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Energy Balance and Body Composition Studying = 1 or 2 kcalories/minute.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Balance and Body Composition Studying = 1 or 2 kcalories/minute."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Energy Balance and Body Composition Studying = 1 or 2 kcalories/minute

3 Energy Balance

4 Food Composition Bomb calorimeter- too much?Bomb calorimeter- too much?

5 Food Composition Direct calorimetry (heat release) vs. indirect calorimetry (O 2 consumed)Direct calorimetry (heat release) vs. indirect calorimetry (O 2 consumed) Physiological fuel value-what the body gets out of food. Value is lower than that measured by “the bomb.”Physiological fuel value-what the body gets out of food. Value is lower than that measured by “the bomb.”

6 Food Intake

7 Sustaining satiation and satietySustaining satiation and satiety –lower-fat foods can be eaten in larger portions for the same number of kcalories Food Intake

8 HypothalamusHypothalamus –Neuropeptide Y-chemical compound that stimulateds appetite, increases fat storage*, decreases energy expenditure. *Leptin: signals body to stop eating, stop storing fat and increase energy expenditure.

9 Thermogenesis Basal thermogenesis (heat)-a measure of body’s energy expenditure!Basal thermogenesis (heat)-a measure of body’s energy expenditure! Exercise-induced thermogenesisExercise-induced thermogenesis Diet-induced thermogenesisDiet-induced thermogenesis Adaptive thermogenesisAdaptive thermogenesis

10 Components of Energy Expenditure

11 Basal metabolism-metabolic expendature during basic life processes.Basal metabolism-metabolic expendature during basic life processes. Basal metabolic rate (BMR)-metabolic rate at rest following sleep (no food).Basal metabolic rate (BMR)-metabolic rate at rest following sleep (no food). (males = 1 kcal/min, women = 0.8 kcal/min) Resting metabolic rate (RMR)Resting metabolic rate (RMR)

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13 Components of Energy Expenditure

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16 Running~14.1 kcal/min @ 7.5 mph

17 Sex burns >300 kcal/hr….if your doing it right!

18 REMOVING HER CLOTHES: With her consent........................ 12 Calories Without it..................................187 Calories OPENING HER BRA: With both hands........................ 8 Calories With one hand.......................... 12 Calories With your teeth........................ 85 Calories PUTTING ON A CONDOM: With an erection.............................. 6 Calories Without an erection.................... 315 Calories POSITIONS: Missionary................................... 12 Calories Wheelbarrow............................ 216 Calories Doggy Style............................... 326 Calories Italian chandelier..................... 912 Calories REMOVING HER CLOTHES: With her consent........................ 12 Calories Without it..................................187 Calories OPENING HER BRA: With both hands........................ 8 Calories With one hand.......................... 12 Calories With your teeth........................ 85 Calories PUTTING ON A CONDOM: With an erection.............................. 6 Calories Without an erection.................... 315 Calories POSITIONS: Missionary................................... 12 Calories Wheelbarrow............................ 216 Calories Doggy Style............................... 326 Calories Italian chandelier..................... 912 Calories

19 ORGASMING: Real................................... 112 Calories False.................................. 315 Calories POST ORGASM: Lying in bed hugging................... 18 Calories Getting up immediately................. 36 ORGASMING: Real................................... 112 Calories False.................................. 315 Calories POST ORGASM: Lying in bed hugging................... 18 Calories Getting up immediately................. 36 Calories explaining why you got out of bed immediately................ 816 Calories GETTING A SECOND ERECTION: 20-29 years old......................36 Calories 30-39 years............................ 80 Calories 40-49 years............................ 124 Calories 50-59 years............................ 972 Calories 60-69 years............................ 2916 Calories 70 and over............................ Still awaiting results! DRESSING UP AFTERWARDS: Calmly................................. 32 Calories In a hurry............................. 98 Calories With her father knocking at the door... 1218 Calories With your wife knocking at the door.... 3521 Calories! Calories explaining why you got out of bed immediately................ 816 Calories GETTING A SECOND ERECTION: 20-29 years old......................36 Calories 30-39 years............................ 80 Calories 40-49 years............................ 124 Calories 50-59 years............................ 972 Calories 60-69 years............................ 2916 Calories 70 and over............................ Still awaiting results! DRESSING UP AFTERWARDS: Calmly................................. 32 Calories In a hurry............................. 98 Calories With her father knocking at the door... 1218 Calories With your wife knocking at the door.... 3521 Calories!

20 Components of Energy Expenditure Thermic effect of food (TEF)-heat created by food digestion.Thermic effect of food (TEF)-heat created by food digestion. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT)- heat gained from eating warm (hot) food.Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT)- heat gained from eating warm (hot) food.

21 Estimating Energy Requirements GenderGender GrowthGrowth AgeAge

22 Estimating Energy Requirements Physical activityPhysical activity Body compositionBody composition Body sizeBody size

23 Body Weight, Body Composition, and Health Body composition: What is your’s?Body composition: What is your’s? Body weight =fat + lean tissueBody weight =fat + lean tissue (including water) (including water)

24 Defining Healthy Body Weight The criterion of fashion: BMI of Miss AmericaThe criterion of fashion: BMI of Miss America

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27 Defining Healthy Body Weight The criterion of healthThe criterion of health Body mass index (BMI)Body mass index (BMI) =weight (kg)/height (m) 2

28 BMI Values Used to Assess Weight

29 Mike O’Hearn (Mr. Universe, 1997) Height: 6’3’’ Weight: 245 BMI = 31 Too fat?? Clearly not!

30 Michelle Gutierrez (Ms. September, 2005) Height: 5’3’’ Weight: 112 lbs. (on a bad day) BMI = 19 Too much...?? Again...likely not!

31 Distribution of Body Weights in U.S. Adults

32 Body Fat and Its Distribution

33 Some people need less body fat.Some people need less body fat. Some people need more body fatSome people need more body fat

34 Body Fat and Its Distribution Fat distributionFat distribution –Intra-abdominal fat (fat around organs) –Central obesity (upper-body fat)

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36 Body Fat and Its Distribution Waist circumferenceWaist circumference ”If it’s anything over 35 inches, ”If it’s anything over 35 inches, it’s too much! it’s too much!

37 Methods Used to Assess Body Fat

38 Health Risks Associated With Body Weight and Body Fat Health risks of underweightHealth risks of underweight Health risks of overweightHealth risks of overweight

39 BMI and Mortality

40 Health Risks Associated With Body Weight and Body Fat Cardiovascular diseaseCardiovascular disease DiabetesDiabetes

41 CancerCancer Fat and fit versus sedentary and slimFat and fit versus sedentary and slim Jennifer Portnick, aerobics instructor

42 The Latest and Greatest Weight-Loss Diet - Again The claims and truths of diet fadsThe claims and truths of diet fads

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45 ATKIN’S High-protein, low carbohydrate dietsHigh-protein, low carbohydrate diets –The diet’s appeal

46 The Latest and Greatest Weight-Loss Diet - Again High-protein, low carbohydrate dietsHigh-protein, low carbohydrate diets –Don’t count kcalories –Satisfy (ies) hunger –Follow a plan (no decision) –Limit choices (boring!)

47 The Latest and Greatest Weight-Loss Diet - Again High-protein, low carbohydrate dietsHigh-protein, low carbohydrate diets –Too much fat –Too much protein –Too little everything else –The body’s perspective

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