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Standard 7 – Blood and blood products Philippa Kirkpatrick April 2013.

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1 Standard 7 – Blood and blood products Philippa Kirkpatrick April 2013

2 There are inherent risks associated with transfusion practice Transfusion has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality Transfusion is ingrained in the culture of medical practice Reports suggest a significant proportion of transfusions are inappropriate There are high wastage rates at some health service organisations There is significant room for improvement in practice to improve quality and safety Why a blood standard?

3 The Blood Standard covers:  Use of blood and blood products – the prescribing practice and clinical use of blood and blood products, and whether or not those products are prescribed and used appropriately  Management of blood and blood products - handling, transport, storage (including inventory management) of blood and blood products  Administration of blood and blood products - the process used to deliver the product to the patient. Scope - activities

4 Scope BloodBiologicalMedicine Fresh blood products eg Red cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitate Serum eye drops Plasma derived products eg IVIg RhD immunoglobulin Clotting factors Monoclonal antibodies Vaccines Other recombinant products Plasma derived products eg Tisseel Artiss C1-INH Fibrinogen Recombinant clotting factors Classes of products funded under National Blood Arrangements Classes of products not funded under National Blood Arrangements Haematopoietic progenitor cells Currently covered by Standard 7 Not currently covered by Standard 7

5 Decision-making regarding the clinical use of blood components Patient identification and labelling of pre-transfusion specimens Bedside verification that the correct blood is given to the intended recipient *Source: Haemovigilance Report 2010 Three main areas of concern

6 Criterion One Governance and systems

7 Transfusion quality improvement system (Action 7.4.1) Improve documentation of consent (7.11.1) Reduce systems risks (7.2.2) Improve quality and use of policies (7.1.3) Reduce adverse event risks (7.3.1) Improve documentation of transfusion (7.5.3) Reduce administration risks (7.6.2) Reduce management risks (7.7.2) Reduce wastage (7.8.2) Improve provision of information to patients (7.10.1)

8 You should have policies, procedures and protocols that reflect best practice, and national evidence based guidelines where they are available. Your policies, procedures and protocols should cover the spectrum of: –Use of blood and blood products –Management of blood and blood products –Administration of blood and blood products Policies, procedures and protocols (Action 7.1.1)

9 Quality improvement cycle Transfusion Quality Improvement System PlanDoCheckAct Identify what you will do - develop or identify policies, procedures or protocols Implement the policies Monitor their use AND monitor their quality Take action to improve uptake and improve their quality

10 Oversight of the program –Review reports –Identify recurring issues –Root cause analysis of incidents –Develop or agree action plan –Evaluate effectiveness of actions Transfusion governance group (Action 7.4.1) Consider alignment and linkages with Standard One What about small organisations?

11 Criterion Two Documenting patient information

12 A best possible history of blood product usage and relevant clinical and product information is documented in the patient clinical record This action builds on Action by identifying the information relevant to transfusion of blood and blood products that should be documented The patient clinical record (Action 7.5.1)

13 Patient documentation case study What actions are required to demonstrate compliance with the Standard?

14 Transfusion governance group has reviewed findings and developed and implemented an action plan, for example: –Reviewed policy –Implemented training of all staff –Identified staff associated with non-compliance and communicated directly with them –Made changes to the IT system to facilitate inclusion of all information (prompts) –Increased frequency of audit on the hospital audit plan –Initiated more regular spot checks of fate of product against patient records Outcome: the action plan is matched with the level of compliance. This would be likely be assessed as meeting the requirement, but the health service organisation should also demonstrate improvement in next cycle. Case Study Hospital One

15 Audit report does not have a management response or action plan They posted on the intranet a reminder to document transfusion in the patient clinical record They have not undertaken any other follow up and the next audit is scheduled for one year away Outcome: the action plan is not matched with the level of compliance. The health service organisation needs to demonstrate additional work prior to accreditation. Case Study Hospital One

16 They posted on the intranet a reminder to document transfusion in the patient clinical record They have not undertaken any other follow up and the next audit is scheduled for one year away Outcome: the action plan is matched with the level of compliance. This would be likely to be assessed as meeting the requirement. Case Study Hospital Two

