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DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 71 Unit 7 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems Nurse Aide I Course.

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Presentation on theme: "DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 71 Unit 7 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems Nurse Aide I Course."— Presentation transcript:

1 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 71 Unit 7 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems Nurse Aide I Course

2 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 72 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems This unit reviews the structure and function of the body and its systems. It presents common disorders of each system and lists the normal changes that occur with the aging process. It includes signs and symptoms which should be reported.

3 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 73 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems (continued) A basic knowledge of normal anatomy and physiology will help the nurse aide to understand the signs and symptoms of disease, the reasons for the care given, and the purposes of procedures that are carried out for the resident’s comfort, healing and recovery. In-depth information is not provided.

4 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 74 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems (continued) It is intended that upon completion of the unit, the student will have rudimentary knowledge of the body systems sufficient to enhance resident care.

5 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 75

6 6 7.0Discuss the makeup of the male and female body. 7.1Describe the relationship between cells, tissues, organs, and systems of the body.

7 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 77 Body Systems Cells Building blocks of body Microscopic in size Cells combine to form tissue

8 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 78 Cells organized into tissue to carry on particular activities (connect, support, absorb, secrete, protect, direct, coordinate, allow movement) Groups of tissues form organs Tissues Body Systems

9 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List the organs of the body.

10 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 710 Body Systems Organs Made up of several types of tissues Carry on special functions Some organs in pairs - kidneys and lungs Some organs single – heart, brain, liver, stomach, intestines, bladder Organs combine to form systems

11 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify the systems of the body.

12 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 712 Systems A system is a group of organs that work together. Body Systems Skeletal Muscular Circulatory Respiratory Digestive Urinary Endocrine Nervous Reproductive Integumentary Sensory

13 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 713 Systems combine to form the human body. Body Systems

14 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 714

15 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of the skeletal system.

16 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 716 The Skeletal System Comprises the bony framework of the body Has 206 bones

17 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 717 The Skeletal System (continued) FUNCTIONS: Support Protect Movement Mineral storage Blood cell production

18 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 718 The Skeletal System (continued) JOINTS - point where bones meet: Immovable – cranium Slightly movable - vertebral discs Freely movable - shoulder, knee, wrist

19 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 719 The Skeletal System (continued) COMPOSITION OF JOINTS: Ligament - connects bone to bone Tendon - connects muscle to bone

20 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 720 The Skeletal System (continued) COMPOSITION OF JOINTS: Bursa - fluid filled sac that allows bones to move easily over others Cartilage – connective tissue that cushions the joint at end of bones and between bones

21 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders of the skeletal system.

22 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 722 Common Disorders of Skeletal System Osteoporosis - porous bone that breaks easily

23 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 723 Common Disorders of Skeletal System (continued) Fracture - break in bone –simple - bone broken, skin intact –compound - bone broken, penetrates skin –comminuted - bone broken, fragments in tissue –greenstick - incomplete break

24 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 724 Common Disorders of Skeletal System (continued) Arthritis - inflammation of the joints –osteoarthritis due to stress on joints usually affects weight bearing joints: knees, hips, vertebrae and fingers aching, stiffness, limited motion

25 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 725 Common Disorders of Skeletal System (continued) –rheumatoid arthritis - systemic disease causes inflammation, deformity and crippling joints painful, stiff, swollen, red and warm Arthritis - inflammation of the joints

26 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 726 Common Disorders of Skeletal System (continued) Amputation – removal of all or part of limb Sprain - stretched or torn ligaments or tendons Bursitis - inflammation of bursa causing pain on movement

27 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes that take place in the skeletal system due to aging.

28 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 728 Skeletal System Changes Due To Aging Bones more porous or brittle Joints less flexible Postural changes Awkward walking patterns Slowed recovery from position changes and sudden movements

29 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations/situations relating to skeletal system.

30 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 730 Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System Slow and unsteady body movement Difficulty holding objects Complaint of pain in joints Swelling, redness and warmth in joints Inability to move joints

31 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 731 Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System (continued) Complaint of pain with movement Complaint of neck or head pain Resident who has fallen (stay with resident, call for help, do not move resident or allow resident to move)

32 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 732 Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System (continued) Resident with cast on arm or leg –complaint of pain in limb –swelling of fingers or toes –pale skin of fingers or toes –cyanosis and coolness of fingers or toes

33 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 733 Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System (continued) Resident with cast on arm or leg –odor or drainage from cast –inability to move toes or fingers –complaint of numbness of fingers or toes –drainage from cast

34 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 734

35 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of muscles.

