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Kön & Makt / Køn & Magt i Norden ”Kvinder i nordisk politik – en stadig fremgangssaga?” ”Kvinder i nordisk politik – en stadig fremgangssaga?” Med de nationale.

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Presentation on theme: "Kön & Makt / Køn & Magt i Norden ”Kvinder i nordisk politik – en stadig fremgangssaga?” ”Kvinder i nordisk politik – en stadig fremgangssaga?” Med de nationale."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kön & Makt / Køn & Magt i Norden ”Kvinder i nordisk politik – en stadig fremgangssaga?” ”Kvinder i nordisk politik – en stadig fremgangssaga?” Med de nationale rapporter fra Danmark og Sverige Med de nationale rapporter fra Danmark og Sverige Drude Dahlerup, Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet Drude Dahlerup, Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet Nordisk Ministerråd, Reykjavik November 2009

2 Vår nordiska barnatro 1. Norden ligger bäst till i världen, när det gäller jämställdhet/ligestilling 1. Norden ligger bäst till i världen, när det gäller jämställdhet/ligestilling 2. Det går ständigt framåt med jämställdheten 2. Det går ständigt framåt med jämställdheten (Teigen & Skjeie: Rejse-metaforen – vi er på vej fremad!) (Teigen & Skjeie: Rejse-metaforen – vi er på vej fremad!)

3 Women’s Parliamentary Representation – world averages 2009 (single or lower houses of parliament) (single or lower houses of parliament) Americas: 22.4 % Americas: 22.4 % Europe 21.0 % Europe 21.0 % Asia: 18.5 % Asia: 18.5 % Sub-Saharan Africa:18.3 % Sub-Saharan Africa:18.3 % Pacific: 13.0 % Pacific: 13.0 % Arab countries: 9.7 % Arab countries: 9.7 % World average 18.7 % World average 18.7 % (Nordic countries: European Parl (Nordic countries: European Parl. 35.1

4 World competition For very long time the Nordic countries and the Netherlands were alone at the top of the world rank order on women’s representation For very long time the Nordic countries and the Netherlands were alone at the top of the world rank order on women’s representation That is no longer the case That is no longer the case

5 TOP 15 - Lower/single Houses Rwanda 56.3 (2008) Legal Quotas PR 2. Sweden 47.3 (2006) Party Quotas PR 3. South Africa44.5 (2009)Party QuotasPR 4. Cuba 43.2 (2008)NA Plurality/maj 5. Iceland42.9 (2009)Party QuotasPR 6. Finland42.0 (2007)No QuotasPR 7. Argentina 41.6 (2009)Legal Quotas PR 8. Norway39.6 (2009)Party Quotas PR 9. Costa Rica 38.6 ( 2006)Legal Quotas PR 10. Denmark 37.4 (2007)No Quotas PR 11. Angola37.3 (2008)Legal QuotasPR 12.Belgium36.7 (2007)Legal QuotasPR 13.Netherlands 36.7 (2006) Party QuotasPR 14. Spain36.3 (2008) Legal QuotasPR 15. Mozambique 34.8 (2004)Party Quotas PR Election day figures. Party quotas: if at least one party represented in parl. uses voluntary quotas

6 Danmark ”Køn og magt i dansk politik og centraladministration” ”Køn og magt i dansk politik og centraladministration” Forfatter: Christina Fiig, Aalborg Universitet

7 Overblik over de politisk valgte - kvindeandelen, % Folketinget 3438 Folketinget 3438 Amtsråd/regionsråd 3134 Amtsråd/regionsråd 3134 Kommuner 2827 (2005) Kommuner 2827 (2005) Regeringen 3342 (2009) Regeringen 3342 (2009) EU-parlamentet 4446 (2009) EU-parlamentet 4446 (2009)

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10 Glasloftet En metafor for strukturelle barrierer eller strukturel diskrimination En metafor for strukturelle barrierer eller strukturel diskrimination Är kvinnorna problemet eller institutionerna? Är kvinnorna problemet eller institutionerna?

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12 Kön och politisk makt i Sverige Författare: Christna Alnevall, Statsvetenskapliga Insitutionen, Stockholms Universitet

13 Sverige Kvinnorepresentationens utveckling i Sveriges Riksdag, Kvinnorepresentationens utveckling i Sveriges Riksdag, Källa: SCB (2008) Källa: SCB (2008)

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20 Ledamöter i kommunfullmäktige, de största partierna i hela landet 1991: 1 parti över 40% kvinnor 1991: 1 parti över 40% kvinnor 1994 och 1998: 3 partier över 40% kvinnor 1994 och 1998: 3 partier över 40% kvinnor 2002 och 2006: 5 partier över 40% kvinnor 2002 och 2006: 5 partier över 40% kvinnor Moderaterna och Kristdemokraterna ligger i senaste valet, 2006, under 40% Moderaterna och Kristdemokraterna ligger i senaste valet, 2006, under 40% ”Övriga partier” under 30% ”Övriga partier” under 30%

