Presentation on theme: "EO Conduct Animal Control and Handling"— Presentation transcript:
1EO 003.01 Conduct Animal Control and Handling Restraint and Handling of Wild and Domestic Animals second edition, 1995By Murray E. Fowler
2General Concept Restraint Technique Factors: 1. Will it be safe for the handler;2. Does it provide maximum safety for the animal;3. Does the restraining method make it possible to perform the intended procedure; and4. Is constant observation possible following restraint until it’s recovered fully from the physical/chemical effects.
3General ConceptAnimals often require transportation, medication and handling. With wild animals, any captive situation requires some form of restraint.
4General ConceptTo be successful in working with animals, the handler must understand their behavioural characteristics and the aspects of their psychological make-up that will be in their best interest. Successful handlers must also understand and have a working acquaintance with the tools of restraint, understand the use of voice, manual restraint, chemical restraint and restraint devices.
5When to restrain considerations Environmental Conditions;Behavioural Aspects;Hierarchal Status;Health Status;Territoriality; andHumane Considerations.These points will be covered over the next 20 minutes.
6Environmental considerations: Thermo-regulation is a critical factor in many restraint procedures:During hotter months select a cooler time of day to restrain. Cooling fans may be required & always place restrained animals in the shade to avoid radiant heat gain. Conversely, use the suns heat if the weather is cool.
7Environmental considerations: Humidity:Avoid handling if humidity is 70 – 90 %Cooling is difficult under humid conditions.
8Environmental considerations: Light & Dark:Take advantage of light & dark. Diurnal animals (seen during the day) may be best handled at night when they have difficulty seeing. Nocturnal species may best be handled under bright lights.
9Behavioural Aspects: An animal’s response to restraint varies with stage of life:A tiger cub grasped by the back of the neck will curl up like a kitten however this isn’t the response in an adult!A female in oestrus or with offspring close by reacts differently than other times.Male deer, elk caribou go into rut in the fall. Although it may be safe to enter an enclosure in spring or summer. It isn’t in the fall!
10Hierarchal StatusMost social animals establish a pecking order & a person trying to catch one animal may be attacked by other members of the group.Animals removed from a group for too long may not be accepted back in the group; orSome animals may reject an infant returned if it has human scent on it.
11Health StatusTransporting in crates, trucks & planes is stressful & recently transported animals are poor restraint risks.Allow animal time to acclimate to a new environment before additional restraints.
12Health StatusIt may be difficult to get body temp & heart rate due to excitement.Ex: a bison with dermatitis was caught to check on its skin and the animal died of over exertion during the process.Don’t handle animals if it isn’t necessary! Clinical experience may be the governing factor.
13TerritorialDomestic animals differ in response to handling depending on where they are.Many wild animals are highly territorial & in order to work on them, they must be moved to a new enclosure.
14Humane Considerations It is incumbent on the individual manipulating an animal’s life to be concerned for its welfare (feelings, pain, psychological effects);One must be able to be objective and see that the manipulations are in the animals best interests;The handler must plan each restraint in detail, perceive the feelings of the animal; andTake steps to alleviate its pain.
15Humane Considerations During a restraint procedure:Time is crucial – get the job done fast!!!Remember:(1) Safety to the handler;(2) Safety to the animal; and(3) Will it do the job?
16Tools of Restraint Instances of tool use; Psychological restraint; Weapons used against humans;Diminishing sense perception;Confinement;Extension of arms;Physical barriers;Physical force;Chemical restraint; andSpecial techniques.
17Tools of Restraint Tools may make a job easier or more efficient; Tools must be kept in good repair; the art and practice of their used must be kept toned up;Some tools may be desirable for dealing with one species and be contraindicated when working with another.
18Tools of RestraintFor ease of discussion, the tools have been placed into seven categories
19Tool use categoriesPsychological restraint – understanding an animal biological characteristic enables manipulation;Diminishing sense perception of an animal;Confinement;Lending added strength to or extension of the arms;Physical barriers – used to protect us or allow closer view of animal;Physical force – used to subdue animals;Chemical restraint – used to sedate, immobilize or anaesthetize animals.
20Psychological Restraints Each species has its own behavioural pattern/traits:A successful animal handler must know a given species particular behavioural patterns. Ex: When handling an elephant from a rope secured around the trunk, it is the nature of the animal to pull back which could be used to direct the animal to sit down rather than fall to its side during narcotic immobilization. The same technique would be dangerously unsuitable for handling a carnivore because a carnivore would attack instead of pulling back on the rope.
