Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

What Good are Positive Emotions? Barbara L. Fredrickson, Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill www.PositiveEmotions.org.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "What Good are Positive Emotions? Barbara L. Fredrickson, Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill www.PositiveEmotions.org."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Good are Positive Emotions? Barbara L. Fredrickson, Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

2 Specific Action Tendencies Fear escape Fear escape Anger attack Anger attack Disgust expel Disgust expel Guilt make amends Guilt make amends Shame disappear Shame disappear Sadness withdraw Sadness withdraw

3 Specific Action Tendencies Contentment... inaction Contentment... inaction Joy free activation Joy free activation Affection approach Affection approach Relief cessation of vigilance Relief cessation of vigilance

4 Specific Action Tendencies Thought–Action

5 Breadth of Momentary Thought-Action Repertoire Negative Emotions Narrow Positive Emotions Broaden

6 Positive Emotions Broaden Thought-Action Repertoires Joy play Joy play Interest explore Interest explore Contentment..... savor & integrate Contentment..... savor & integrate Love all of the above Love all of the above

7 Positive Emotions Build Durable Personal Resources Physical resources Physical resources Social resources Social resources Intellectual resources Intellectual resources Psychological resources Psychological resources

8 The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions Fredrickson (1998). Review of General Psychology, 2, Fredrickson (2001). American Psychologist, 56, Fredrickson (2003). American Scientist, 91,

9 The Broaden Hypothesis Positive emotions broaden people’s attention and thinking. Positive emotions broaden people’s attention and thinking.

10 Empirical Strategy Between-Ps Manipulation: Between-Ps Manipulation: –Contentment –Joy –Neutral –Anger –Fear Dependent Measure: Dependent Measure: –Global-Local Visual Processing

11 Global-Local Visual Processing

12 Global Preference Fredrickson & Branigan (2005). Cognition and Emotion, 19,

13 The Undo Hypothesis If negative emotions narrow and positive emotions broaden … then positive emotions should be efficient antidotes for the lingering aftereffects of negative emotions. If negative emotions narrow and positive emotions broaden … then positive emotions should be efficient antidotes for the lingering aftereffects of negative emotions.

14 Empirical Strategy Context: Speech Anxiety Context: Speech Anxiety Between-Ps Manipulation: Between-Ps Manipulation: –Contentment –Joy –Neutral –Sadness Dependent Measure: Dependent Measure: –Duration of Cardiovascular Reactivity

15 Responses to Speech Preparation Heart Rate** Heart Rate** Finger Pulse Amplitude** Finger Pulse Amplitude** Pulse Transit to Finger** Pulse Transit to Finger** Pulse Transit to Ear** Pulse Transit to Ear** Diastolic Blood Pressure** Diastolic Blood Pressure** Systolic Blood Pressure** Systolic Blood Pressure** ** p <.001

16 Duration of Cardiovascular Reactivity Fredrickson et al., (2000). Motivation and Emotion, 24,

17 The Resilience Hypothesis Positive emotions are an active ingredient within trait resilience. Positive emotions are an active ingredient within trait resilience. Fredrickson et al., (2003). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, Tugade & Fredrickson (2004) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86,

18 Empirical Strategy Assessed early in 2001: Assessed early in 2001: –Trait Resilience –Psychological Resources Assessed after September 11 th : Assessed after September 11 th : –Depression –Psychological Resources –Negative and Positive Emotions

19 Resilience Predicts Depression after 9/11... Psychological Resilience Depressive Symptoms  = -.24*   p <.05. Fredrickson et al., (2003). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84,

20 ... through Positive Emotions Psychological Resilience Positive Emotions Depressive Symptoms  =.02       p <.001;   p <.01. Fredrickson et al., (2003). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84,

21 Resilience Predicts Growth after 9/11... Psychological Resilience Increases in Psychological Resources  =.27*   p <.05. Fredrickson et al., (2003). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84,

22 ... through Positive Emotions Psychological Resilience Positive Emotions Increases in Psychological Resources  = 0.01       p <.001;   p <.01. Fredrickson et al., (2003). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84,

23 The Build Hypothesis Over time, positive emotions build consequential personal resources and increase well-being. Over time, positive emotions build consequential personal resources and increase well-being.

24 Empirical Strategy Context: Diary Study, 28 days Context: Diary Study, 28 days Daily Measures: Daily Measures: –Positive and Negative Emotions Pre- and Post-Measures: Pre- and Post-Measures: –Trait Resilience –Subjective Well-being

25 Positive Emotions uniquely linked to growth  p <.001. Fredrickson et al., (2006). In preparation. Increases in Resilience Increases in SWB Daily Positive Emotions r =.31*** r =.34*** Daily Negative Emotions r = -.16 r = -.14

26 Positive Emotions Increase SWB by Building Resources Daily Positive Emotions Changes in Resilience Changes in SWB  =.20       p <.001;   p <.01. Fredrickson et al., (2006). In preparation.

27 The Flourish Hypothesis Positive affect is an active ingredient within human flourishing. Positive affect is an active ingredient within human flourishing.

28 How much positive affect is needed to flourish?

29 Empirical Strategy (Losada, 1999) Observed 60 business teams Observed 60 business teams –High Performance (n = 15) –Medium Performance (n = 26) –Low Performance (n = 19) Coded all speech acts Coded all speech acts –Positive-Negative –Inquiry-Advocacy –Self-Other Created a nonlinear dynamics model of observed interactions Created a nonlinear dynamics model of observed interactions

30 Dynamics of Losada’s Business Teams Inquiry / Advocacy Emotional Space Fredrickson & Losada (2005). American Psychologist, 60,

31 Empirical Strategy Context: Diary Study, 28 days Context: Diary Study, 28 days Between-Ps Classification: Between-Ps Classification: –Flourishing –Languishing Dependent Measure: Dependent Measure: –Ratio of Positive to Negative Emotions

32 The Losada Line Pos : Neg = 2.9 : 1 Fredrickson & Losada (2005). American Psychologist, 60,

33 What happens at higher levels of positive affect?

34 Pos : Neg = 100 : 1 Emotional Space Inquiry / Advocacy Fredrickson & Losada (2005). American Psychologist, 60,

35 How much positive affect is needed to flourish? Pos : Neg > 2.9 : 1 Pos : Neg < 11.6 : 1

36 Positive Affect Transforms People

37 What Good Are Positive Emotions? Broaden attention and thinking Broaden attention and thinking Undo lingering negative emotions Undo lingering negative emotions Fuel psychological resilience Fuel psychological resilience Build consequential personal resources Build consequential personal resources Seed human flourishing Seed human flourishing


Download ppt "What Good are Positive Emotions? Barbara L. Fredrickson, Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill www.PositiveEmotions.org."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google