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24 Könskvotering i politiken – populärt och kontroversiellt Almost 50 countries have introduced electoral gender quotas in their constitution or electoral law. Almost 50 countries have introduced electoral gender quotas in their constitution or electoral law. In more than 50 other countries some political parties make use of voluntary party quotas for their electoral list In more than 50 other countries some political parties make use of voluntary party quotas for their electoral list A global overview: A global overview: Drude Dahlerup (ed): “Women, Quotas and Politics”. Routledge Drude Dahlerup (ed): “Women, Quotas and Politics”. Routledge

25 Brugen af kvotering i Nordisk politik DKFIISNS 1980’erne: Råd, styrelser m.vJaJaJaJaRek ’erne: Frivillig partikvotering(Nej)NejJaJaJa 1990’erne: Kommunal kvoteringNejJaNejJaNej 2000-tallet: AktieselskaberneNejNejNejJaNej

26 Why are electoral gender quotas so controversial, and yet so popular? May be because quotas is a very simple answer to a complex question! May be because quotas is a very simple answer to a complex question! And because quotas work – provided the quota rules match the electoral system, include rank order rules, and sanctions for non-compliance And because quotas work – provided the quota rules match the electoral system, include rank order rules, and sanctions for non-compliance

27 New strategies and tools What to do when the Nordic incremental model has stopped working? What to do when the Nordic incremental model has stopped working? Worst case scenario: A continuous belief in a constant progress, that is no longer taking place! Worst case scenario: A continuous belief in a constant progress, that is no longer taking place!

28 Two discourses on women ’ s under-representation in political institutions: 1. The incremental track discourse – 1. The incremental track discourse – Typical for the Nordic countries until recently Typical for the Nordic countries until recently 2. The fast track discourse – 2. The fast track discourse – The Beijing Platform for Action The Beijing Platform for Action Constructed as two ideal types Constructed as two ideal types Drude Dahlerup & Lenita Freidenvall: ” Quotas as a ’ fast track ’ to equal representation for women. Why Scandinavia is no longer the model ” Int. Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 7, no.1.,2005. Drude Dahlerup & Lenita Freidenvall: ” Quotas as a ’ fast track ’ to equal representation for women. Why Scandinavia is no longer the model ” Int. Feminist Journal of Politics, vol. 7, no.1.,2005.

29 The Incremental track discourse: 1. Problem-diagnosis 1. Problem-diagnosis Women ’ s lack of resources and old prejudice Women ’ s lack of resources and old prejudice 2. Goal 2. Goal ‘ More women in politics ’ ‘ More women in politics ’ 3. Strategy 3. Strategy Increase women ’ s resources and commitment Increase women ’ s resources and commitment 4. General perception of the cause of history: 4. General perception of the cause of history: Equal representation may take decades, but will eventually be achieved in due course as country develops. Equal representation may take decades, but will eventually be achieved in due course as country develops.

30 The fast track discourse: 1. Problem-diagnosis 1. Problem-diagnosis Exclusion and discrimination Exclusion and discrimination 2. Goal 2. Goal ‘ Gender balance in politics ’ ‘ Gender balance in politics ’ 3. Strategy 3. Strategy Affirmative actions, electoral gender quotas Affirmative actions, electoral gender quotas 4. General perception of the cause of history: 4. General perception of the cause of history: Women ’ s representation does not increase by some historical necessity. Backlash may even be possible. Women ’ s representation does not increase by some historical necessity. Backlash may even be possible.

31 Rank-order rules are necessary (legislated and voluntary gender quotas) (legislated and voluntary gender quotas) 1. Zipper system – alternation throughout the list (mostly Left and Green parties) 1. Zipper system – alternation throughout the list (mostly Left and Green parties) 2. The top two cannot be of the same sex (Belgium – 50 % for whole list) 2. The top two cannot be of the same sex (Belgium – 50 % for whole list) 3. 40:60 for every 5 posts on the list. If less than 5 ’eligible’ posts, as close to 40:60 as possible (Spain) :60 for every 5 posts on the list. If less than 5 ’eligible’ posts, as close to 40:60 as possible (Spain).

32 Sanctions for non-compliance: (legal quota systems) (legal quota systems) 1. Rejection of the list (Spain, Slovenia, France at the local level) 1. Rejection of the list (Spain, Slovenia, France at the local level) 2. Places shall remain empty (Belgium) 2. Places shall remain empty (Belgium) 3. Financial penalty (France at the national level, Portugal) 3. Financial penalty (France at the national level, Portugal)

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