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The European Union. Facts Supranational organization = transcends national borders 27 members Single currency = Euro.

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Presentation on theme: "The European Union. Facts Supranational organization = transcends national borders 27 members Single currency = Euro."— Presentation transcript:

1 The European Union

2 Facts Supranational organization = transcends national borders 27 members Single currency = Euro

3 The European Union: 493 million people – 27 countries Member states of the European Union Candidate countries

4 23 official languages

5 History 1952 The European Steel and Coal Community 1958 The treaties of Rome: The European Economic Community The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) 1987 The European Single Act: the Single Market 1993 Treaty of European Union – Maastricht 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam 2003 Treaty of Nice 2007 Treaty of Lisbon (signed)

6 Three pillars The European Union The Treaties European Community common policies Common foreign and security policy Police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters

7 The big enlargement: healing the division of Europe Fall of Berlin Wall – end of Communism EU economic help begins: Phare programme Criteria set for a country to join the EU: democracy and rule of law functioning market economy ability to implement EU laws Formal negotiations on enlargement begin Copenhagen summit agrees enlargement 10 new EU members: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia Bulgaria and Romania join the EU Candidates Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey © Reuders

8 Eight enlargements

9 The euro – a single currency for Europeans EU countries using the euro EU countries not using the euro Can be used everywhere in the euro area Coins: one side with national symbols, one side common Notes: no national side

10 Beating inflation European Economic and Monetary Union: stable prices Average annual inflation in the 15 EU-countries that used the euro in 2008

11 EUs Democratic Deficit Democratic deficit = lack of its accountability to the average citizen in member states – most decision making in EU is done by nonelected officials EU challenges the sovereignty of member states because decisions are made by the EU instead of solely by national governments

12 Issues currently facing EU Trade disputes with nonmember countries Discrepancy in economic power between member states Pressure form nonmember states to join EU Challenges to EUs authority by nationalist sentiment within member states – Euroskeptics

13 Arguments for EU Enlargement Larger EU will have more weight in trade negotiations with rest of the world Cheaper labor in new EU states will attract businesses from other countries Promote political stability in new member states Larger EU provides new and diverse markets for all EU members

14 EU population in the world Population in millions, EUChinaJapanRussiaUnited States

15 Surface area, km² EUChina Japan RussiaUnited States

16 How rich is the EU compared to the rest of the world? EU ChinaJapanRussiaUnited States EU ChinaJapan Russia United States Size of economy: Gross Domestic Product in billion of euros, 2006 Wealth per person: Gross Domestic Product per person in Purchasing Power Standard, 2007

17 How many people live in the EU? Population in millions, million France Spain Sweden Poland Finland Italy United Kingdom Romania Greece Bulgaria Hungary Portugal Austria Czech Republic Ireland Lithuania Latvia Slovakia Estonia Denmark Netherlands Belgium Slovenia Cyprus Luxemburg Malta Germany

18 GDP per inhabitant: the spread of wealth GDP per inhabitants in Purchasing Power Standards, 2007 Index where the average of the 27 EU-countries is Luxembourg Ireland Netherlands Austria Denmark Belgium Sweden United Kingdom Finland Germany France Italy Spain EU-27CyprusGreece Slovenia Czech Republic Malta Portugal Estonia HungarySlovakia Lithuania Latvia Poland RomaniaBulgaria

19 How is the EUs money spent? Total EU budget 2008: billion euro = 1.03% of Gross National Income Citizens, freedom, security and justice 1% Other, administration 6% Sustainable growth: new jobs, cohesion, research 45% The EU as a global player: including development aid 6% Natural resources: agriculture, environment 43%

20 European Parliament The EU institutions Court of Justice Court of Auditors Economic and Social Committee Committee of the Regions Council of Ministers (Council of the EU) European Commission European Investment BankEuropean Central Bank Agencies European Council (summit)

21 How EU laws are made Citizens, interests groups, experts: discuss, consult Commission: makes formal proposal Parliament and Council of Ministers: decide jointly Commission and Court of Justice: monitor implementation National or local authorities: implement

22 United Kingdom The European Parliament – voice of the people Italy Ireland 24 Hungary Greece 99 Germany France Finland 6 Estonia 14 Denmark 24Czech Republic 6Cyprus 18 Bulgaria 24Belgium 18 Austria Decides EU laws and budget together with Council of Ministers Democratic supervision of all the EUs work Total Sweden 54Spain 7Slovenia 14Slovakia 35 Romania 24 Portugal 54Poland 27 Netherlands 5Malta 6 Luxembourg 13 Lithuania 9Latvia Number of members elected in each country

23 The European political parties Number of seats in the European Parliament per political group European United Left - Nordic Green Left 41 Socialist Group 215 Greens/European Free Alliance 43 Independence/ Democracy 24 Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe 101 European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats 288 Union for Europe of the Nations 44 Non-attached members and temporarily empty seats 29 Total : 785

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