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17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 1 Tyre Recycling in the European Union Dr. Valerie L. Shulman Secretary General, ETRA.

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Presentation on theme: "17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 1 Tyre Recycling in the European Union Dr. Valerie L. Shulman Secretary General, ETRA."— Presentation transcript:

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2 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 1 Tyre Recycling in the European Union Dr. Valerie L. Shulman Secretary General, ETRA

3 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 2 ETRA : The European Tyre Recycling Association Founded in 1994, with 19 members in 5 EU States ETRA has ±250 members in 43 countries, including each EU State; The mission : to develop tyre recycling as an environmentally and commercially sustainable European industry Objectives: to develop and advance policies that support the industry; to expand and develop markets; to development and implement professional standards; to prepare and promote guidelines for materials, products, applications; to provide communication links Membership is open to the public and private sectors

4 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 3 Post-consumer tyres ~ 3,250,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are permanently removed each year from cars and trucks in the 27 EU States - and defined as waste It is estimated that an additional ~60,000 to 70,000 tonnes of post-consumer tyres are permanently removed each year from agricultural and other off-road vehicles in the 27 EU States - but not defined as waste

5 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 4 Compared with other waste streams

6 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 5 The raw materials Rubber compounds - throughout the tyre : treads, sidewalls, etc. Plies and belts : layers of brass coated steel with rubber Bead wire : Cords of high tensile steel that give form to the tyre Casing : Made of metal, rayon, nylon. Polyester cords

7 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 6 Composition by weight of tyres MaterialCar/utility%Truck/lorry% Rubber/elastomers a ±48±45 Carbon black or silica b ±22 Metal±15±25 Textile±5- Zinc oxide±1±2 Sulphur±1 Additives±8±5 A Truck tyres contain proportionately more natural rubber in comparison to synthetic rubber than do car tyres b Different varieties of carbon black are used for different purposes and may appear in other categories of material The rubber compounds, metals and textiles are recovered through material recycling

8 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 7 Recycling makes sense It requires 121,000BTUs to produce 1 kg of new rubber materials It requires only 2,200BTUs to produce 1 kg of clean granulate or powder. Put another way, the Co 2 equivalent for 1kg of rubber is : 4,351 for Natural rubber 3,409 for SBR 0,097 for recycled rubber

9 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 8 Considering energy use The production of 1 tonne of rubber requires the following : – Natural rubber requires the same amount of energy as driving from Brussels to Singapore (about 10,560km) – Synthetic rubber (SBR) requires the equivalent of driving from Rome to Sidney Australia (15,000km) – Recycled rubber is a much shorter trip - it uses the equivalent of a 400 km ride from Paris (France) to Geneva (Switzerland)

10 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 9 Means of tyre valorisation Re-use and or export Retreading Material recycling including : Civil engineering and construction applications Environmental rehabilitation projects Consumer and industrial products Energy recovery for : Co-incineration Cement kilns Each form of valorisation requires a consistent flow of input

11 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 10

12 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 11 The attainment level : In , ± tonnes of post-consumer tyres were treated in an environmentally sound manner within the 25 States of the EU. ± tonnes : export (± 7%) ± tonnes : retreading (± 10,5%) ± tonnes : material recycling (± 31,8%) ± tonnes : energy recovery (±34,5%) Together, ±83,8% of post-consumer tyres were diverted from landfills.

13 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 12 Elements of the recycling process Collecting (manual) Sorting Pre-treating Debeading Cutting Processing (mechanical) Shredding Granulating » Sieving » Packaging » Storing » Delivering

14 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 13 The start of tyre recycling : Collecting Knowing where the tyres are – At small individual sites : Garages, tyre shops, small retailers, vehicle sales – At large communal depots Tyre distributors Fleet managers Municipal depots Vehicle dismantlers Knowing how to move the tyres

15 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 14 Basic collection information Category Off road/agricultural tyres Truck tyres Bus tyres Utility tyres Passenger car tyres Winter tyres Approx. Wt./ tyre 170 kg 56 kg 54 kg 8 kg 7 kg 8kg Tyres p/tonne

16 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 15 EU Collection systems Producer responsibility Free market system In transition Adaptation Norway Sweden Finland Denmark Lithuania Latvia Estonia Hungary Slovakia Czech Republic Poland France Belgium Holland Germany Ireland UK Spain Italy Greece Austria Bulgaria Romania Cyprus Portugal Malta Lux Slovenia

17 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 16 Formula for tyre Collection To move 1 tonne of tyres costs approximately 2 per km Passenger car tyres : tonnes per delivery 15 tonnes in a walking floor truck Truck tyres : approximately tonnes per delivery tonnes in a walking floor truck Off-road tyres : 15 tonnes per delivery

18 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 17 Stacked tyres Whole tyres are often stacked in a basketweave to save space - particularly when the tyres will be retreaded Tyres for recycling are often transported in bulk - as whole, or as tyre cuts

19 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 18 The next steps 1. Sorting : Manual process According to category : truck, passenger car, other Road-worthy : undamaged with minimum 1.66mm tread Retreadable : repairable casing in good condition Non-retreadable : raw material for recycling Many of these tyres are exported to other countries that have less restrictive road-use standards

20 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan Pre-treatment : Manual processes Removal of debris Rinsing - remove dirt, etc. Cutting in halves/quarters Debeading Preparation for recycling

21 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 20 Not all tyres are ready for treatment

22 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 21 Truck tyre debeading Truck tyres are debeaded The steel is removed A 60 second spurt at 150 kW/h/t is used Clean tyre bead steel can substitute virgin material - dependent upon use

23 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 22 Tyre processing Shredding Chipping Granulating Fine granulating Powders Material upgrading

24 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 23 Environmental impacts : per tonne

25 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 24 Shred and chips Shredders can be mobile or fixed Shred can vary in size from ±75mm to 300mm in any dimension. Smaller shred, of <±100mm, can be used loose or compacted, in applications with or without binders Chips, from ±15 - ±75mm, can be used in applications with or without binders

26 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 25 Granulation plant in operation

27 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 26 Cost-use-triangle

28 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 27 The range of materials : outputs Since 1995, the range of post-consumer tyre materials produced and used has expanded - principally at the extremes Larger materials, i.e., whole treated and untreated tyres, bales, shred, chips are increasingly selected by civil engineers Smaller materials, i.e., granulate, powders, fine powders and specialised products (reclaim, devulcanisates, thermoplastic elastomers, etc.) are being selected by manufacturers of consumer and technical products Recycling residues are increasingly used for specific innovative applications

29 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 28 Post-consumer tyre materials Granulate 54% Shred/chips 15% Whole tyres 12% Misc. 2% Specialty 7% Powders 10% The changing balance of material production and use

30 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 29 Whole tyres can be recycled without physical or chemical transformation Principal methods of treatment include cutting into halves or quarters, untreated or, treated by removing the beads or sidewalls, or by compression Whole tyres

31 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 30 Characteristics of whole tyres Characteristics Lightweight, