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Tyre Recycling in the European Union

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Presentation on theme: "Tyre Recycling in the European Union"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tyre Recycling in the European Union
Dr. Valerie L. Shulman Secretary General, ETRA RecShow 08 Jordan 17-19 February 2008

2 ETRA : The European Tyre Recycling Association
Founded in 1994, with 19 members in 5 EU States ETRA has ±250 members in 43 countries, including each EU State; The mission : to develop tyre recycling as an environmentally and commercially sustainable European industry Objectives: to develop and advance policies that support the industry; to expand and develop markets; to development and implement professional standards; to prepare and promote guidelines for materials, products, applications; to provide communication links Membership is open to the public and private sectors 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

3 Post-consumer tyres ~ 3,250,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are permanently removed each year from cars and trucks in the 27 EU States - and defined as waste It is estimated that an additional ~60,000 to 70,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are permanently removed each year from agricultural and other off-road vehicles in the 27 EU States - but not defined as waste 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

4 Compared with other waste streams
17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

5 The raw materials Rubber compounds - throughout the tyre : treads, sidewalls, etc. Plies and belts : layers of brass coated steel with rubber Bead wire : Cords of high tensile steel that give form to the tyre Casing : Made of metal, rayon, nylon. Polyester cords 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

6 Composition by weight of tyres
Material Car/utility% Truck/lorry% Rubber/elastomersa ±48 ±45 Carbon black or silicab ±22 Metal ±15 ±25 Textile ±5 - Zinc oxide ±1 ±2 Sulphur Additives ±8 A Truck tyres contain proportionately more natural rubber in comparison to synthetic rubber than do car tyres b Different varieties of carbon black are used for different purposes and may appear in other categories of material The rubber compounds, metals and textiles are recovered through material recycling 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

7 Recycling makes sense It requires 121,000BTUs to produce 1 kg of new rubber materials It requires only 2,200BTUs to produce 1 kg of clean granulate or powder. Put another way, the Co2 equivalent for 1kg of rubber is : 4,351 for Natural rubber 3,409 for SBR 0,097 for recycled rubber 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

8 Considering energy use
The production of 1 tonne of rubber requires the following : Natural rubber requires the same amount of energy as driving from Brussels to Singapore (about 10,560km) Synthetic rubber (SBR) requires the equivalent of driving from Rome to Sidney Australia (15,000km) Recycled rubber is a much shorter trip - it uses the equivalent of a 400 km ride from Paris (France) to Geneva (Switzerland) 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

9 Means of tyre valorisation
Re-use and or export Retreading Material recycling including : Civil engineering and construction applications Environmental rehabilitation projects Consumer and industrial products Energy recovery for : Co-incineration Cement kilns Each form of valorisation requires a consistent flow of input 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

10 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

11 The attainment level : 2005-6
In , ± tonnes of post-consumer tyres were treated in an environmentally sound manner within the 25 States of the EU. ± tonnes : export (± 7%) ± tonnes : retreading (± 10,5%) ± tonnes : material recycling (± 31,8%) ± tonnes : energy recovery (±34,5%) Together, ±83,8% of post-consumer tyres were diverted from landfills. 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

12 Elements of the recycling process
Collecting (manual) Sorting Pre-treating Debeading Cutting Processing (mechanical) Shredding Granulating Sieving Packaging Storing Delivering 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

13 The start of tyre recycling : Collecting
Knowing where the tyres are At small individual sites : Garages, tyre shops, small retailers, vehicle sales At large communal depots Tyre distributors Fleet managers Municipal depots Vehicle dismantlers Knowing how to move the tyres 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

14 Basic collection information
Tyres p/tonne 5.88 17.86 18.52 125 142.60 Category Off road/agricultural tyres Truck tyres Bus tyres Utility tyres Passenger car tyres Winter tyres Approx. Wt./ tyre 170 kg 56 kg 54 kg 8 kg 7 kg 8kg 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

15 EU Collection systems Producer responsibility Free market system
Sweden Finland Producer responsibility Free market system Norway Adaptation Estonia In transition Latvia Denmark Lithuania Ireland Poland UK Holland Germany Belgium Czech Republic Lux Slovakia France Austria Hungary Romania Slovenia Italy Bulgaria Portugal Spain Greece 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan Cyprus Malta

16 Formula for tyre Collection
To move 1 tonne of tyres costs approximately 2€ per km Passenger car tyres : tonnes per delivery 15 tonnes in a walking floor truck Truck tyres : approximately tonnes per delivery tonnes in a walking floor truck Off-road tyres : 15 tonnes per delivery 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

