How to LEARN--based on: Ch. 1:Material and information organization Learning takes time. Good process and mechanics pay. Ch. 2:Information processing How you think about material is crucial. Ch. 3:Use of information Don’t just swallow and regurgitate facts. Digest information and use it to synthesize a factually “nutritious” story. Note-taking helps What about highlighting in the text? Thoughts on re-writing notes
Read BEFORE class Take the time to do this regularly; it is important. 10-15 minute scan read DO NOT take notes! You know if you are prepared if: 1.You know what the class will be about. 2.You know simple, basic information about the main subjects or topics.
Take notes during class! (method 1—printed PowerPoint slides) Slide 1 info Slide 2 info Slide 3 info Leave this side of your page blank!! Add details during class _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
Take notes during class! (method 2—hand written notes) Topic 1 item Topic 2 item Topic 3 item Leave this side of your page blank!! Perhaps, draw a line down the middle of the page.
Re-read AFTER class Doing this the same day increases study time effectiveness. It will usually take 15-30 minutes. Have your class notes beside your text and refer to them often as you read. THINK about the class notes & text information: Compare, relate, evaluate, write!
Take notes while you read. (method 1—printed PowerPoint slides) Slide 1 info Slide 2 info Slide 3 info Add text notes here. Details added during class _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ CLASS NOTESTEXT NOTES
Take notes while you read. (method 2—hand written notes) Topic 1 item Topic 2 item Topic 3 item Topic 1 Fill in important information to get complete picture Topic 2 Fill in important information to get complete picture Topic 3 Fill in important information to get complete picture CLASS NOTESTEXT NOTES
Take notes while you read Topic 1 item Topic 2 item Topic 3 item Topic 1 Fill in important information to get complete picture Whether you use PowerPoint slides or hand-written class notes… THINK about what you are reading. RELATE it to the class notes. EVALUATE it. (Does it add important information to the class notes?) WRITE down ONLY what helps you fully understand the topic. CLASS NOTESTEXT NOTES
Regular reading and good quality note-taking pays double dividends: 1.You are already learning! 2.You are organizing for future exam preparation.
Your notes are organized! Topic 1 item Topic 2 item Topic 3 item CLASS NOTESTEXT NOTES Topic 1 additional info Topic 2 additional info Topic 3 additional info
Information is centralized. Topic 1 item Topic 2 item Topic 3 Occasionally you will have NO Class notes. Topic 1 additional info Topic 2 Sometimes you will have NO additional information. Topic 3 additional info CLASS NOTESTEXT NOTES
You are ORGANIZED to study for an exam! TEXT NOTES CLASS NOTES EVERYTHING you need to know about TOPIC 1! EVERYTHING you need to know about TOPIC 2! EVERYTHING you need to know about TOPIC 3!
Use these powerful learning tools: 1.THINK about what you are reading. 2.RELATE what you are reading to the class lecture. 3.EVALUATE what you are reading. 4.WRITE down information. 5.ORGANIZE your information so that exam prep is more efficient.
Levels of detail = VIMP*!!! Opera LiteratureVisual aria melody acc by orch stops plot recitative text acc bybasso cont advances plot ensemble duo, trio, 4tet lead characters may portray conflicting moods overture prefaces opera orchestra plays scenery costumes lighting hall décor acting blocking plot text Music Topic basic information greater detail greatest detail level *VIMP = Very IMPortant
Think and learn according to levels of detail (macro to micro):
Opera LiteratureVisualMusic Topic The broadest categories of opera’s components Least detailed, but important information
Opera LiteratureVisual aria recitative ensemble overture scenery costumes lighting hall décor acting blocking plot text Music “fleshing out” the categories Some details within broad categories
Complete picture with Topic broad categories details micro facts Opera LiteratureVisual aria melody acc by orch stops plot recitative text acc bybasso cont advances plot ensemble duo, trio, 4tet lead characters may portray conflicting moods overture prefaces opera orchestra plays scenery costumes lighting hall décor acting blocking plot text Music
Isolated facts are often USELESS information, AND they can be very difficult to learn!
Consider 11 facts: Ca. 1800 E.T.A. Hoffman (1776-1822) French Revolution (1789-93) Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Beethoven Symphony No. 3 (1803) Beethoven Symphony No. 5 (1806) Beethoven Symphony No. 9 (1823) Napoleon (1769-1821) Many people considered Napoleon a tyrant. Romantic period (1820-1900) Nationalism on rise soon after 1800
Consider 11 facts: Ca. 1800 E.T.A. Hoffman (1776-1822) French Revolution (1789-93) Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Beethoven Symphony No. 3 (1803) Beethoven Symphony No. 5 (1806) Beethoven Symphony No. 9 (1823) Napoleon (1769-1821) Many people considered Napoleon a tyrant. Romantic period (1820-1900) Nationalism on rise soon after 1800 NOT HELPFUL
Think and learn: relationships causes effects Try to construct a “story” that weaves all the information together.
Some relevant questions that might be asked about the 11 “factoids”: What are the defining or most important historical events ca. 1800? Who are the principal figures ca. 1800? How do they relate to the important historical events? What do they do? What are the relationships between these people and events? How do they shape the coming era?
Ca. 1800 Beethoven French Revolution Napoleon Beethoven Sym No. 3 Beethoven Sym No. 5 Beethoven Sym No. 9 Coming romanticism Growing nationalism tyranny E.T.A. Hoffman
Learn and know: How are Napoleon and the French Revolution related? How are Beethoven, B’s Symphony No. 3, Napoleon, and tyranny related? How are E.T.A. Hoffman and Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 related? How are both Sym No. 5 and Sym. 9 related to the coming romanticism? How are romanticism and nationalism related?
Remember: 1.Know what the core issue or central idea is. 2.Develop your understanding of the big picture—the overall idea—surrounding that core issue. 3.Think of the “BIG PICTURE” as a puzzle of pieces that fit together and relate to one another. Know those relationships. 4.Add appropriate details, NOT TRIVIA, to “flesh out” the image your puzzle makes.
Note-taking Write least # letrs & wrds th/ convey message No complete sentences Use abbreviations –Dev personal sys –Spelling Use symbols – = & $ # (& more)
A word on highlighting the text Pros: 1.can help keep you focused on what you are reading. 2.can help you “ferret out” the main ideas and important info. Con (mainly one, but it may be a deal-breaker): Highlighting does NOT consolidate information; it leaves it “unprocessed” and where you found it—distributed on many pages of text. Remember, paging through the text hunting for information is NOT studying; it does not help you learn information or prepare for an exam.
Thoughts on re-writing notes Does this help you achieve good testing results? –Yes. (Stop here. You need not read further.) –Not sure, or I do not perform well in tests (Go on!!) Re-writing can be a “feel-good” job, especially if it produces neat, attractive notes, and you can congratulate yourself for spending much time creating them. Alas, if you do not perform well on tests, rewriting is probably a complete waste of time! Take good, organized notes that do not need to be rewritten; add info during your reading/study process; then, LEARN the information. That often means, “memorize.” Spend your time doing jobs that produce good results--effective learning verified by good test results. Evaluate how re-writing fits into either satisfactory or unsatisfactory test results for you.
Contact Please email me with any questions, thoughts, comments, suggestions, additions, or corrections. Dennis W. Ritz firstname.lastname@example.org