Presentation on theme: "Best Practices in GIS Implementation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Best Practices in GIS Implementation Mark Robbins, ESRI1 hour 15 minutes to present topic
2 Agenda Overview of the GIS Planning & Implementation Process The “Why” PartPlanning & Implementation StepsThe “How” PartPlanning & Implementation ‘Best Practices’
3 What’s the Purpose of this Session? Encourage successful organization-wide GIS ImplementationHelp you understand how technology fits within the organizational objectivesBroaden the perspective of Implementation to be more than a specific project or technology implementationHelp you understand how important the “planning” is to the success of the GIS Implementation
4 Why is Implementation Planning Necessary? Now more than ever, short and long term planning are critical to successful on-going GIS ImplementationTechnology has evolved and is now more integrated and interdependent than ever beforeBusiness needs have evolved and demand better planning to meet those needsImplementation Planning is proactive problem solvingImplementation: “to carry out: ACCOMPLISH: esp. to give practical effect to and ensure of actual fulfillment by concrete measures.” - Webster
5 Overview of Implementation Planning Steps Identify GIS Business Objectives and current Business ProcessesDetermine the Technology and System Infrastructure Readiness to Meet the GIS Business Objectives Determine GIS Database Readiness to Meet the GIS Business ObjectivesDetermine Organization Readiness to Meet the GIS Business ObjectivesDevelop Enterprise GIS Implementation Plan to Meet the GIS Business Objectives6. Validate the Implementation Plan meets the GIS Business Objectives in R&D Lab
6 Step 1. Identify GIS Business Objectives and Business Processes A successful implementation depends on a clear understanding of the organization’s GIS business needs, which must be met by the GIS.If the business needs are not met the entire implementation is at risk.While a Business Analyst usually performs these tasks using systematic and proven methods, it is possible to conduct in-house analysis.
7 Define the GIS Business Need What are the organizations Critical Success Factors?ProfitabilityPublic Facilities StewardshipPublic SafetyWhat are the GIS Business Needs that support these Critical Success Factors?We need to integrate our CIS with our GIS in order to stay competitive and be more efficient.We need web access to the same GIS database as desktop usersWe need to provide remote field inspectors with up-to-date land informationWe need to integrate infrastructure planning with billing systemsWe need the planning department, water and sewer departments to share the same property and address information with transportation department.
8 Describe the current Business Process ExamplesCustomer numbers are printed out in tabular format to be compared with a plot of our customer locations.Remote field inspectors currently must make a request to GIS services that print a map of the most recent land data and give it to the field inspectors.Each department maintains their own property and address information
9 State the expected Business Objective ExamplesCustomer numbers will be updated daily in the GISRemote field inspectors will use handheld GIS to view up-to-date property information in the field and download it to the central GIS database when returning to the office.All departments will have access to the standard city address and property database
10 Understanding the business needs of the request Understand the workflow, challenges, and expected outcomes that help solve the problemThe technology is applied to the business problemThe technology or “how” you do that comes next
11 Expected Outcome for Step 1 DocumentGIS Business NeedsBusiness ObjectivesGIS Business ProceduresGIS Business Use Case Scenarios
12 Step 2. Determine the Technology and System Infrastructure Readiness to meet the Business Objectives The Technology Readiness Assessment should be driven from the Business Need perspective rather than from the technologies capability perspective.The readiness of the system infrastructure (hardware, software and network), are critical to the success of the implementation plan.This part of the plan addresses the size and number of data servers, application servers, end-user desktops, and the expected network traffic or capacity.May require purchasing considerations.
13 BreakdownDetermine Hardware requirements to support GIS applications and proceduresDefine Software requirements to support implementationDetermine Network and communication requirements to support implementationIdentify which Business Objectives the technology is intended to fulfillDetermine if any existing technologies should be replacedDetermine the type of technology needed based on the Use Case ScenariosTechnology Readiness Assessment
14 Determine Hardware requirements to support GIS applications and procedures Data Server configuration sizing and compatibilityWeb Server configuration sizing and compatibilityDesktop image configurationHead-room/growth forecastingThese are not limitations created by current hardware. It is information generated as a result of meeting the business needs.
15 Define Software requirements to support implementation Number of web viewersNumber of desktop viewers/editors/analystsUnderlying Software dependencies (RDBMS, Servlet Exec, Apache, VB, etc…)Number of licenses in each system environment for testing custom applications on new software releases and data releases
16 Determine Network and communication requirements to support implementation Bandwidth requirementsCommunication protocols based on system designLocation of web servers to data serversFile transfer vs. transaction based methodsAssess nature and amount of anticipated application traffic
17 Identify which Business Objectives the technology is intended to fulfill Use the outcomes from step 1 to determine which Business Objectives should be targeted for a specific technical solution.Match the appropriate technology solution to the individual user or business needThis task implies some level of prioritization based on the entire organization’s needs.