36 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 736 The Muscular System Provides body with ability to move Over 650 different muscles that comprise nearly half the body weight

37 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 737 The Muscular System (continued) Functions of muscles –Allow movement –Help body stay erect – posture –Produce most of body’s heat –Give body form –Provide movement of internal organs

38 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders of the muscular system.

39 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 739 Common Disorders of Muscular System Paralysis - loss of voluntary movement due to neurological damage such as stroke or trauma Multiple sclerosis – weakness of muscles due to loss of covering on nerves that control them Atrophy – muscle mass decreases in size

40 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 740 Common Disorders of Muscular System (continued) Contracture - permanent shortening of muscle; joints become ankylosed (frozen) Muscle strain – damage caused by trauma Myalgia - muscle pain Torn muscle - tear caused by trauma

41 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes in the muscular system due to aging.

42 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 742 Changes in Muscular System Due to Aging Poorer response to stimuli Pain when moving, therefore muscles not used as often Less active Muscle strength and bulk loss Slower muscle - nerve interaction

43 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the muscular system.

44 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 744 Observations of Muscular System to Report Difficulty holding or lifting objects Inability to move a body part Difficulty walking Loss of muscle strength and tone

45 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 745 Observations of Muscular System to Report (continued) Edema of tissue or joint Complaint of muscle pain Generalized weakness and fatigue Slow, unsteady body movement

46 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 746

47 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of the circulatory system.

48 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 748 Circulatory System Circulation is continuous movement of blood throughout body

49 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 749 Circulatory System (continued) Functions of circulatory system –Arteries carry blood with oxygen and nutrients away from heart and to cells –Veins carry waste products away from cells and to heart

50 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 750 Blood Adult has 5 to 6 quarts (liters) Consists of –water - 90% (plasma) –blood cells –carbon dioxide and oxygen –nutrients, hormones and enzymes –waste products

51 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 751 Blood (continued) Types of blood cells –Red blood cells - erythrocytes carry oxygen from blood to cells –White blood cells - leukocytes fight infection –Platelets - thrombocytes required for clotting to stop bleeding

52 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 752 Blood Vessels Arteries - carry blood away from heart Veins – carry blood to heart

53 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss how the blood vessels relate to the pulse and blood pressure.

54 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 754 Heart Tissue (three layers) –endocardium - smooth, inner layer –myocardium – thick, muscular middle layer –pericardium – double- walled membrane that covers outside of heart

55 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 755 Heart Chambers Heart divided into right and left side Atria – upper chambers – receive blood Ventricles – lower chambers – pump blood to lungs and body

56 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 756 Heart Chambers Four chambers –right atrium (1) - receives blood from two large veins: superior vena cava inferior vena cava –right ventricle (2) - receives blood from right atrium and pumps it to lungs through pulmonary artery

57 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 757 Heart Chambers (continued) Four chambers –left atrium (3) - receives oxygenated blood from left and right pulmonary veins –left ventricle (4) - pumps blood to aorta, which delivers blood to all body parts (except lungs)

58 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 758 Heart Valves Located at entrance and exit of each ventricle Four heart valves

59 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 759 Heartbeat Systole - contraction of heart muscle Diastole - relaxation of heart muscle Blood pressure – highest and lowest pressure against walls of blood vessels as heart contracts and relaxes Pulse - expansion and contraction of artery

60 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders of the circulatory system.

61 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 761 Common Disorders of the Circulatory System Arteriosclerosis - walls of arteries become thick and harden Hypertension - high blood pressure Peripheral vascular disease - decrease in flow of blood to extremities and brain Angina pectoris - chest pain

62 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 762 Common Disorders of the Circulatory System (continued) Varicose veins - enlarged, twisted veins usually in legs Congestive heart failure - circulatory congestion caused by weak pumping of heart muscle Myocardial infarction (MI) - heart attack due to blockage in coronary arteries

63 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 763 Common Disorders of the Circulatory System (continued) Anemia – low red blood cell counts Thrombus – blood clot Phlebitis – inflammation of vein Atherosclerosis - fatty deposits on walls of arteries that reduce blood flow

64 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes that occur in the circulatory system with aging.

