Presentation on theme: "The MBA guide to Emotional Intelligence and Social Networking"— Presentation transcript:
1The MBA guide to Emotional Intelligence and Social Networking Edited byBud Labitan, MD, MBA and Tim Milan, MBA
2Our GoalProvide a summary of Emotional Intelligence and Social Networking ideas that promote an increased level of win-win networking interaction among Purdue University Calumet School of Management MBA and MBAE Faculty, Students and Alumni.
3E I ?...WHAT IS IT? EI is a different way of measuring intelligence. EI is knowing your feelings and recognizing their influence in the decision making process.EI is being able to identify and manage your moods to control your impulses.EI is staying motivated, hopeful and optimistic when you experience setbacks.EI is recognizing what people around you are feeling and reacting to it positively.(empathy)
4The 6 Key Skills of Emotional Intelligence Self AwarenessEmpathyManaging EmotionsCommunicationCooperationConflict ResolutionSocial Skills refer to getting along with people, managing emotions and relationships, effective communication, persuasion, and leadership.
5MANAGING EMOTIONS Understand how hope can be an asset. Understand what happens when emotions get the upper hand.Know how to pause and judge a moment for appropriateness.Find ways to deal with anger, fear, anxiety and sadness.Learn how to channel emotions to a positive end.
6COMMUNICATION: Good communication skills foster quality relationships. Being able to authentically express personal concerns without anger or passivity is a key asset.Enthusiasm, optimism, pessimism and negativity are all contagious.What feelings are being communicated to others? How? ( body language, tone of voice, inflection )
7COOPERATION: Know how and when to take the lead and when to follow. Learn how to value others’ contributions and encourage participation.Recognize the consequences of decisions and actions.Follow through on commitments.Take responsibility for your own actions.REMEMBER: Effective leadership is the art of helping people work toward common goals-NOT DOMINATION
8RESOLVING CONFLICT: Understand the mechanisms at work. People in conflict are usually locked into a self perpetuating emotional spiral.Usually the declared subject of conflict is NOT the key issue.Need to learn how to use the skills previously discussed to resolve conflict.
10Your E.I. “value-enhanced skills” may help in future Bargaining or Negotiations Zone of AgreementSeller’s Surplus Buyer’s SurplusS X B $Seller’s RP Buyer’s RPFinal Contract Price
11Shaping AttitudesBeliefs, feelings and judgments about situations, ideas and objects are formed over time.Based on direct experience, therefore learned.Genetic physiological makeup may create a predisposition to acquire certain attitudes. These are more resistant to change.
12The Self Talk Cycle SELF-TALK - Positive - Negative BEHAVIOUR SELF-REGARDANTICIPATION OF THE FUTURE Optimistic Pessimistic
13Influences on Attitudes Shared PerceptionsSocial comparison leads to reevaluation of our beliefs, and it increases media influence.Consistent InformationInconsistent information makes us uncomfortable.Must be consistent across different modalities and time.Tend to be much influenced by first impressions
14Social Cognition Persuasive Communication Central Route: We focus on the message.Reasoned, rational arguments are more effective.Peripheral Route: We are distracted by noise, other thoughts, etc.Personality and credibility of messenger, appeal to emotions are more effective.
15Cognitive DissonanceState of tension when two or more cognitions are psychologically inconsistent.Competing cognitions.Internal conflict between values, attitudes and beliefs (Festinger, 1957). Subjective and it makes us uncomfortable.Can lead to attitude or behavior change.Act to relieve the discomfort of the dissonant cognitions.
16Social Interaction Affiliation Reading Nonverbal Behaviour. Self Presentation (Impression Management)Influence of OthersHelping or Hurting OthersLiking and Loving Others
17One-To-One Interactions Influence/Compliance Principles (Cialdini, 1975):Foot-in-the-door techniques—once they agree to a small request . . .Door-in-the-face technique—start big and back off (reciprocity principle).Four walls technique—once they say “yes” a couple of times (telemarketing).Low ball techniques—once they’re committed (car sales, bait and switch).
18Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Influence ReciprocationConsistencySocial ProofLikingAuthorityScarcity
19One-To-One Interactions Compliance Principles Comparison of FID and DIF techniques (Harrari et al., 1980)—all significantly different:FID—33.3% complianceDIF—78.0% complianceControl—56.8% compliance.Among college faculty, starting larger and reducing request (DIF) works best.Faculty respond least well to the moderate request when it’s preceded by a smaller one. Better to just ask for the larger.
