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1 st International Workshop Socio-economic Development in the Era of Renewable Energies 3-4 th of September 2012, Tunisia Prof. Dr. Fatma Ashour Head of.

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Presentation on theme: "1 st International Workshop Socio-economic Development in the Era of Renewable Energies 3-4 th of September 2012, Tunisia Prof. Dr. Fatma Ashour Head of."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 st International Workshop Socio-economic Development in the Era of Renewable Energies 3-4 th of September 2012, Tunisia Prof. Dr. Fatma Ashour Head of the Chemical Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering Cairo University

2 Energy Problems and Implications Global Energy Solutions Outlines Recommendations Local Solutions and Trends

3 Energy Problems and Implications The world depends mainly on fossil fuels This leads to Social and Environmental Issues Depletion of Non-Renewable Sources Fuel Crisis and unemployment problems Worldwide increase in demand for liquid fuels Fluctuating Prices and Instability in Supply and Production of Petroleum Foreign exchange savings Air Pollution Global Warming

4 Environmental Problems of Energy: Air Pollution SO x and NO x emissons causing acid rains Smog

5 Environmental Problems of Energy: Global Warming

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7 Environmental and Social Problems of Energy: Fuel Crisis in Egypt Depleting sources of locally produced petroleum and natural gas Fuel subsidies affect negatively on economic growth.

8 Global and Local Energy Solutions and Trends

9 Global Energy Solutions Renewable Energies: Solar, Wind, Geothermal, PV Biofuels: Biodiesel, Biogas, Bioethanol, Algae and Biomass to liquid Related social issues such as community cohesion, employment, rural development, waste avoidance and health benefits can be of equal importance Global Energy Solutions

10 Global Energy Solutions: US Fats and Oil Production - 2006

11 Biodiesel 8-10% of available US rendered fats are currently used for biofuels: yielding 450 Million liters of biodiesel The International Energy Agency estimates biodiesel from animal fat is currently the cheapest option for producing biodiesel, at about $1.80 per gallon The high cost of biodiesel is the major obstacle to its commercialization. Biodiesel usually costs over US$0.5/l, compared to US$0.35/l for petroleum- based diesel (Prokop, 2002; Lott, 2002) Global Energy Solutions: Biodiesel

12 Global biodiesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005. Approximately 85% of biodiesel production came from the European Union In 2007, in the United States, average retail (at the pump) prices, including federal and state fuel taxes, of B2/B5 were lower than petroleum diesel by about 12 cents, and B20 blends were the same as petrodiesel Global Energy Solutions: Biodiesel

13 Global Energy Solutions : Biofuels Costs -2006

14 Ethanol from sugar cane can compete when the crude oil price is around USD 40-50 /bbl biodiesel From animal fats around USD 60-70 /bbl without any government support measures Other biofuels will only compete when oil is well above USD 70/bbl until the production costs can be significantly reduced as a result of returns on current and future R&D investment Global Energy Solutions: Biofuels

15 15 Global Energy Solutions: Biodiesel Emissions and Greenhouse Gases

16 Global Energy Solutions: Employment Requirements for Energy Projects

17 Production of biodiesel in 2011 supported 39,027 jobs and more than 2.1 billion dollars in household income In 2011, biodiesel created more than 3 billion dollars in GDP The extension of the biodiesel tax incentive and the Growth in biodiesel production will create jobs, and lead to an increase in income and GDP by 2012 and 2013 (The National Biodiesel Board, 2011 ) Global Energy Solutions: Socio-Economic Impacts of Biodiesel Production

18 Green Engineering: Environmental Design, Gasification, Internal Heat Integration (HIDIC) and Retrofit and Revamping of refineries Renewable Energy: Biodiesel from Waste vegetable oil, Bioethanol from waste, Biorefinery from algae Water Desalination Solar Energy Storage Green Buildings Examples of Local Solutions and Trends

19 It is to design, commercialize and use processes and products that are feasible and economical while minimizing: Risk to human health and environment Generation of pollution at source Examples of Local Solutions and Trends: Green Engineering

20 Examples of Local Solutions and Trends: Green Design for formaldehyde Production (20) 2.33 t/h of formalin (saturated water-solution of formaldehyde (50%) Routes: dehydrogenation and partial oxidation of methanol over: (1) Electrolytic silver catalyst or (2) Ferric molybdate catalyst Objective : improving process design

21 ParameterFeMo CatalystAg Catalyst Catalyst bed length 0.77 m1 m Tube internal diameter 0.021 m1.7 m Nº tubes 83261 Inlet temperature 220 ºC425 ºC Methanol feed flow rate 41.8 kmol/h56.3 kmol/h Methanol to air ratio 2.330.35 Feed ratio (explosive limits)Excess of Oxygen (<8% of methanol) Excess of Methanol (>36% of methanol) Steam requirementsExcess heat for steam generation Reaction heat insufficient to supply process steam requirements EquipmentBig sizeAdditional equipment for the separation of CH 2 O Examples of Local Solutions and Trends: Green Design for formaldehyde Production

22 Rigorous Process Model H2OH2O Thermodynamic - calculated based on NRTL Kinetics are based on experimental data Carcinogenic component Total emissions of 6.07 kg/h Similar distribution for Ag catalyst Better control: 70% reduction Water consumption MBEI indicates better environmental performance for FeMO catalyst option (58% less water use) Thermodynamic - calculated based on NRTL Kinetics are based on experimental data

23 Biofuels have Social and Economic benefits Economic Benefits Economic use of wasteland Useful by-products Carbon credit opportunities Additional distribution channel for agricultural products Local Solutions and Trends: Biofuels Strengths & Opportunities

24 Social Benefits Create employment opportunities Reduce dependence on fossil fuels Energy diversification Sustainable use of problematic waste products Less Toxic Local Solutions and Trends: Biofuels Strengths & Opportunities

25 Egypt generates 30 million tons of agricultural waste a year Environmentalists say that 42 percent of autumnal air pollution is due to the burning of these wastes. Local Solutions and Trends: Biomass to Liquid ( BTL)

26 Farmers who burn rice straw are squandering a commodity that could generate as much as 300 Egyptian pounds a ton (Nawwar, NRC) 4 million tons of rice straw every season, emitting 80,000 tons of carbon dioxide on burning Local Solutions and Trends: Biomass to Liquid ( BTL)

27 Local Solutions and Trends: Potential of Biodiesel in Egypt Annual consumption of vegetable oil in Egypt exceeds MT/year (1,248,000 MT in 2005(official statistics of the Ministry of Internal trade in Egypt) Millions of liters of oil used for frying foods are discarded each year into sewage systems causing blockages of sewer pipes when the oil solidifies Extra costs of treating effluent or waterways

28 Chemical process design are key for green engineering applications Green engineering is a gateway to a better environment Use of renewable energies provides numerous socio-economic benefits by creating job opportunities and will lead to a healthier environment Labor is required for operating and maintaining various renewable energy projects. Furthermore, bioenergy projects require additional labor to produce and deliver the biomass to the plant Agricultural and industrial wastes are local drivers for socio-economic benefits to the Egyptian society Recommendations

29 Thank You Prof. Dr. Fatma Ashour Head of the Chemical Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering Cairo University fhashour@eng.cu.edu.eg +20 122 732 70 22


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