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Architects of Trust: Building Trust in the Workplace

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1 Architects of Trust: Building Trust in the Workplace
A&R Brown Business Group Inc. Tel: (604) Business excellence through continuous learning Ann Brown, MA A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

2 Some Survey Numbers 70% of employees believe that trust and loyalty within the firms is declining 60% do not believe that their management is upright, ethical and honest 50% believe that lack of trust is a problem in their workplace (57 organizations surveyed) 70% won’t speak up because they fear repercussions Some sad numbers about the climate within our organizations. These reflect a number of US studies over the last couple of years. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

3 One Bottom Line Number 6,500 employees surveyed at 76 Holiday Inn international hotels Correlated with customer satisfaction scores, personnel records and hotel revenues Hotels where managers were perceived to follow through on their promises were more profitable 0.125 (1/8th) improvement in employee trust ratings (5 point scale) should improve hotel profitability by $250,000 The study surveyed 6,500 Holiday Inn employees in 76 international hotel sites to examine the alignment between managers' words and actual performance (behavioural integrity) The responses, which were correlated with customer satisfaction and employee retention scores, personnel records and financial records, demonstrated that the hotels where managers followed through on promises and had behavioral integrity were more profitable.  In fact, on a 5-point scale, a one-eighth-point improvement should result in a 2.5 percent increase in hotel revenues. Simon attributes hotel managers' lack of behavioral integrity to various blind spots, such as their failure to identify integrity problems within themselves A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

4 What is Trust? Trust n.& v. 1. (a) a firm belief in the reliability or truth or strength etc. of a person or thing (b) the state of being relied on 2. a confident expectation 3. (a) a thing or person committed to one’s care (b) the resulting obligation or responsibility (OED) The act of placing yourself in the vulnerable position of relying on others to treat you in a fair, open, and honest way A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

5 Where Do We Trust? Social trust - between people
Trust in organizations - between organizations and those they serve Intra - organizational trust - within organizations Inter- organizational trust - between organizations Trust is a factor in all relationships - between people, between organizations. and those they serve, within organizations and between organizations People are feeling that organizations are not reliably trustworthy, government is not to be trusted, significant institutions such as hospitals are struggling to cope. Reduced public confidence in the food and water supply. The economy, lay offs, SARS,terrorism, BSE (mad cow) – who can you trust anymore? It’s hardly worth getting up in the morning! A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

6 Some Trust Jargon Relational trust Organizational trust Active trust
Passive trust Dispositional trust Relational trust – between people e.g. personal relationship, manager to employee Organizational trust – of people in the organization to which they belong Active trust – feeling of confidence Passive trust – absence of worry or suspicion Dispositional trust – either an innate personality trait or related to early trust patterns A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

7 The Importance of Trust
“... in low trust groups, interpersonal relationships interfere with and distort perceptions of the problem. Energy and creativity are diverted from finding comprehensive, realistic solutions, and members use the problem as an instrument to minimize their vulnerability. In contrast, in high trust groups there is less socially generated uncertainty and problems are solved more effectively.” Zand, 1972 “Under conditions of high trust, problem solving tends to be creative and productive. Under conditions of low trust, problem solving tends to be degenerative and ineffective.” R. Wayne Boss, 1977 Harvard Business Review, Professor Dale Zand at NYU looked at trust and managerial problem solving effectiveness in 1972 In 1977 Wayne Bass wrote an article in Harvard Business review documenting his study that built on Zand’s work. One CEO called recently called trust the “grease in the organizational wheels”, another the “glue which holds us together”. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

8 Importance of Trust “The most productive people are the most trusting people. If this seems to be an astonishing statement, it shows how distorted the concept of trust has become. Trust is one of the most essential qualities of human relationships. Without it, all human interaction, all commerce, all society would disappear.” Taylor McConnell in Group Leadership for Self Realization “[Trust] creates a reservoir of goodwill that helps preserve the relationship when, as will inevitably happen, one party engages in an act that its partner considers destructive.” Nirmalya Kuma, Harvard Business Review November/December 1996 A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

9 The Importance of Trust
Productive relationships are based on trust – often unrecognized and taken for granted It’s a resource that increases with use Enables coordination without coercion Enables commitments to be undertaken in situations of high risk Think about your most productive relationships. Note down two or three – how much trust is there? A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