65 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 765 Changes of the Circulatory System Due To Aging Heart muscle less efficient Blood pumped with less force Arteries lose elasticity and become narrow Blood pressure increases Blood chemistry less efficient Capillaries become more fragile

66 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the circulatory system.

67 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 767 Observations of the Circulatory System Changes in pulse rate and blood pressure Changes in skin color Changes in skin temperature – coldness

68 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 768 Observations of the Circulatory System (continued) Complaint of dizziness and headaches Complaint of pain in chest and/or indigestion Edema in feet and legs Shortness of breath

69 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 769 Observations of the Circulatory System (continued) Sweating Blue color to lips and/or nail beds Complaint of tingling sensations Memory lapses Lack of energy Irregular respirations Anxiety Staring and lack of responsiveness

70 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 770

71 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify the function and structure of the respiratory system.

72 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 772 The Respiratory System Respiration means to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide necessary for life

73 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 773 The Respiratory System (continued) Process –External respiration - oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged between lungs and blood –Internal respiration - oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged between blood stream and cells

74 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 774 The Respiratory System Structure Oral cavity – mouth Pharynx – throat Larynx - voice box Trachea – windpipe Bronchi - right and left Bronchioles - smallest branches of bronchi Alveoli - air sacs covered with capillaries

75 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 775 The Respiratory System Structure (continued) Nose - lined with mucous membrane –air filtered by cilia –mucous membrane warms and moistens air

76 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 776 The Respiratory System Structure (continued) Lungs –right - 3 lobes –left - 2 lobes

77 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 777 The Respiratory System Structure (continued) Pleura – membrane that encloses lungs Diaphragm - muscle that separates the chest and abdomen –contraction - draws air into lungs –relaxation - forces air out of lungs

78 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Review common disorders of the respiratory system.

79 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 779 Common Disorders of Respiratory System URI – Upper Respiratory Infection - infection of nose, throat, larynx, trachea Pneumonia - inflammation or infection of the lungs

80 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 780 Common Disorders of Respiratory System (continued) Emphysema (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – COPD) – alveoli become stretched and stiff preventing adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide Asthma – spasms of bronchial tube walls causing narrowing of air passages usually due to allergies

81 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 781 Common Disorders of Respiratory System (continued) Allergy – reaction to substances that leads to slight or severe response by body. Influenza – highly contagious URI Pleurisy – inflammation of the pleura surrounding the lungs

82 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 782 Common Disorders of Respiratory System (continued) Bronchitis - inflammation of the bronchi Lung cancer - malignant tumors in the lungs that destroy tissue

83 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes in the respiratory system due to aging.

84 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 784 Changes in Respiratory System Due To Aging Lung tissue becomes less elastic Respiratory muscles weaken Number of alveoli decrease Respirations increase Voice pitched higher and weaker due to changes in larynx Chest wall and structures become more rigid

85 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the respiratory system.

86 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 786 Observations Of Respiratory System Rate and rhythm of respirations Respiratory secretions – character Character of cough Changes in skin color - pale or bluish gray Temperature changes Difficulty breathing

87 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 787 Observations Of Respiratory System (continued) Color of sputum Complaint of pain in chest, back, sides Shortness of breath Noisy respirations Sneezing Gasping for breath Anxiety

88 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 788

89 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions and structures of the digestive system.

90 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 790 Digestive System Also called the gastrointestinal system Extends from mouth to anus Functions –Digestion –Absorption

91 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 791 Digestive System Structures Mouth Stomach – holds food until digestive juices chemically break it down into liquid chyme

92 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 792 Digestive System Structures Intestines –small intestine about 20 ft. long food digestion completed and nutrients absorbed into bloodstream

93 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 793 Digestive System Structures (continued) Intestines –large intestine 6 ft. long absorbs water, mineral salts and vitamins secretes mucus to aid in movement of feces has ability to add or remove water from feces

94 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of the skeletal system.

95 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 795 Digestive System Accessory Organs –Liver – produces bile for breakdown of fats –Gallbladder – stores bile produced by liver –Pancreas - manufactures insulin and digestive enzymes

96 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders of the digestive system.