20One-To-One Interactions Obedience and Conformity Social conformityMilgram’s famous experiments (early 1960s)“Just following orders.”Ethical issues.Applications to real world situationsHofling, et al. (1966)Rank & Jacobson (1977)
21Many-To-One Interactions Existing within Social Forces We act differently with others than we would alone.Kurt Lewin (1st social psychologist)Behaviour is the function of the person interacting with the environment.Developed Social Field Theory based on physics.We exist in a field of active forces.Internal forces—desires, goals, abilities.External forces—pressure from others, responsibility, obligations.
22Many-To-One Interactions Existing within Social Forces Bibb LataneSocial Impact Theory—We can measure the effect of forces that act on an individual (pulse, blushing, beliefs, values, attitudes, cognitions).The impact is multiplicative and depends on:Strength of the force—importance to individual.Immediacy of the force—how close, either physically or psychologically.Number of forces, including those at a distance.
23Many to One Social Impact Theory More forces, more total impact but each individual force has less influence.Distance diminishes influence of source.
24Social Impact TheoryBlah, blah, blah.More targets, less influence on each one: diffusion of social impact.
25Many-To-One Effect on Performance Effect of an audienceSocial facilitation—improved performance of simple tasks or when highly skilled.Social inhibition—impaired performance of complex tasks or when unskilled.Presence of others is arousingYerkes-Dodson: optimal level of arousal for each individual. Performance peaks at optimum level of arousal.
26Many-To-One Effect on Behaviour Social LoafingMay work less hard in a group (Latane’s shouting study).Tend not to pull our weight in a group if individual performance cannot be identified.
27Many-To-One Effect on Behaviour Bystander ApathyBystander Effect: Reluctance to come to the aid of someone in trouble when there are others around. Like social loafing.Affected byDiffusion of responsibilitySocial inhibitionAmbiguityPluralistic ignorance
28Many-To-Many How We Behave in Crowds People in crowds do things they would not do when alone.Social restraint--conforming to social norms.DeindividuationLose self-awareness, individualityZimbardo’s prison studyMob mentality
29Social Psychology One-To-Many: Leadership Social psychology tries to study leadership objectively:Studies of the personal characteristics of people perceived as strong leaders.Some commonalities. Good leaders are perceived as:More intelligent.More outgoing.More dominant.
30Today’s Environment Pressure to grow Downsizing corporate cultures have gone from vertical to horizontalInternal and external competitionIncreased work hoursIncrease in technological complexityCollaborative partnerships are replacing the old command-and-control hierarchyHigher level of stressLack of balance in life
31Why Leaders FailRigidity: They are unable to adapt to change.They are unable to take in or respond to feedback about the traits they need to change.Poor Relationships: They alienate those they work with by being too harshly critical, manipulative, insensitive, overly demanding or untrustworthyStudy by Centre for Creative Leadership
32What is Emotional Intelligence? Factors that are related to success in lifeHelps us understand why some people do well in life while others failDistinct from IQ (Cognitive Intelligence)
33What Emotional Intelligence Is Not Cognitive Intelligence (IQ)AptitudeAchievementVocational InterestPersonalityStatic - Results can change over time
35Problem SolvingAbility to identify & define problems, and to generate & implement solutions:Defining problemConfident & motivated to tackle itMultiple solutionsDecision to implementConscientious, disciplined, methodical, systematic & persistent in solving problems
36Social Responsibility Acting responsibly, having a social conscience & concern for othersCo-operative, contributing & constructive member of one’s social or work groupAbility to do things for others
37Social Networking Summary Historically, academics have explained individual success based primarily on human capital (e.g., education, knowledge and skills, etc.)—”what you know” While this remains important, people also realize the importance of “who you know”People and companies that think carefully about networking can realize key benefitsAccess to new information, knowledge and opportunitiesAccess to other forms of capital, most notably financial capitalThere are several principles that help people and organizations build “social capital”Creating a plan to build one’s network, or “pattern of connections”Avoiding unethical or improper use of networkingNetworking is not always beneficial, as there are some liabilities with establishing social relationshipsCliques
38Generally speaking, networking builds social capital Generally speaking, networking builds social capital. Social capital is the value of a social network of contacts. The value of a network depends primarily onits structurethe quality of relationships between its membersthe resources to which its members have accessthe resources which flow through the network (information,etc.)Actors, including individuals and groups / organizations, can increase the value of their social networks by being careful about the content, pattern, and quality of their networks.