10 Reasons for Low Trust Frame of reference - past experiences
Feelings - low self esteem, vulnerability Facts - past results (or perception of past results) Perception of attributes of the trustee competence capacity and ability profession intentions (virtue) ROOTS of LACK of TRUST Feelings of deprivation Lack of social inclusion Perceptions of vulnerability No positive attachment experience Unchallenged frames of reference lead to habits of mind. We tend to continue to trust in the same patterns. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

11 Roots of Low Trust in the Workplace
Lack of inclusion Feelings of deprivation and loss Perceptions of vulnerability No positive attachment to a “boss” Previous experiences – yours or other peoples Not included in the planning, no feedback requested or honoured. No communication Things being “taken away” or not offered. Could be loss of the “old way”, camaderie etc. Feeling vulnerable and therefore less valuable/confident No anchor position with which to create a trust relationship Lack of inclusion Feelings of depravation or loss Perceptions of vulnerability No positive attachment to a “boss” A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

12 Trust (or not) in Change
All change creates distrust. Trust is often the first casualty of change. Effective communication depends on the capability and willingness of the receiver Concepts of fairness and clear process shapes workable relationships Communication will not be trusted, heard or understood. Change will distort and aggravate levels of trust A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

13 Fallout From Change Older forms of hierarchy being replaced
New webs or networks may be based on business processes New accountabilities requiring people to work in teams May require new skill sets, attitudes and understanding e.g. initiative, relational competence, time management The framework from which I previously extended my trust is dissolving. Change further erodes any residual trust. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

14 Biggest Trust Buster in Change
Organizational change entails a risk of generating real or perceived misalignment between a manager’s words and deeds Underselling the impact Not being comfortable with not knowing – filling in the blanks Poor communication practices – unclear messages from “above” Stress, overwhelmed Personal ambivalence towards the change A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

15 Behavioural Integrity
Employees perception of the pattern of word/deed alignment Performance Organizational citizenship behaviour Willingness to promote and implement change EMPLOYEE TRUST Employee trust is based on the perception of how their managers walk the talk and do what they say – word/deed alignment. The level of trust is a key factor in determining the four outcomes. Note – you are more likely to notice your bosses misdemeanors in this area than your boss is to notice yours. A&R Brown Business Group Inc. Intent to stay with the organization

16 Organizational Citizenship How people behave in the organization – norms.
Coworker trust and teams Environment for trust affects motivation in groups HIGH TRUST LOW TRUST Group Goals Individual Goals Affects how group members motivation is channeled into cooperative behaviour and the ability to transfer that motivation into higher levels of performance and common goals. High trust – group ethic prevails. Low trust – every man for themselves – survivor strategy A&R Brown Business Group Inc. Knowledge sharing versus knowledge hoarding Voluntary Participation – covert/overt resistance