97 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 797 Common Disorders Of The Digestive System Ulcer - a lesion or erosion of the lining of the stomach or small intestine Hepatitis – inflammation of the liver Cirrhosis – chronic disease of liver where scar tissue replaces liver tissue Cholelithiasis - stones in the gallbladder

98 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 798 Common Disorders Of The Digestive System (continued) Pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas Cholecystitis – inflammation of the gallbladder Colitis – inflammatory disease of the colon

99 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 799 Common Disorders Of The Digestive System (continued) Hemorrhoids - enlarged veins in anal area Constipation - difficulty in expelling fecal material; incomplete or infrequent bowel movements Diarrhea – watery bowel movements

100 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7100 Common Disorders Of The Digestive System (continued) Gastritis – inflammation of the stomach lining Enteritis – inflammation of the intestines Gastroenteritis - inflammation of the stomach lining and intestines

101 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7101 Common Disorders Of The Digestive System (continued) Cancer - may occur anywhere along digestive tract Hernia – protrusion of organ through wall of cavity where it is normally contained

102 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7102 Common Disorders Of The Digestive System (continued) Diverticulosis - chronic disease in which many diverticula (small blind pouches) form in the lining and wall of the colon Diverticulitis – inflammation of diverticula

103 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes in the digestive system due to aging.

104 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7104 Changes In Digestive System Due To Aging Decreased number of taste buds Slowing of peristalsis causing constipation Slower absorption of nutrients Difficulty chewing and swallowing

105 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7105 Changes In Digestive System Due To Aging (continued) Loss of bowel muscle tone Decrease in amount of digestive enzymes and saliva production Decreased appetite Loss of teeth Altered taste and smell

106 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the digestive system.

107 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7107 Observations Of The Digestive System Stool color and consistency Abdomen – flat or distended Date and time of last bowel movement Nausea and vomiting

108 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7108 Observations Of The Digestive System Blood in emesis or stool Complaint of pain in stomach Difficulty swallowing Poor appetite Constipation and diarrhea

109 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7109

110 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions and structure of the urinary system.

111 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7111 Urinary System Also known as excretory system

112 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7112 Urinary System (continued) Functions –Filter waste products from blood –Produce urine –Aid in maintenance of water balance –Regulate acid-base balance of body –Store urine until passed from body

113 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7113 Urinary System Structure Kidneys: –purplish brown, bean- shaped organs –located at back of abdominal cavity –weight 4-6 ounces each –filter waste products from blood

114 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7114 Urinary System Structure (continued) Ureters - tubes that carry urine from kidneys to bladder Urinary bladder - muscular sac that expands to hold urine received from the kidney Urethra - tube extending from bladder to outside of body

115 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Describe the characteristics of normal urine.

116 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7116 Urinary System Characteristics of normal urine –Pale yellow to amber –Clear –Acidic –Quantity ml. per day –pH 5.0 – 7.0

117 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders of the urinary system.

118 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7118 Common Disorders of Urinary System Nephritis - inflammation of kidney due to infection Cystitis - inflammation of urinary bladder due to infection Calculi – kidney or bladder stones

119 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7119 Common Disorders of Urinary System (continued) Uremia - accumulation of urea in blood due to kidney disease Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra

120 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7120 Common Disorders of Urinary System (continued) Kidney failure – decreased ability of kidney to filter waste products from the blood Urinary incontinence - inability to control urination

121 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7121 Common Disorders of Urinary System (continued) UTI - Urinary Tract Infection Retention - inability to completely empty the bladder Hematuria - blood in the urine

122 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes of the urinary system due to aging.

123 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7123 Changes In Urinary System Due to Aging Decreased kidney size Decreased elasticity of ureters, bladder and urethra Decreased muscle tone Diminished blood flow to kidneys

124 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7124 Changes In Urinary System Due to Aging (continued) Decreased ability of kidneys to concentrate urine Difficulty emptying urinary bladder Enlarged prostate in males which presses on urethra

125 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the urinary system.

126 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7126 Observations of Urinary System Elevated temperature Sugar and/or acetone in urine Urine color other than clear, pale yellow

127 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7127 Observations of Urinary System (continued) Complaint of burning on urination Incontinence Polyuria - excessive amounts of urine per voiding

128 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7128 Observations of Urinary System (continued) Hematuria - blood in urine Nocturia – excessive urination at night Urine having strong odor or cloudy appearance Voiding small amounts of urine frequently

129 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7129

130 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of the endocrine system.