21Psychological Restraints Voice tone is an important tool and emotional state can be reflected in the voice.Voice tone example: A nervous person who walks into a horse stall and their nervousness can be sensed by the horse, the animal will back away while a confident handler can walk up to the animal.
22Weapons used against humans All animals have defence mechanisms & in restraint situations the restrainer is the enemy.Generally a display warning will initially be given – showing teeth etc before using weapons:Teeth, claws, talons, bills or beak.All carnivores are prone to using teeth.Large animals can crush a handler.All animals have defence mechanisms & in restraint situations the restrainer is the enemy.Generally a display warning will initially be given – showing teeth etc before using weapons:Teeth, claws, talons, bills or beak.All carnivores are prone to using teeth.Large animals can crush a handler
23Weapons used against humans All carnivores are prone to using teeth:The bite of many carnivores is seriousBirds are capable of biting or pecking & large birds such as Macaws can break bone with their beaks.Large raptorial species (hawks, eagles) can tear tissue.Animals with horns can gore a restrainer & invertebrates can sting.All carnivores are prone to using teeth:The bite of many carnivores is seriousBirds are capable of biting or pecking & large birds such as Macaws can break bone with their beaks.Large raptorial species (hawks, eagles) can tear tissue.Animals with horns can gore a restrainer & invertebrates can sting.
24Weapons used against humans Hoofed animals will often kick.Spitting venom is done by cobras & some animals such as camels will regurgitate & spit.Large animals can crush a handler.In short the whole spectrum of the animal kingdom has abilities of self-protection.Hoofed animals will often kick.Spitting venom is done by cobras & some animals such as camels will regurgitate & spit.Large animals can crush a handler.In short the whole spectrum of the animal kingdom has abilities of self-protection.
25Diminishing Sense Perception Vision;Sound;Touch; andTemperature for reptiles.Vision;Sound;Touch; andTemperature for reptiles.
26Diminishing Sense Perception Vision:Reducing or eliminating an animal’s visual communication with the environment is an important restraint technique. Blind folding a horse makes it easier to introduce new environments – such as a trailer or new stall.Vision:Reducing or eliminating an animal’s visual communication with the environment is an important restraint technique. Blind folding a horse makes it easier to introduce new environments – such as a trailer or new stall.
27Diminishing Sense Perception Sound:Excessive sound (talking, noisy vehicles) may upset an animal. Restraint is easier with sounds dampened and harsh tones of voice eliminated or diminished in proximity to the animal.
28Diminishing Sense Perception Touch:A skilled handler of domestic animals can accomplish much by proper use of the hands on the animal. Soothing, by stroking in the proper direction in the proper areas of the body, can be very valuable. Most untrained wild animals respond negatively to the touch of a person and institute a defence mechanism in response.
29Diminishing Sense Perception Temperature for reptiles:Cooling diminishes an animals ability to respond to stimuli. Hypothermia has been used to render nervous species of lizards & snakes to make dealing with them for surgery easier but a potential hazard exists for respiratory infections.
30ConfinementConfinement is a tool of restraint but the acceptable degree of confinement may vary depending on the species and the situation.Close confinement makes it easier to evaluate clinical signs.
31ConfinementSqueeze cages are a valuable tool but must accommodate the physiological requirements for each animal.Examples are transfer cages (various reptiles), tubes for snakes or bags or towels used for cats or birds.
32Confinement The closest & most stressful confinement is a special cage suchas a transfer cage.
33Confinement Domestic cattle or horses may be placed in stocks for examination.Confinement can also bedone with ropes orcables.
34Methods of restraint for extension of arms Ropes: Ropes are used to capture & restrain animals.Snares: snares are used to capture & restrainanimals however a snare, used carelessly can injurean animal.Nets: Nets are an important tool that can come in allsizes and shapes from those used to capture tinyinsects to very large cargo nets for musk-ox. Theymust however be kept in good condition and the sizeof the mesh must correspond to the size of animal/birdetc.
35Methods of restraint for extension of arms Hoop Nets: Hoop nets with handles (to twist the netover the animal) can be used to restrain at a distancehowever the hoop edge can injure.Nose tongs: Tongs fit into the nose to handleDomestic bovine species.Snake hook: In its various forms, is utilized inhandling all species of reptiles.Chains: Chains either snap into heavy collars on theneck or encircle the neck and snap into a link.