17 Characteristics of Trust Builders
Faith in life and hope in the goodness of mankind A “healing” attitude Able to self disclose Able to risk being open and vulnerable Self acceptance Self awareness - clear values, boundaries What behavioral traits do people need in order to develop trust? People need to develop the following behavior traits, attitudes, and beliefs in order to develop trust: Hope in the goodness of mankind: Without such hope people can become emotionally stuck, reclusive, and isolated. Hope in goodness is a change based on the willingness to take a risk that all people are not evil, bad, or ill-willed. Faith in the fairness of life: This faith in fairness is similar to the ``boomerang belief,'' that what you throw out to others will come back to you eventually in life. So if people are fair, honest, or nurturing they will eventually receive similar behavior aimed back at them. Having faith in fairness is an attitude that helps people be open to others and risk being vulnerable. They believe that the person who treats them negatively will eventually ``get it in the end!'' and be punished in someway later in this life or in the next. Belief in a power greater than yourself: This is the acceptance of a spiritual power with greater strength, wisdom, and knowledge than you; one with a divine plan to include your experience, whatever you will encounter in life. Rather than believing that you are 100% in control of your destiny, belief in this spiritual power enables you to let go of over responsibility, guilt, and anger. This lets you accept God's will in your life and enables you to let go of your distrust and isolation from others. If God is in control of the universe, you can lighten your load and let God do some of the leading in your life. `"Let go and let God,'' can be your motto. A healing environment: This is the creating of a trust bond with the significant others in your personal life where blaming, accusing, and acrimony do not exist. In the healing mode the participants actively use forgiveness, understanding, and healthy communication to resolve problems and issues. The participants are then willing to forget, to let go, and to release themselves of the past hurts, wounds, and pain, opening themselves to trust one another. Reduction of a sense of competition: This reducing of competition, jealousy, and defensiveness with significant others in your life is a way to reduce the barriers between you and them. The lowering of these psychological barriers is essential to the movement toward development of mutual trust. Self-disclosure of negative self-scripts: Your disclosing of your inability to feel good about yourself and your perceived lack of healthy self-esteem are essential in reducing miscommunication or misunderstanding between you and the significant others in your life. This self-disclosure reveals to the others your perspective on obstacles you believe you bring to relationships. This sheds the mask of self-defensiveness and allows the other to know you as you know yourself. It is easier to trust that which is real than that which is unreal or hidden. Taking a risk to be open to others: This enables you to become a real person to others. It is an essential behavior in trust-building between two people because it is the establishing of the parameters of strengths and weaknesses on which you have to draw as the relationship develops. Becoming vulnerable: This enables you to be hurt by others who know your weaknesses and strengths. This is an essential step in trust-building between people. It lays the cards on the table in a gamble that in such total self-revelation the others will accept you for who you really are rather than for who they want you to be. In order to get to full self-disclosure you must take the risk to be vulnerable to others. This is an important building block in trust development. Letting go of fear: Fear restricts your actions with others. Letting go frees you of behavioral constraints that can immobilize your emotional development. Fear of rejection, fear of failure, fear of caring, fear of success, fear of being hurt, fear of the unknown, and fear of intimacy are blocks to the development of trust relationships and can impede relationship growth if not given appropriate attention and remedial action. Self-acceptance: Accepting who you are and what your potential is an important step in letting down your guard enough to develop a trusting relationship with others. If you are so insecure in your identity that you are unable to accept yourself first, how can you achieve the self-revelation necessary to develop trust? Self-acceptance through an active program of self-affirmation and self-love is a key to the development of trust. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

18 Taking the responsibility to build trust
Architect of Trust Taking the responsibility to build trust Authenticity - finding your voice Emotional Intelligence - tuning into your own emotions and those of others. Climate Building - creating an environment where people can bring forth their ideas, values and concerns Walking the Talk - actions speak louder than words - espoused values v. values in action Authenticity - author - creator, publishor. AoTs know whatthey stand for, grounded in their own uniques convictions and point of view. (a) discover what matters (b) find your voice self reflection - who are you and what do you want? Clarify core values and convictions and determine ways to give voice to them in our work. - Leadership - combining personal passion with organizational purpose Emotional Intelligence - emotions as a source of energy, information, influence and connection. Acknowledging and valuing core feelings in self and others. Emotion = motus anima (Latin) = the spirit that moves us. Understanding our own emotions and tuning into those of others - learning to tune-in - means greater potential for moving ourselves and others forwards. Climate We often believe we've done this (or we are doing this) when we haven't come close. Kathleen Ryan and Daniel Oestreich reveal some important realities on this topic in their book, "Driving Fear Out of the Workplace: How to Overcome the Invisible Barriers to Quality, Productivity, and Innovation". In interviews with hundreds of professionals in different companies, 70% of the people interviewed said they had hesitated to speak up in their workplace because they feared some type of repercussion. The repercussions feared most in descending order were: loss of credibility or reputation, lack of career or financial advancement, damage to relationship with boss, and loss of employment...the perceived fear is enough to prevent people from voicing their ideas at work.Managers with the best intentions -- those who would never allow speaking up to be a career limiting move -- are still faced with the reality that these fears exist for people. Managers are “guilty by association” simply by being part of “management.” Because this is true, a manager must be very intentional about driving out the long-established legacies of intimidation so that everyone can participate meaningfully and contribute their unique points of view. Walk the Talk Research by Kouzes and Posner reveals that ultimately, our actions will speak even louder than our words. We can say trust is important but unless people see it in the decisions we make every day, we'll never build the credibility and commitment we need A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