131 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7131 Endocrine System (Glands) Endocrine glands secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the blood stream

132 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7132 Endocrine System (Glands) Functions of endocrine system –secretes hormones that regulate growth and development –secretes hormones that regulate metabolism and reproduction –secretes hormones that regulate the immune response

133 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss the most common disorder of the endocrine system.

134 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7134 Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus – the most common disorder of the endocrine system –80% of diabetics over 40 years of age –incidence increases as people age –5% of people over age 65 require treatment

135 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7135 Diabetes Mellitus (continued) Diabetes mellitus – the most common disorder of the endocrine system –USA has highest morbidity and mortality rates –disorder of carbohydrate metabolism with decreased insulin production from pancreas

136 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7136 Diabetes Mellitus (continued) Uncontrolled diabetes leads to damage to eyes, kidneys, circulation Diabetes characterized by consistent, elevated blood glucose levels requiring oral medication to stimulate pancreas or insulin injections

137 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7137 Diabetes Mellitus Hypoglycemia –low blood sugar Hyperglycemia –high blood sugar

138 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss the changes in the endocrine system due to aging.

139 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7139 Changes In The Endocrine System Due To Aging Decrease in thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and sex hormone secretions Decreased glucose tolerance (Diabetes) Multiple physical changes due to decrease of sex hormones

140 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to endocrine system.

141 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7141 Observation Of The Endocrine System Irritability & restlessness Nervousness Confusion Weight loss Diaphoresis Edema Excessive thirst Sweet, fruity odor to breath

142 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7142 Observation Of The Endocrine System (continued) Complaint of headache Drowsiness Rapid, weak pulse Low blood pressure Nausea or vomiting Flushed, dry, hot skin Excessive urination

143 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7143

144 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of the two major parts of the nervous system Explain how damage to the nervous system differs from damage to other body systems.

145 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7145 Nervous System Controls and organizes all body activities Divided into two parts –Peripheral nervous system –Central nervous system brain spinal cord

146 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7146 Nervous System (continued) Basic unit of structure - neuron or nerve cell –Most complex cell in body –Does not reproduce; if destroyed, it is not replaced

147 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7147 Nervous System (continued) Nervous system enables you to –Speak –Hear –Taste –See –Smell –Think –Respond/move –Learn –Remember

148 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7148 Structure of Nervous System Central nervous system –brain cerebrum –largest portion of brain –responsible for judgment, memory, association and discrimination –divided into left and right hemispheres

149 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7149 Structure of Nervous System (continued) Central nervous system (continued) –brain cerebellum - responsible for coordination of muscles, balance and posture, and muscle tone thalamus - monitors sensory stimuli

150 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7150 Structure of Nervous System (continued) Central nervous system (continued) –brain hypothalamus - controls the autonomic nervous system, the cardiovascular system, body temperature, appetite, water balance, the GI system, sleep, emotional state

151 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7151 Structure of Nervous System (continued) Central nervous system (continued) –brain pons - responsible for reflex actions like chewing, and production of saliva medulla oblongata - regulates heartbeat, respirations, swallowing, coughing, blood pressure

152 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7152 Structure of Nervous System (continued) Central nervous system (continued) –spinal cord 18 inches long extends from brain to small of back carries messages to and from brain relays messages to body through spinal nerves handles reflexes

153 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7153 Structure of Nervous System (continued) Peripheral nervous system – nerves leaving the spinal cord and going throughout the body –digestion –secretion of glands –heart beat and breathing

154 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders or conditions of the nervous system.

155 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7155 Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous System CVA – Stroke or cerebrovascular accident - damage to part of brain due to blood clot or hemorrhage cutting off blood supply Head or spinal cord injuries

156 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7156 Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous System (continued) Dementia from nutritional deficiencies, exposure to toxic substances, reduced blood flow to brain or unknown causes Alzheimer’s disease - common cause of organic disease

157 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7157 Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous System (continued) Parkinson’s disease – progressive nervous disease associated with destruction of brain cells Multiple sclerosis - loss of covering around nerve fibers interfering with nerve impulses to and from brain

158 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes in the nervous system due to aging.