36Physical Barriers Shields; Head screen; Blankets; Bales of hay or straw;Wire panels or solid gates; andOpaque plastic sheets.
37Physical BarriersShields: Shields are an important tool of restraint which couldbe made of plywood with handles or plastic shields which couldallow the handler to still see the animal.Head screen: Head screens offer protection from extremelyagile potentially aggressive animals & are especially useful for horns,cranes and primates.Blankets: A blanket can be used to shield the animals fromseeing the handler or a mattress could be used to fix an animal inone position or against a wall.
38Physical Barriers Bales of hay or stray: Bales of hay can be used as a physical barrier for working on or around animals.Wire panels of solid gates: Wire panels or gates can beused to squeeze animals against walls or surfaces. It’s importantto ensure a leg doesn’t poke through mesh or slats of panelssince fractures can occur.Opaque plastic sheets: Opaque plastic sheeting isexcellent to direct animals in a certain direction & is ideal formoving hoofed animals into crates or chutes.
39Physical ForceProtect hands (gloves): Gloves can vary from very thin cotton for protection from small rodents to double layer course leather for handling primates. Leather welders gloves are excellent for general use but do not protect against bone crushing. The hands are used in most manipulative procedures & the wise restrainer must take every precaution to protect them.Correct pressure applied (animal size): It’s important to know the best place to grab the animal and how much pressure is required to restrain without injuring the animal.
40Physical ForceTools: broom, pole, bar, etc; Other tools used to encourage movement may be a rolled up news paper, scoop shovel, house broom. To restrict animals in cages, poles or bars could be used to keep the head down during an injection.Carbon dioxide charged extinguisher; CO2 charged fire extinguishers have been utilized to encourage or frighten animals to move out of a den or into another enclosure.
41Chemical restraintThe use of drugs for restraint and immobilization has become routine for practicing veterinarians and wildlife biologists. Hand-held or pole syringes, projected syringes or darts, blowgun and crossbow are examples of equipment used for immobilization of animals.
42Special TechniquesSlings: Slings are not necessarily a restraint tool but are used for proper care of animals unable to maintain an upright position due to injury.Rope Sling: Rope slings can be adapted to most large animals & the rope should vary in relation to the animal size to avoid injury.Speculums: A speculum is used to hold the mouth open for oral-exam or gastric intubation.
43DOGSDanger:The dog’s only weapons are its large canine teeth and to a lesser extent the toenails. Every precaution should be taken to prevent injury. Approach any strange dog with caution.
44DOGS Behavioural characteristics: The behaviour of dogs is determined by breed, training, previous disagreeable experiences, and degree of human association.
45DOGSStray or free roaming dog that has little association with people except, perhaps, when fed must be handled carefully because they could bite at the slightest provocation.Pet dogs and working dogs are usually docile and respond well to a low soothing voice and deliberate handling but rough handling may provoke attack.
46DOGSExtremely nervous or frightened dogs can be recognized by anxious expression, rapid movements of the head, constant prickling of the ears in response to every sound or movement. The head will be likely ducked and the animal may cower in a corner. They can be boisterous and attempt to nip at the handler. Above all, they can be expected to bite at almost any type of approach.
47DOGSThe vicious, aggressive dog has the head held low & generally won’t look directly at you but can attack without warning. Many of these dogs are large, are capable of inflicting serious injury, and will bite with little or no provocation.
48DOGSIt should be recognized that the temperament of a sick or injured dog can change drastically and when it is sick or injured. Such a dog is far more apt to bite than a healthy dog.
49DOGS Physical restraint: Leash is an important device to control a dog. Leather and chain leashes used by owners when they walk their dogs are rarely suitable for restraint.Snare is used for vicious dogs to keep the dog at a safe distance from the handler.Muzzle: With a
50Carnivores Danger Potential: Teeth specialized for grasping and tearing prey are characteristic for all carnivores. The jaw muscles are well developed and very strong (a hyena is capable of crushing a tibia in one snap). The paws of most members of this order are fitted with claws that can rip and tear. All felids have dangerous claws. These animals are also very agile, fast and can lash out with their claws much faster than you can move.