Choosing to Trust Why do I trust? Why do I not trust? WHAT ASSUMPTIONS AND BELIEFS ARE AT THE BASIS OF THIS CHOICE? What are the facts Authenticity and Emotional Intelligence Reflection and self awareness although true believers may continue to trust trust despite contrary evidence types of trust may be damaging - within criminal gangs, zenophobia, group-think A&R Brown Business Group Inc. What are my feelings

20 How do you Trust? I don’t trust anyone until they are shown to be trustworthy I trust everyone until they are shown NOT to be trustworthy 1 2 3 4 5 A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

21 What Are Your Trust Patterns?
People, groups and institutions that I connect with Do I trust/not trust them? Why do I trust/not trust them? What beliefs, assumptions or facts am I basing this on? Make a table. In the left column, list organizations and people that you commonly interact with. In the next column, list your trust level with them Next column, list why you do or don’t trust. Last column note what you base this on. Look for your trust patterns – are they fact.feeling based? Do you have underlying assumptions that you were not aware of? What’s your frame of reference for trust? A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

22 Who Should I Trust? Interests: Does this person share my goals, values and beliefs? Competence: Does this person have the required knowledge and ability.? Accountability: Will this person honor commitments? Reliability: Will this person tell me what I need to know? Attitude: Does this person want me to succeed? Interests – identification with common goals, values and beliefs Competence – effectiveness Accountability – consistent and dependable actions, results Reliability - openness and honesty, amount accuracy and sincerity of the information shared Attitude – concern for employees – empathy, tolerance, safety What gets in the way? Perception of lack of empathy No visible “shared interest” Fuzzy Boundaries - your and theirs Failure to “come through” A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

23 The Trust Building Equation
Intention Preparation Mechanics Outcomes Results Communication Trust Authenticity Intention Committing to win/win What is the defined, accountable outcome required? How will you both know when you have been successful? Preparation Understand your own trust behaviours Identify your trust screens and the applicability in the situation Mechanics Inquiry not Advocacy - Non assumptive questions etc. Deep Listening - no judgements, clear interest etc. Closure - not leaving any unnecessary question marks. Share the risk and set the actions and end points together Response - actions, inaction and reactions Your reaction builds or destroys trust as much as your action. Delivering on promises as promised. Inaction busts trust. Timeliness Authenticity Consistency of words and deeds Consistency of approach, process, style etc. A&R Brown Business Group Inc. Self Knowledge

24 Trust Builders Implementing Change
Understand the climate. Understand the level of resilience – future shock Are you stepping on values, norms and traditions? Practice the very best communication – frequently Resistance is normal and healthy – listen Don’t ignore the signs – it won’t go away AoTs are climate builders – must understand the true situation. You are asking people to be more vulnerable when they may be asking if you really have their interests in mind Future shock – when the rate of change exceeds ability to absorb it Values are what hold groups together – strongest link. We go forward easier if we take the best of the past with us. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

25 Trust Building Actions
COMMUNICATION Solve problems through direct communication.Be explicit. If compromise is productive, do it in communication, not in your mind alone Ask non-assumptive questions. Inquiry not advocacy. Practice deep listening - suspend judgement Look for the positive - acknowledge the intent first Validate success or new effort. Share credit generously RESULTS When in doubt about taking on a commitment, air your concerns. Only make promises you can keep. Schedule regular opportunities for input and feedback Be timely Be willing to be wrong 10 Actions Leaders Can Take to Build Trust Solve problems through direct communication at the lowest equivalent level: yourself and peers; yourself and your direct manager; yourself, your manager and her manager. Share credit generously. When in doubt, share. When in doubt about taking on a commitment, air your concerns with the relevant parties. When engaged on an ongoing commitment, communicate anticipated slippage as soon as you suspect it. Spend "informed" time mingling, asking non-assumptive questions, making only promises you can keep , working back through existing lines of authority. Be explicit and direct. If compromise is productive, do it in communication, not in your mind alone. Be timely; be willing to be wrong Acknowledge the intent and risk of innovation first, then address the issue with your honest opinion. Extend yourself beyond your own short-term feeling and validate success or new effort. Get in direct, tactful communication, airing your problem and seeking win/win resolution. Schedule regular meetings for input and feedback for those reporting to you; develop systems for floor people to evaluate supervisors and managers. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