159 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7159 Changes In The Nervous System Due To Aging Loss of nerve/brain cells Increase in reaction time Changes in memory Receptors become less sensitive, so require increased stimuli for response

160 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7160 Changes In The Nervous System Due To Aging (continued) Reduced sense of touch and sensitivity to pain Reduced blood flow to brain Forgetfulness

161 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the nervous system.

162 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7162 Observations Of The Nervous System Jerking motions Speech changes Complaint of numbness Complaint of dizziness Complaint of nausea

163 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7163 Observations Of The Nervous System (continued) Confusion Complaint of loss of feeling on one side Incontinence Deranged thought processes Tremors

164 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7164 Observations Of The Nervous System (continued) Muscular rigidity Complaint of visual disturbances or changes Paralysis Seizures

165 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7165

166 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of the sensory organs.

167 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7167 Sensory Organs Part of nervous system Sensory neurons make one aware of changes in the environment Changes known as stimuli

168 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7168 Sensory Organs (continued) Functions of the sensory system –Vision –Hearing –Smell –Taste –Touch

169 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7169 Sensory Organs Specialized functions –Eye sense of sight receives images and sends to brain –Ear sense of hearing transmits sounds to brain

170 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7170 Sensory Organs (continued) Nose - (sense of smell) – allows recognition of odors and improves taste of food Taste buds on tongue - (sense of taste) – allows recognition of sweet, sour, bitter, salty

171 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7171 Sensory Organs (continued) Skin - (sense of touch) – allows recognition of objects, pressure, heat, cold, pain, and pleasure

172 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders of the sensory organs.

173 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7173 Common Disorders Of The Sensory Organs Cataract - lens of eye loses its transparency Glaucoma - increased pressure in the eye due to an excess of aqueous humor Conjunctivitis - inflammation of the eyelid lining

174 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7174 Common Disorders Of The Sensory Organs (continued) Sty - tiny abscess at the base of an eyelash Otitis media - infection of the middle ear Deafness - partial or complete hearing loss

175 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes in the sensory organs due to aging.

176 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7176 Changes In Sensory Organs Due to Aging Lens in eye becomes thick and cloudy Sclera becomes more yellow Less light reaches inner eye Hearing structures of ear become less moveable Soft wax production decreases

177 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7177 Changes In Sensory Organs Due to Aging (continued) Progressive hearing loss of high- pitched sounds occurs Peripheral vision and night vision decreases Eye adjusts more slowly to changes in distance Sense of smell decreases

178 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7178 Changes In Sensory Organs Due to Aging (continued) Sense of taste (sweet and salty first) decreases Accommodation to light and dark decreases Sense of touch, heat, cold, pain and pressure awareness decreases

179 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the sensory system.

180 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7180 Observations Of The Sensory Organs Sclera (white of eye) suddenly reddened or yellow Lens of eye becomes cloudy Complaint of pain in or around ear or eye Red, swollen eye lid Drainage from eyes Complaint of difficulty seeing objects

181 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7181 Observations Of The Sensory Organs (continued) Comment that rainbows apparent around lights Drainage from ear canal Complaint of feeling of fluid or noise in ear Complaint of sudden flashes of light or loss of sight

182 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7182

183 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of the integumentary system.

184 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7184 The Integumentary System (Skin) Skin is body’s largest organ

185 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7185 The Integumentary System (Skin) (continued) Functions –Protects body from injury and pathogens –Regulates body temperature –Eliminates waste through perspiration –Contains nerve endings for cold, heat, pain, pressure and pleasure –Stores fat and vitamins

186 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7186 The Integumentary System (Skin) (continued) Hair and nails are appendages of skin

187 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders of the skin.

188 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7188 Common Disorders Of The Integumentary System Athletes foot - caused by a fungus, involves toes and soles of feet Boils – caused by bacteria entering hair follicles or sebaceous glands Eczema - red, itchy areas on the surface of skin Skin cancer

189 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7189 Common Disorders Of The Integumentary System (continued) Dermatitis - inflammation of skin Tears – due to fragile skin Warts – viral infection of skin Burns – first, second, or third degree, depending on amount of skin tissue destroyed Bruising – due to fragile skin and/or effects of medications

190 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7190 Common Disorders Of The Integumentary System (continued) Pressure sores - caused by poor circulation resulting from pressure that destroys skin and creates ulcer Shingles - skin eruption due to viral infection Gangrene - necrosis of tissue cells due to blockage of blood supply to an area, or blockage from disease or direct injury

191 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes in the integumentary system due to aging.

