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Anatomy & Physiology The Human Body

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy & Physiology The Human Body"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy & Physiology The Human Body

2 Body Organization What’s the smallest unit of life? Cell
Human Body: trillion cells

3 Body Organization (cont.)
Cells  tissues  organs  organ systems  organisms

4 Levels of Organization

5 Skeletal System Bones: 22 skull 27 hand 26 foot

6 Skeletal System (cont.)
# of bones: Adults 206 Babies 300

7 Skeletal System (cont.)
Two Divisions: Axial skeleton: Includes: skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs, hyoid bone Appendicular skeleton: Includes: pectoral and pelvic girdles, bones of the arms, forearms, wrists, hands, thighs, legs, and feet.

8 Axial Skeleton

9 Appendicular Skeleton

10 Bone Structure Bone cells are living!
Osteocytes Bone contains nerves, blood vessels & marrow

11 Bone Classification: Long Bones Ex. Arm and leg bones Short Bones
Wrist bones Flat Bones Make up the skull Irregular Bones Facial bones or vertebrae

12 Compact & Spongy Bone

13 Compact Bone: Dense & strong Provides strength & protection
Outermost part of the bone

14 Spongy Bone: Less dense & contains bone marrow
Found in short, flat, and long bones Surrounded by compact bone

15 -Red- makes blood cells
Bone Structure (cont.) Bone Marrow thick & jelly like - Yellow- stores fat -Red- makes blood cells

16 Ends of Bones are lined with dense tissue: cartilage
Bone Structure (cont.) Ends of Bones are lined with dense tissue: cartilage Cushions bones Provides support

17 Tendons: Tough fibers that connect muscle to bone
Bone Structure (cont.) Tendons: Tough fibers that connect muscle to bone

18 Ligaments: Tough fibers that connect bone to bone
Bone Structure (cont.) Ligaments: Tough fibers that connect bone to bone

19 Function of Bones 1. Support – provides framework for the body
2. Protection – for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs

20 Function of Bones (cont.)
3. Movement – lever for muscle 4. Attachment – tendons connect muscle to bone

21 Function of Bones (cont.)
5. Blood Cell Production occurs in bone marrow 6. Mineral Storage Calcium & Phosphorus

22

23 Bone Connections

24 Fixed Joint (Sutures) Connects plate-like bones of the skull

25 Hinge Joint Allows movement in two directions (Front & Back)
Ex. Elbow, Knee

26 Ball & Socket Joint Allows full range of motion Ex. shoulder

27 Cracking Knuckles Space between joints widen
Air bubble forms in the synovial fluid (joint lubricant) Bubble bursts and makes cracking sound

28 Skeletal Conditions Bursitis Scoliosis Osteoporosis Arthritis Sprain
Fracture

29 Bursitis Inflammation of the bursa (sac)

30 Scoliosis Curvature of the spine

31 Osteoporosis Inefficient bone replacement
5-10% of bone mass lost every 10 years past age of 40 Rate of bone eating cells exceeds bone building cells!

32 Arthritis Joint inflammation Lose strength & function Ex.
Rheumatoid arthritis

33 Sprain Over stretching of ligaments or tendons
Torn ligaments require surgery

34 Fracture Broken bone Multiple types: Simple Compound Stress

35

36 Types of Fractures: Simple fracture:
Bone breaks but does not come through the skin

37 Types of Fractures: Compound fracture: Bone protrudes through the skin

38 Types of Fractures: Stress fracture: A thin crack in the bone


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