26 Hidden Trust Busters Distance Barriers - telephone, , fax - lacks the “high touch” - psychological separation Physical Barriers - the structure of the meeting place Language Barriers - language used may not be the first language of both parties. Cultural Barriers - trust may mean different things and be built in different ways e.g. North America - Demonstrated performance over time China, Latin America, Arab countries - relationships - social interaction over time Overuse of technology - telephone, , fax - lacks the “high touch” - eliminates body language, facial expression important in some cultures. Increase psychological distance between people Physical barriers -e.g. layout of the meeting place Language Barriers Avoid sports English. In the U.S. and in Canada, many phrases come from either baseball (“covering all the bases”, “far out in left field”, “three strikes and you’re out”, “bench strength”, etc.) or football (“fumbling”, “running interference”, “punting”, “one down, three to go”, etc.). These phrases mean virtually nothing to people who do not know these sports – and that is a very large portion of the world’s population. Simplify your sentence structure and vocabulary. This is particularly important for English speakers who have been raised in the United Kingdom, where the breadth of one’s vocabulary and the ability to use complex grammatical structures reflects (to some extent) one’s education and position in society. For many non-native English speakers, a simple vocabulary (where one word is consistently used to mean the same thing) and simpler sentences go a long way to increase communication effectiveness. For example, use “big”, which is widely understood, and avoid synonyms (“huge”, “large”, “immense”, etc.). Beware of the differences between the various versions of English. British, American and Australian English assign different meanings to phrases, resulting sometimes in significant confusion. For example, stating that a project is a “bomb” is very positive in the UK (where a “bomb” is a spectacular success) and very negative in the USA (where a bomb is a catastrophic failure). Similarly, “tabling an issue” means putting it on the table in the UK and postponing the corresponding discussion in the USA. Keep in mind that, in continental Europe, in Africa and in the Middle East, non-native English speakers study British English Cultural Barriers - e.g. North America - Demonstrated performance over time - delivering on commitments, coming through - actions. China, Latin America, Arab countries - build relationships to build trust - social interaction over time A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

27 Common Organizational Trust Based Practices
Effectiveness and Productivity Improvement and Change Culture and Moral Employee Retention/Turnover We use trust based methodologies without examining the environment e.g. process improvement – trust that the best ideas will surface 360 feedback trusts the integrity of the peers etc. Coaching/Mentoring trusts the intentions of the coach/mentor A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

28 Communication Advocacy
A western academic & business tradition that stresses testing one viewpoint against the other to find the strongest. We focus almost exclusively on advocacy Most managers are trained to be advocates critiquing - adversarial thinking - confrontation - presenting our views and arguing strongly for them - debating forcefully to influence others Advocacy tends to keep things in place A western educational & business tradition that stresses testing one viewpoint against the other to find the strongest- - critical thinking - critiquing - adversarial thinking - confrontation We focus almost exclusively on advocacy - presenting our views and arguing strongly for them - debating forcefully to influence others Most managers are trained to be advocates This kind of thinking is often counter-productive and inadequate when it comes to coping with learning fast enough to keep pace with our world. Dee Hock, for example, the founder of Visa International, points out that most of our institutions are no longer able to do what they were set up to do. We have schools that don’t educate; health care systems that don’t keep people healthy. (add your own example!) Further, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center are a wake up call to the ultimate outcome of Darwinistic thinking. So we’re facing problems and situations where the traditional ways of thinking aren’t working so well. Some might even say that Darwin was wrong! A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

29 Communication Inquiry
A complementary skill to advocacy that seeks to uncover information about why a particular view is held Asks questions about underlying assumptions, beliefs, reasoning Explores why do you believe this ? Supported by attitude of wanting to understand, explore, learn, expand Not a technique to cross examine people or find fault A learning environment can emerge when we practice balancing advocacy with inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry is a kind of inquiry that challenges most of our habits of thought, not only at work, but also at home. Inquiry tends to move things forward A complementary skill to advocacy that seeks to uncover information about why a particular view is held asks questions about underlying assumptions, beliefs, reasoning explores why do you believe this ? - what logic leads to this conclusion ? - what facts and data do you have ? - what examples or past experience exists ? Supported by attitude of wanting to understand, explore, learn, expand Not a technique to cross examine people or find fault A learning organization can emerge when we practice balancing advocacy with inquiry. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

