharmaceutical wastes shall be appropriately incinerated unless incineration as a disposal means is unavailable. If incineration is not available, chemical deactivation may be used for some cytotoxic pharmaceuticals. 73
Cytotoxic Pharmaceuticals Disposal of small amounts of cytotoxic pharmaceuticals into landfill sites or the municipal sanitary sewer may be permissible in some regions. Provincial and local disposal authorities shall be consulted if either of these methods are to be used. 74
General Waste General waste includes waste that: 1.Office waste 2.Kitchen waste 3.Waste generated in service to clients that does not meet the definition of biomedical waste 4.All other similar waste Has not been included in the other waste categories; and Does not pose a disease related risk or threat to people or the environment 75
General Waste Solid general waste shall be placed within a waste container that is colour-coded black or dark green. 76
General Waste Except for kitchen waste and noncontaminated sharps waste, solid general waste requires no special measures and can be safely dealt with in the same manner as general municipal waste. 77
General Waste Non-contaminated sharps are materials that can puncture, penetrate, or cut the skin and that have not come in contact with a body fluid or microorganism. Non-contaminated sharps shall be placed within a rigid container suitable for the purpose, and the contents of the container shall be labelled. The waste shall then be handled, stored, and disposed of in a safe manner. 78
Confidential Waste Confidential waste shall be rendered illegible by methods such as compacting, shredding or incineration. 79
Chemical Waste Chemical Waste includes discarded solid, liquid, and gaseous chemicals. Chemical waste may be hazardous or non-hazardous. For the purpose of choosing the most appropriate waste-handling method, hazardous chemical waste is considered to be waste that is: Toxic Corrosive Flammable Reactive Genotoxic Carcinogenic Mutagenic Teratogenic 80
Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste includes any material or substance that, if handled improperly, has the potential to harm people, property, or the environment. Waste may be considered hazardous if it is flammable, corrosive, or explosive, or contains certain amounts of toxic chemicals. Paint, oil, pesticides, batteries, dental amalgam 81
Collection & Storage Hazardous waste shall be transported according to the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations and disposed of IAW federal, provincial, and municipal regulatory requirements. 82
Batteries Rechargeable: recycled or disposed of in a manner acceptable to local regulatory authorities. Carbon batteries: may be disposed of in the general waste stream, unless specified by local regulatory authorities. Lighting ballasts: Contain PCBs and shall be disposed of in a manner acceptable to local regulatory authorities. 83
Pressurized Container Waste Includes any container that is under pressure, such as aerosol cans, compressed gases, or any other container that has an internal pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure. waste shall be placed within a waste container that is colour coded black or dark green. 84
Pressurized Container Waste The following requirements for disposal shall apply: Pressurized container shall not be incinerated, autoclaved, or compacted. This will puncture the container and could cause an explosion. Refillable compressed gas cylinders should be returned to the manufacturer or distributor. Pressurized container waste shall, where applicable, be disposed of with general waste or as otherwise directed by federal, provincial, and municipal regulations and legislation. 85
Summary of Colour Coding and/or Labelling See page 24 in the CSA standard 86
Transportation of Biomedical Waste Off-Site In Ontario: Prior to the removal of biomedical waste from a site for off-site disposal, the generator should package the waste in accordance with Section 4.0 of Guideline C-4. The waste may only be transported by a waste management company for which a waste management system certificate of approval has been issued under Part V of the EPA. 87
Vehicle Standards Vehicles must be appropriately designed and outfitted to accommodate the biomedical waste to be transported in the vehicle, including a storage compartment that: Turn to page 15 of ref (Guidelines C-4: Management of Biomedical Waste in Ontario) in the handout 88
Transportation of Biomedical Waste Prior to treated biomedical waste leaving a facility for final disposal at a waste disposal site, the facility operator should do the following: Provide written notification to the operator of the waste disposal site where the waste is destined detailing both the quantity of the waste and its approximate time of arrival; and Provide written notification to the carrier of the waste confirming that all the waste in the shipment has been treated. 89
Transportation of Biomedical Waste A carrier of treated or untreated biomedical waste should transport the waste as directly as practicable to its final waste disposal site without the use of transfer stations or other intermediary sites. No other waste should be transported in a vehicle containing treated or untreated biomedical waste. 90
Incineration It is recommended that the following biomedical wastes be incinerated if treated at the site where the waste was generated: human anatomical waste, animal anatomical waste, cytotoxic waste, waste that has come into contact with human blood waste that is infected or suspected of being infected with an infectious substance (human), and waste that has come into contact with animal blood waste. 91
Non-incineration Biomedical wastes not listed in section 5.1 may be treated with non-incineration methods provided the technology will reduce bacterial spores of B. stearothermophilus within the waste by a level of 6 Log10 ( %). 92
On-Site Treatment Treated biomedical waste generated by a facility should be stored separately from untreated biomedical waste and all other wastes. When compacting treated biomedical waste mechanical compaction that is part of a single, self-contained process, should be used. 93
Off-Site Treatment A waste disposal site receiving biomedical waste from another site is required to comply with Reg. 347(General – Waste Management), Part V or the EPA, including the requirement that the facility hold a valid certificate of approval authorizing the handling of the waster, and all other applicable laws.
Landfill Treated biomedical waste should be deposited for final disposal at an Ontario waste disposal site with an appropriate certificate of approval issued under Part V of the EPA. The disposal of the waste should be supervised by the operator of the site or a person designated by the operator for this purpose. After the waste is deposited in the site, a sufficient quantity of other waste or cover material should be placed over it to prevent direct contact between site equipment and the waste. 95
Transportation for Final Disposal Prior to treated biomedical waste leaving a facility for final disposal at a waste disposal site, the facility operator should do the following: Provide written notification ot the operator of the waste disposal site where the waste is destined detailing both the quantity of the waste and its approximate time of arrival. Provide written notification to the carrier of the waste confirming that all the waste in the shipment has been treated. A carrier of treated or untreated biomedical waste should transport the waste as directly as practicable to its final waste disposal site without the use of transfer stations or other intermediary sites. No other waste should be transported in a vehicle containing treated or untreated biomedical waste.
Land Disposal of Treated Biomedical Waste Treated biomedical waste should be deposited for final disposal at an Ontario waste disposal site with an appropriate certificate of approval issued under Part V of the EPA. The disposal of the waste should be supervised by the operator of the site or a person designated by the operator for this purpose After the waste is deposited in the site, a sufficient quantity of other waste or cover material should be placed over it to prevent direct contact between site equipment and the waste.