18 Determine if any existing technologies should be replaced Deficiencies to meet GIS Business NeedsHardware replacement issuesSystem maintenance problemsGrowth limitations
19 Determine the type of technology needed based on the Use Case Scenarios Identify desktop based technology neededIdentify Server-based technology needed- Data Server (vector and raster)- Web ServerIdentify technology dependencies- Operating System compatibility- RDBMS compatibilityWeb server software environmentIdentify need for mobility or long-transactions
20 Technology Readiness Assessment Identify which Business Objectives the technology is intended to fulfillDetermine if any existing technologies should be replacedDetermine the type of technology neededSpecify the Technology RequirementsDocument the Hardware/Network Configuration Review
22 Step 3. Determine Enterprise GIS Database Readiness Data is a critical element of the success of the GIS Implementation Plan.The quality and availability of the data will determine whether the technology will work correctly and whether the GIS Business Objectives will be met.After the GIS data requirements have been identified, an assessment of “readiness” of the data to meet these requirements must be conducted.This assessment should not only address the completeness and accuracy of the data, but also the usefulness of the data to meet the GIS Business Objectives.In addition, data preparation procedures should be identified to complete the GIS Database Readiness.
23 Identify Geographic Data and other data to be used Use Case Scenarios in Step 1 will help identify what data is neededThe Identified Data Requirements in Step 3 will help determine how the data needs to be structuredInventory the spatial data sets necessary to meet the GIS Business ObjectivesInventory the non-spatial data sets necessary to meet the GIS Business ObjectivesIdentify metadata to be used in the assessmentIdentify pilot area if necessary
24 Assess the geographic data sets to meet the GIS data requirements Quantitative Assessment- Completeness of Geographic area- Completeness of Attribute dataQualitative Assessment- Geographic Resolution- Locational Accuracy- Compatible Format- Overall UsefulnessGap Analysis- Identify what geographic data is missing- Identify what attribute data is missingIdentify format or structural changes
25 Prepare the Conceptual Database Design to support the data requirements Document the Conceptual and Physical Database Design in a diagramConduct a Conceptual Database Design Review with application, data and system infrastructure team membersVerify the Database Design will meet the GIS Business Objectives
26 Identify Data Preparation Procedures Determine if a data migration is necessaryDetermine if data clean-up is necessaryDetermine how to complete any missing dataDevelop data maintenance proceduresVersioning/Long-transaction policies and techniquesData replication and synchronization implications
27 Develop a Prototype Database to meet the GIS Business Objectives Populate the database design with the identified geographic data sets in a prototype databaseTest the prototype database in R&D environmentVerify the prototype database meets the GIS Business ObjectivesIncorporate any necessary changes
28 Expected Outcome for Step 3 DocumentDatabase AssessmentData Model
29 Step 4. Determine Organization readiness Organizational Readiness is the sufficient preparation of the organization to implement the GIS.This can mean changing current work processes that occur in isolation of each other, re-defining roles and responsibilities, skills assessment for technical staff and developing a training plan.
30 Breakdown Prepare organization support structure Assess user skill levels and identify Training needsDevelop training plan to support the Enterprise GIS implementationIdentify internal support proceduresDevelop data and application release proceduresProduce Development Decision Criteria
31 Prepare organization support structure Leadership Role- Provide Vision for the Implementation- Provide Direction for the ImplementationProject Management Role- Responsible for specific projects within the Implementation PlanTechnical Analyst Role- Responsible for specific tasks within each projectGIS Advisor Roles- Long-term Management Advisor- Project Implementation advisor- Technology advisor
32 Assess user skill levels and identify Training needs Determine technical skill requirements for each categoryDetermine technical staff proficiency in each categoryIdentify knowledge gaps
33 Develop training plan to support the Enterprise GIS implementation Determine who has received training in each categoryDetermine if training on current versions of technology is necessaryIdentify curriculum paths for each category- Instructor training- Virtual training- Technical Workshops- Knowledge transfer methodsDevelop training schedule for each category
34 Identify internal support procedures Data Maintenance ProceduresDatabase support proceduresWeb support proceduresApplication and Database Development proceduresDesignated individual for the purchase of hardware and software
35 Develop data and application release procedures Proof-of-ConceptPrototype DevelopmentPilot projectProduction schedulesApplication Version Control
36 Produce Development Decision Criteria When to use Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) technologyLess expensive, less risky, delivered soonerWhen to develop custom-built applicationsCOTS won’t meet Business ObjectivesWhen to deliver web-based solutionsMany users, large view-only database, basic functionalityWhen to deliver desktop-based solutionsFewer users, data maintenance, more functionality
37 Expected Outcome for Step 4 GIS Support ProceduresTraining Plan
38 Step 5. Develop GIS Implementation Plan The next step in preparing for implementation is to synthesize the information from the previous planning steps into a plan that can be implemented.This plan should provide management staff with the information necessary to make appropriate decisions during the deployment stage of the implementation.