192 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7192 Changes In The Integumentary System Due To Aging Compromised circulation Less active glands Drying, thinning and scaling of skin Thickening of nails Loss of fat and elasticity of skin Loss of hair color and thinning of hair

193 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7193 Changes In The Integumentary System Due To Aging (continued) Development of skin tags, moles and warts Folds, lines and wrinkles in skin Nails harden, become more brittle

194 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the integumentary system.

195 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7195 Observations Of The Integumentary System To Report Breaks Rash Complaint of itching Black and blue areas Redness Ulcers, sores or drainage

196 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7196

197 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify functions of the reproductive system.

198 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7198 Reproductive System Organs have dual functions –Produce reproductive cells –Produce hormones responsible for sex characteristics females - estrogen and progesterone males - testosterone

199 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss common disorders of the reproductive system.

200 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7200 Common Disorders of the Reproductive System Rectocele and cystocele – hernias –rectocele - weakening of wall between vagina and rectum constipation results hemorrhoids form –cystocele - weakening of wall between urethra and vagina causes urinary incontinence

201 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7201 Common Disorders of the Reproductive System (continued) Tumors - benign and malignant tumors of uterus, ovaries and breasts –pap smear –self breast exams –biopsy

202 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7202 Common Disorders of the Reproductive System (continued) Sexually transmitted diseases –gonorrhea –syphilis –herpes –AIDS Prostatic hypertrophy - enlargement of prostate gland Vaginitis

203 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss changes in the reproductive system due to aging.

204 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7204 Changes In Reproductive System Due To Aging Decreased size of testes Decreased production of sperm Delayed or less forceful ejaculation Slower sexual response Enlargement of prostate Decreased sexual desire

205 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7205 Changes In Reproductive System Due To Aging (continued) Sagging breasts Stopping of ovulation Decreased vaginal secretions Thinning of tissue of vaginal lining Decreased sex hormone production Loss of hair in vulva area

206 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to the reproductive system.

207 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7207 Observations of Reproductive System Bleeding Complaint of pain Vaginal discharge Complaint of itching Lumps

208 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7208

209 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Define and discuss cancer.

210 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7210 Cancer Definition – abnormal growth of cells that can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of body Cancer cells can originate in any body tissue

211 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7211 Two Main Types Of Cancer Carcinoma –skin –lining of hollow organs and passageways Sarcoma –bone –muscle –lymph system –cartilage

212 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List two types of tumors and explain how they are different.

213 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7213 Tumor – Growth Of Abnormal Cells Benign tumor –grows slowly –localized area Malignant tumor –grows slow or fast depending on type of cancer –invades other tissues and/or travels to other parts of body –causes death if not treated and controlled

214 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7214 Cancer – Most Common Sites Breast Prostate Uterus Skin Lungs Colon Rectum

215 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List the seven warning signs of cancer.

216 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7216 CAUTION=Seven Early Warning Signs Of Cancer Change in bowel or bladder habits. A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing Obvious changes in a wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness

217 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Describe the three most common types of treatment for cancer.

218 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7218 Standard Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation therapy Chemotherapy –oral –intramuscular –intravenous

219 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss the guidelines for care of residents with cancer.

220 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7220 Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer Fatigue - provide time for rest and recognize limitations Loss of appetite –smaller meals –nutritious snacks –report requests for medications promptly

221 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7221 Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer (continued) Skin – keep clean and dry –eliminate irritation or pressure –report rashes, irritation, broken areas

222 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7222 Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer (continued) Mouth - keep very clean –provide frequent mouth care –encourage liquids

223 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7223 Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer (continued) Alopecia (loss of hair) –emotional support needed –help resident to select head covering wig scarf turban hat

224 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7224 Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer (continued) Supportive actions –be positive but realistic –help to feel as attractive as possible –don’t offer false hope –listen to concerns –be understanding of fears and frustrations

225 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit List observations relating to cancer.

226 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7226 Cancer – Observations To Report Fever Changes in weight Bleeding Changes in vital signs Complaint of pain Behavioral changes Constipation Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Sores in mouth

227 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 7227


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