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Anatomy & Physiology The Human Body. Body Organization What’s the smallest unit of life? What’s the smallest unit of life?  Cell Human Body: 100 trillion.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy & Physiology The Human Body. Body Organization What’s the smallest unit of life? What’s the smallest unit of life?  Cell Human Body: 100 trillion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy & Physiology The Human Body

2 Body Organization What’s the smallest unit of life? What’s the smallest unit of life?  Cell Human Body: 100 trillion cells

3 Cells  tissues  organs  organ systems  organisms Cells  tissues  organs  organ systems  organisms Body Organization (cont.)

4 Levels of Organization

5 Skeletal System Bones: 22 skull 22 skull 27 hand 27 hand 26 foot 26 foot

6 Skeletal System (cont.) # of bones: Adults 206 Adults 206 Babies 300 Babies 300

7 Two Divisions : Two Divisions : –Axial skeleton:  Includes: skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs, hyoid bone –Appendicular skeleton:  Includes: pectoral and pelvic girdles, bones of the arms, forearms, wrists, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. Skeletal System (cont.)

8 AxialSkeleton

9 AppendicularSkeleton

10 Bone Structure Bone cells are living! Bone cells are living! – Osteocytes Bone contains nerves, blood vessels & Bone contains nerves, blood vessels & marrow marrow

11 Bone Classification: Long Bones Long Bones –Ex. Arm and leg bones Short Bones Short Bones –Wrist bones Flat Bones Flat Bones –Make up the skull Irregular Bones Irregular Bones –Facial bones or vertebrae

12 Compact & Spongy Bone

13 Dense & strong Dense & strong Provides strength & protection Provides strength & protection Outermost part of the bone Outermost part of the bone Compact Bone:

14 Less dense & contains bone marrow Less dense & contains bone marrow Found in short, flat, and long bones Found in short, flat, and long bones Surrounded by compact bone Surrounded by compact bone Spongy Bone:

15 Bone Marrow Bone Marrow -thick & jelly like - Yellow- stores fat -Red- makes blood cells Bone Structure (cont.)

16 Ends of Bones are lined with dense tissue: cartilage Ends of Bones are lined with dense tissue: cartilage Cushions bones Cushions bones Provides support Provides support Bone Structure (cont.)

17 Tendons: Tough fibers that connect muscle to bone Tendons: Tough fibers that connect muscle to bone Bone Structure (cont.)

18 Ligaments: Tough fibers that connect bone to bone Ligaments: Tough fibers that connect bone to bone Bone Structure (cont.)

19 Function of Bones 1. Support – provides framework for the body 2. Protection – for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs

20 3. Movement – lever for muscle 4. Attachment – tendons connect muscle to bone Function of Bones (cont.)

21 5. Blood Cell Production occurs in bone marrow 6. Mineral Storage Calcium & Phosphorus Function of Bones (cont.)

22

23 Bone Connections

24 Fixed Joint (Sutures) Connects plate-like bones of the skull Connects plate-like bones of the skull

25 Hinge Joint Allows movement in two directions (Front & Back) Allows movement in two directions (Front & Back) Ex. Elbow, Knee Ex. Elbow, Knee

26 Ball & Socket Joint Allows full range of motion Allows full range of motion Ex. shoulder Ex. shoulder

27 Cracking Knuckles Space between joints widen Space between joints widen Air bubble forms in the synovial fluid (joint lubricant) Air bubble forms in the synovial fluid (joint lubricant) Bubble bursts and makes cracking sound Bubble bursts and makes cracking sound

28 Skeletal Conditions Bursitis Bursitis Scoliosis Scoliosis Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Arthritis Arthritis Sprain Sprain Fracture Fracture

29 Bursitis Inflammation of the bursa (sac) Inflammation of the bursa (sac)

30 Curvature of the spine Curvature of the spine Scoliosis

31 Osteoporosis Inefficient bone replacement Inefficient bone replacement 5-10% of bone mass lost every 10 years past age of % of bone mass lost every 10 years past age of 40 Rate of bone eating cells exceeds bone building cells!

32 Arthritis Joint inflammation Joint inflammation Lose strength & function Lose strength & functionEx. Rheumatoid arthritis

33 Sprain Over stretching of ligaments or tendons Over stretching of ligaments or tendons Torn ligaments require surgery Torn ligaments require surgery

34 Fracture Broken bone Broken bone Multiple types: Multiple types: –Simple –Compound –Stress

35

36 Simple fracture: Simple fracture: –Bone breaks but does not come through the skin Types of Fractures:

37 Compound fracture: Compound fracture: –Bone protrudes through the skin Types of Fractures:

38 Stress fracture: Stress fracture: –A thin crack in the bone Types of Fractures:


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