17 Recognise and respond to adverse events Document adverse events in the patient clinical record Take action to reduce the risk of adverse events as part of your transfusion quality improvement system Managing adverse events

18 Complexities of incident monitoring and reporting Patient record External report Local report Exec review State report National report – Document in patient clinical record Report in local incident system and review by Transfusion Governance Group Review by highest governance level of incident summary and analysis – Participate in state haemovigilance reporting In some cases will be extracted from local system or, may require reporting to the state system – Participate in national haemovigilance reporting In some cases will be extracted from state system or, may require reporting to the national system Report to pathology service provider, Blood Service or product manufacturer whenever appropriate

19 Criterion Three Managing blood and blood product safety

20 Blood must be stored and handled appropriately to prevent risk to patients. Systems should be implemented to reduce risks associated with receipt, storage, collection, and transport (Action and 7.7.2) Wastage of blood should be minimised (Action and 7.8.2) Management of blood and blood products

21 Many health service organisations receive blood from an outsourced pathology It remains the health service organisation’s responsibility to demonstrate compliance with the Standard Responsibility where services are outsourced A health service organisation uses blood provided by a contracted pathology provider Your health service organisation should have a contract with the pathology provider that includes requirements and provision of reports to enable hospital to check they meet the standards Your health service organisation should review reports provided and implements strategies with contracted pathology provider to rectify problems

22 Criterion Four Communicating with patients and carers

23 Develop or identify resources to inform patients and their carers about the alternatives, risk and benefits of transfusion (Action 7.9.1) Provide this information to patients and their carers in a format that is understood and meaningful (7.10.1) Allow patients and carers to partner in decisions on their care based on the communication on the alternatives, risks and benefits of transfusion (Action 7.9.2) Communication (Actions 7.9.1, and )

24 Have a documented consent policy which is specific to, or includes transfusion of blood and blood products Ensure written and documented consent meets local policy Ensure the consent is actually informed – link with 7.9 and 7.10 Assess compliance with the consent policy is assessed, and take actions to increase compliance Consent (Action )

25 Resources

26 Clinical practice guidelines National Blood Authority  Patient Blood Management Guidelines Module 1: Critical Bleeding Massive Transfusion Module 2: Perioperative Module 3: Medical Module 4: Critical Care Module 5: Obstetric Module 6: Paediatric/Neonates  Guidelines on the Prophylactic Use of Rh D Immunoglobulin (anti-D) in Obstetrics  Criteria for the Clinical Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (second edition) NHMRC guidelines portal  Factor VIII and FIX Guidelines  Warfarin Reversal Consensus Guidelines Australian and New Zealand Society of Blood Transfusion (ANZSBT) guidelines and publications Available resources

27 Product information and product management  10 Tips to Help Manage you Blood Product Inventory  Managing blood and blood product inventory – Guidelines for Australian Health Providers  Australian Red Cross Blood Service Blood Component Information Circular  The Australian Red Cross Blood Service blood components and products web site  BloodSafe eLearning Australia module on Transporting Blood https://www.bloodsafelearning.org.au/https://www.bloodsafelearning.org.au/  ANZSBT Guidelines for the Administration of Blood Products  ANZSBT Guidelines for Pre-Transfusion Laboratory Practice  National Pathology Accreditation Advisory Council (NPAAC) Requirements for Transfusion Laboratory Practice  Australian Standard for Medical Refrigeration Equipment – For the Storage of Blood and Blood Products (AS3864)  NBA BloodNet  NBA BloodPortal https://portal.blood.gov.au/https://portal.blood.gov.au/  Flippin’ Blood Available resources

28 Adverse event recognition and reporting  See Jurisdictional programs  NBA Haemovigilance Reports  National Haemovigilance Data Dictionary  Flippin’ Blood  ANZSBT Guidelines for the Administration of Blood Products(http://www.anzsbt.org.au/publications/)http://www.anzsbt.org.au/publications/ Patient information and consent  See Jurisdictional programs  The Australian Red Cross Blood Service – Information for Patients Jurisdictional Programs  New South Wales – Blood Watch  Queensland iBlood Management Program  South Australia – BloodSafe  Victoria – Blood Matters  Western Australia Patient Blood Management Program Available resources

29 Thank you


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