39 Document the results of each of the tasks previously identified in this implementation guide GIS Business Needs DocumentTechnology Readiness Assessment DocumentFunctional Requirement DocumentSystem Design DocumentDatabase Assessment DocumentGIS Support ProceduresGIS Training Plan
40 Prioritize resulting implementation tasks Abbreviate tasks if appropriateEliminate or add to tasks to fit your organizational needsFor ExampleNeeds assessment is complete, accurate and up to dateHardware review recently completed
41 Identify any potential conflicts in the implementation tasks ExamplesNo organizational structure before GIS Business Objectives are definedInstallation scheduled before staff trainingNot sure how many licenses are required to support testing and production environments
42 Identify critical path elements HW/SW needs to be in place soon after training is completed.Organizational support structure needs to be in place before application or data is released in production
43 Identify resource constraints Hiring freeze will not allow me to provide DBA supportCurrent Data Server is not adequate for our GIS Business ObjectivesExisting support staff is not adequately trained
44 Create a Work Breakdown Structure Schedule TasksSet MilestonesAssign responsibilitiesDocument DependenciesEstablish budget
45 Expected Outcome for Step 5 Enterprise GIS Implementation Plan
46 Step 6. Validate that the Implementation Plan can meet the GIS Business Objectives in R&D Lab All of the implementation planning previously completed needs to be validated in a Development or Test system environment.Validation can be focused on data, technology, organizational procedures, or the entire system design.
47 Prepare test criteria based on defined GIS Business Objectives ExampleCustomer numbers shall be updated every 24 hoursRemote field personnel can access data live and is never more than 24 hours out of dateAll addresses will meet US Postal Service standards and will be maintained by one department and accessible to all departments
49 Document test results System environment and testing configuration Pre and post conditionsPerformance metricsUnexpected anomalies
50 Step 7. Review results and incorporate changes to the implementation plan Were the Business Objectives met?Were the data preparations adequate?Is the system infrastructure adequate?Is the organizational structure and procedures sufficient? Are there any remaining technology issues?
51 Expected Outcome for Step 7 Updated GIS Implementation Plan
52 Best Practices for Technology and Infrastructure Match software solution with type of user and business needsLeverage COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) technology to minimize the complexity of the IT environmentPeriodically review hardware and network environmentMinimize the complexity of the IT environmentEstablish separate environments
53 Best Practices for Data Utilize most suitable spatial database management technology that supports business needsConsolidate geographic data published for use by multiple agencies into a common data format.Separate editing database from publishing databaseEstablish data standards Establish data update proceduresEstablish a database designEstablish data backup and recovery proceduresAssess data prior to publishing it
54 Best Practices for Organization Periodically review GIS business needs and existing proceduresDevelop technology/IT infrastructure policiesDefine data stewardship responsibilitiesEstablish organizational structureEstablish technical support proceduresIdentify staff in each user roleEstablish systematic processes for development and deployment8. Develop long term GIS implementation plan
55 Best Practices for Implementation Planning - Wrap-Up Identify GIS Business Objectives and Business ProcessesDetermine the Technology and System Infrastructure Readiness to meet the GIS Business Objectives Determine GIS Database Readiness to meet the GIS Business ObjectivesDetermine Organization readiness to meet the GIS Business Objectives5. Develop Enterprise GIS Implementation Plan to meet the GIS Business ObjectivesValidate the Implementation Plan can meet the GIS Business Objectives in R&D LabReview results and incorporate changes to the implementation plan
56 Keys to success Understanding the business needs of the request Understand the workflow, challenges, and expected outcomes that help solve the problemThe technology or “how” you do that comes secondThe technology is applied to the business problem“I need a Map or a GIS tool that…”Requirements are a result of learning more about the business need and workflow to achieve the desired resultsOver emphasis on requirements may lock you into a system with limitations for future growth and expansionHow ready are you to meet the business needs?TechnologyDataOrganizational