30 Appreciative Inquiry Problem Solving Appreciative Inquiry
Draws on research and studies that show how we get more of what we focus on and looks for the best of what might be. Problem Solving Appreciative Inquiry Assumes situations are problems to be overcome Problem, symptoms, causes, solutions, action plan, intervention Breaks things into pieces guaranteeing fragmented responses. Slow, linear change. What to fix. Assumes situations are sources of infinite capacity and imagination Good, better, possibilities Expanded vision of preferred future. Creates new energy fast. What to grow Appreciative Inquiry is an focused on the preferred future. “What’s working? How can we get more of it?” - solution focus. Problem solving approach gives rise to a whole language and supporting infrastructure based on deficit thinking – find problems, fix them, close the gaps. “Problem focus” implies that there is a predetermined ideal. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

31 Communication Listening
Group of obstetricians with similar competence and skills Drs. perceived as poor listeners who spent less time or were more abrupt in their interactions had more malpractice suits that those who were perceived as attentive, who took time and who listened. JAMA research A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

32 Communication Deep Listening
FOCUS ON YOU Level III:Intuitive Listening at the Essence level Level II: Focused Listening at the Feeling level Will I perceive you as trustworthy if I don’t feel you are listening? Deep Listening focuses the attention on the speaker. The listeners role is to help the speaker make themselves understood. A&R Brown Business Group Inc. Level I:Internal Listening at the Word level. FOCUS ON ME

33 Results Project Management
Keep it simple Traditional good project practices – small time frames, lots of wins Full participation in the planning Clear roles, responsibilities Full understanding of what participation and commitment to plan means A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

34 Big Snakes, Little Ladders
Trust builds incrementally Distrust has a catastrophic effect 5 times the effort to rebuild A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

35 Why Is It So Hard to Rebuild Trust?
Why is it hard for people to do? Typically involves admissions of guilt, apology, compensation and/or punishment - each of which may have significant costs. Why is it hard to accept from someone? Involves repeating a decision that was proven to be wrong the first time. Breaches of trust must be followed by swift clear action – no delays Regulating behaviours that led to low trust may not be enough May require significantly different processes/personal change Complexity of institutions makes them hard to show caring A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

36 Importance of Trust within Organizations
“Although an organization obviously cannot succeed without high levels of trust between members, most aggressive companies do little to actively build trust. The typical corporation spends huge sums of money training its managers in interpersonal skills, but pays lip service to the critical issue of trust.” Marsha Sinetar, Organizational Dynamics, 2001 A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

37 Why Not? demands on overstretched managers and executives, skill set that takes us into intimidating territory, requires significant time and energy, and demands risk easier to spend two days learning new project management software, or two weeks adopting a new strategic thinking model than to undertake the complex exploration of building trust and connection with other human beings. A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

38 Maintaining an Environment of Trust Challenges
As society and institutions become more complex the attribution of blame and responsibility for failures becomes diffuse. (I see you, I blame you so I don’t trust you) Complex organizations make it hard to deliver consistent service and conduct Need for “quick trust” - being in a hurry to complete the process - pace/workloads Trust in government is a scarce resource society must be stable enough to enable the ongoing interactions which enable reputations to be built up and open enough to enable intentions and competence to be judged free enough to avoid risky relationships and constrained enough to consider that relationship and attractive option i.e. where there is discretion is a subjective perception of likely future behaviours fragile - maintained through an absence of contrary evidence - hard to get easy to lose low trust relationships contain self fulfilling elements which become locked in (assumptions and dominant images) setting unsustainable standards for behaviour may undermine efficiency/competence and future trust beneficial when associated with sets of values that are worthwhile and conditional and limited trusting relationships sometimes lack the clarity and consistency required for effective administration trust is a matter of reputation - environment must be stable A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

39 High Trust Organizations
Experience ½ the average turnover of industry peers Higher productivity and profitability More qualified candidates for open positions Higher levels of customer satisfaction and loyalty More adaptive organizational structures Constructive strategic alliances Responsive virtual teams Effective crisis management Reduced transaction and litigation costs A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

40 The People Result Investment in becoming Architects of Trust, develops an organization full of employees that trust management willing to speak up and challenge the process to improve the way things are, bring commitment, innovation and energy to their work That's competitive advantage A&R Brown Business Group Inc.

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