51CarnivoresCanidae (dog, fox, wolf): Equipment that should be used include gloves, snares, squeeze cages, a rope & muzzle.Ursidae (bears): Bears have tremendous strength & their claws & paw power make them very dangerous to handle. Chemicals must be used to sedate adults but cubs can be handled using nets or snares.Procyonidae (racoons):Racoons are small to medium sized animals which are usually easily handled with nets or squeeze cages.
52CarnivoresMustelidae (skunk, weasel, otter): These are small to medium sized agile carnivores with needle sharp teeth which are dangerous to handle. They are usually handled with nets, snares or squeeze cages. (Skunks easily bite and are a common carrier of rabies). When threatened it faces away with its hind quarters and tail up and it usually stamps it’s front paws before spraying.
53CarnivoresFelidae (cats): The cat family varies in size from small house cats to 340 kg Siberian tigers. All cats have sharpened recurved claws that lacerate flesh. They are extremely fast striking with their paws. Obviously restraint techniques must obviously vary with the size. Small cats should be caught using a snare.
54Snakes Danger potential: All snakes can bite. Venomous species require special handling techniques as they may inflict serious injury or death. Snake hooks are fundamental tools for working with snakes. It is important to know that the degree of agitation and aggressiveness is less in cooler temperatures.
55Snakes Non-poisonous snakes: They will not bite unless tormented. The head of non poisonous snakes must be controlled when handling. By supporting the body, it will prevent the snake from becoming restless. Be cautious dealing with large constrictors, never allow them to loop around the neck or body as they will try to suffocate the handler. They will feel comfortable if it coils once around an arm.
56Snakes Non-poisonous snakes cont’d: Some agile non-poisonous snakes are difficult to handle. The experienced handler can grab them quickly but more suitable tools like a snake hook or noose may be used for directing movement, lifting snakes from containers, and a variety of other restraint procedures. The hook may be used to pin the head of any snake to the ground, allowing the handler to safely grasp it. Only sufficient pressure to hold the snake should be exerted; too much pressure on the neck may seriously injure the spine or dislocate the head.
57Snakes Poisonous snakes: Each species has different characteristics, degree of agility and method of striking but all have sacs which the venom is extruded into fangs for envenomation of prey species or enemies. Each species requires the development of specialized restraint and handling techniques. No one should handle venomous snakes until they first develop expertise and confidence by practicing the techniques on non-poisonous snakes.
58Snakes Poisonous snakes cont’d: Vipers and pit vipers are usually phlegmatic heavy bodied and usually slow to rouse into action. They position themselves in undulating folds and can strike a distance about two thirds their body length. Tools such as a snake noose or snake hook are helpful for pinning the head down. They can be manipulated into a plastic tube with holes that can be capped. Squeeze boxes are more suitable for large snakes. A versatile squeeze cage can be constructed with a removable top & slotted sides. The snake is then hooked, lifted into the box and can be squeezed with a screen to conduct procedures.
59Snakes Poisonous snakes cont’d: Cobras are more aggressive and have more toxic venom, are flightier in temperament than vipers and consequently more dangerous to manipulate. The cobra’s defensive posture is to raise the body to a vertical position with hood up. They strike forward and downward from that position. Some species are capable of ejecting venom from the fangs at the eyes of the handlers, temporarily or permanently blinding the victim. therefore a face shield should always be worn.
60Guess what was found just south of Jacksonville. THIS IS NOT A PYTHON Guess what was found just south of Jacksonville ... THIS IS NOT A PYTHON! This is a 15 foot Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake - the largest ever caught on record, in fact. This snake was found Near the St. Augustine outlet, in a new KB homes subdivision just south of Jacksonville FL. A little research revealed the following: One bite from a snake of this size would contain enough venom to kill over 40 full grown men. The head of this snake alone is larger than the hand of a normal sized man. A bite from those fangs would be comparable to being stabbed by two curved, 1/4 inch diameter screwdrivers. The knife being used to draw out the fangs for the bottom picture has a blade around 4 inches long. This snake is estimated to have weighed over 170 pounds. (How much do you weigh?) Notice the girth of this snake as compared to the cop's leg in the first picture (and he is not a small man). A snake of this size could easily swallow a 2 year-old child (and dogs, pigs, etc). A snake this size has an approximately 5 1/2 foot accurate striking distance. (The distance for an average size rattlesnake is about 2 feet.) This snake has probably been alive since George Bush Sr. was President. Now just ask yourself these questions: What has this snake been feeding on and where are its offspring?