39Filial, Social, Religious There are many types of social networks at both the organization and personal level, ranging from family relationships to hobby groupsFilial, Social, ReligiousEducationWork-RelatedGeography-RelatedPoliticalInterest RelatedPersonal / family contactsChurch contactsOther social contacts (e.g., friends)ClassmatesTeachers / professorsMentors / protégésBosses / subordinatesClients, suppliers, other business contactsRelationships with other workersNeighborsTown membersE.g., local govmnt, community involvement relationshipsPolitical party / support group contactsE.g., Lexington town council membersPersonal relationships with people who share your interestsE.g., golf club buddiesPersonal LevelRelationships between families, social groups, churchesRelationships between schools, universities, research groupsRelationships between firms / organizationsCustomersSuppliersAlliance partnersFinanciersAlumniAuditorsIndustry groupsRelationships between neighborhoods, towns, cities, etc.Relationships between political bodiesRelationships between interest groupsGroup Level
40Influence and Control Information Trust and Solidarity However, the 4 main theories of social capital generally agree on 3 categories of benefits of developing and using social capitalBenefitsExampleInfluence and ControlAbility to influence the actions of other people or organizationsIn some instances, ability to control the actions of other people or organizationsAllows the holder of capital to get other people or organization to do what he or she wants them to doA corporation is able to influence a supplier’s decision not to merge with another supplierInformationCan provide holder of social capital with information that is difficult or impossible to find elsewhere (assymetric information)Often this kind of information can improve decision making, or provide unique opportunitiesAn individual is able to find out about unique job opportunities through a friendTrust and SolidarityTrust is beneficial to enhancing increased group interaction and can facilitate certain types of information and knowledge flow within an organizationA corporation is able to influence a supplier’s decision not to merge with another supplier
41The Virtuous Cycle of Social Capital Like many other forms of capital, and perhaps to a greater degree, social capital creates a self-reinforcing virtuous cycleInfluence and ControlIncreased information leads to increased influence and controlIncreased influence and control leads to increased informationIncreased trust and solidarity leads to increased influence and controlIncreased influence and control leads to increased trust and solidaritySocial CapitalInformationTrust and SolidarityIncreased information leads to increased trust and solidarityIncreased trust and solidarity leads to increased information
42Exclusivism / Cliqueism Investing in social capital also entails risk.Cost / InefficienciesAs with all forms of capital, investment in social capital may not always be cost efficient. An actor may secure higher returns by investing in other forms of capitalExclusivism / CliqueismThe development of particularly tight social networks can often lead to an “clique” effect, where actors outside of the network feel unfairly excludedExcessive ClaimsAn individual with strong social capital can receive too many requests for assistance, information, and access to his or her capital from others
43Developing Social Capital Principles for Building and Using Social Capital Become aware of the structure and pattern of your network and identify opportunities to broker valuable connectionsIdentify unique groups and contacts that you haveDevelop plans to expand your network in key areasPrinciple 2Develop strong relationships with key members of your network but realize the importance of weaker relationshipsIt is often best to develop very strong relationships with only a core group of individualsDevelop “lighter” relationships with a very broad network--as broad ass possiblePrinciple 3Treat your network with careStart networking earlyDevelop a core group of contacts and develop deep friendships with themKeep your network’s best interest at heartAccess your network frequentlyProvide network members with valuable information, servicePrinciple 4Constantly expand your network--doing so will increase its value to you and to others
44Developing Social Capital Identify Your Need for Networking Firms can also be evaluated against a social lifecycle where young, entrepreneurial firms require more extensive external networks than do mature, established firmsYoungMatureFirm Social MaturityType of Networks RequiredExternalInternalStage 1: Extensive External Network RequiredInvestorsCustomersSuppliersStrategic business partnersStage 2: Internal and External Networks RequiredViable revenue streamSolid financing and investor relationshipsNeed to evaluate opportunity for new investmentStage 3: Network Closure Required, Look for Growth OpportunitiesStill need to cement external relationshipsHowever, internal innovation and next generation service requires increased internal networkingThe cycle begins again as the firm looks for new growth opportunities
45PUCSOM: MBA Leadership Leaders define realityand provide hope.Ken Chenault,CEO American Express