17 Stacked tyres Whole tyres are often stacked in a basketweave to save space - particularly when the tyres will be retreaded Tyres for recycling are often transported in bulk - as whole, or as tyre cuts 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

18 The next steps 1. Sorting : Manual process
According to category : truck, passenger car, other Road-worthy : undamaged with minimum 1.66mm tread Retreadable : repairable casing in good condition Non-retreadable : raw material for recycling Many of these tyres are exported to other countries that have less restrictive road-use standards 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

19 Preparation for recycling
2. Pre-treatment : Manual processes Removal of debris Rinsing - remove dirt, etc. Cutting in halves/quarters Debeading 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

20 Not all tyres are ready for treatment
17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

21 Truck tyre debeading Truck tyres are debeaded The steel is removed
A 60 second spurt at 150 kW/h/t is used Clean tyre bead steel can substitute virgin material - dependent upon use 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

22 Tyre processing Shredding Chipping Granulating Fine granulating
Powders Material upgrading 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

23 Environmental impacts : per tonne
17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

24 Shred and chips Shredders can be mobile or fixed
Shred can vary in size from ±75mm to 300mm in any dimension. Smaller shred, of <±100mm, can be used loose or compacted, in applications with or without binders Chips, from ±15 - ±75mm, can be used in applications with or without binders 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

25 Granulation plant in operation
17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

26 Cost-use-triangle 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

27 The range of materials : outputs
Since 1995, the range of post-consumer tyre materials produced and used has expanded - principally at the extremes Larger materials, i.e., whole treated and untreated tyres, bales, shred, chips are increasingly selected by civil engineers Smaller materials, i.e., granulate, powders, fine powders and specialised products (reclaim, devulcanisates, thermoplastic elastomers, etc.) are being selected by manufacturers of consumer and technical products Recycling residues are increasingly used for specific innovative applications 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

28 Post-consumer tyre materials
The changing balance of material production and use Granulate 54% Powders 10% Whole tyres 12% Specialty Misc. Shred/chips 15% 7% 2% 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

29 Whole tyres Whole tyres can be recycled without physical or chemical transformation Principal methods of treatment include cutting into halves or quarters, untreated or, treated by removing the beads or sidewalls, or by compression 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

30 Characteristics of whole tyres
Lightweight, Low compacted density, High void ratio, Good compressibility, Water permeability, Thermal insulation Non-biodegradable 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

31 Examples of whole tyre uses
Slope stabilisation Construction bale Erosion control Coastal and fluvial protection 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

32 Shred and Chips Shred and chips are the result of mechanical processes by which tyres are fragmented into irregular pieces Shred can vary in size from ±75mm to 300mm in any dimension. Smaller shred, of <±100mm, can be used loose or compacted, in applications with or without binders Chips, from ±15 - ±75mm, can be used in applications with or without binders 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

33 Characteristics of shred and chips
Lightweight, Low compacted density, High void ratio, Good compressibility, Water permeability 10-1 to 10-3 m/s Thermal insulation Low earth pressure 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

34 Examples of shred and chips
Compacted shred Landfill cell (geotextile) Drainage systems Loose unbound chips : Compacted unbound chips Bound chips Loose shred Building insulation 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

35 Granulate Granulate is the result of processing rubber to reduce it in size into finely dispersed particles from ±1mm to ±10mm There are two principal methods of production : ambient and cryogenic Ambient size reduction is the most common, particularly for larger truck tyres. 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

36 Characteristics of granulate
Variations are based upon the treatment technology Ambient : irregular shape; some thermal degradation due to treatment; reduced cross-linking Cryogenic : regular shape and particle size; smooth, glossy surface; no surface decomposition or thermal stress 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

37 Children’s play grounds
Examples of granulate uses Artificial turf Road furniture Road furniture Running tracks Artificial turf Insulation Indoor or outdoor tiles/pavers Children’s play grounds Sports arenas Sports stadia 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

38 Powders and fine powders
Fine granulate is the result of ambient or cryogenic process- ing to obtain finely dispersed particles of less than ±2mm. Powders and fine powders are the result of processing and post-treating the material to obtain finely dispersed particles of ±500µm - <1.mm 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

39 Characteristics of powders
Powders are processed to modify one or more charac-teristic to restore some properties of virgin rubber. Powders include reclaim, surface modified or re-activated material, elasto- meric alloys, among others. They are most often used as ingredients in compounds that are mixed or blended with virgin material 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

40 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

41 We’ll continue to work on it
Thank you for your attention 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan

42 The 15th Annual European Conference
on tyre recycling Towards a Recycling society : the challenge 2 - 5 April The Crowne Plaza Europa, Brussels 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan


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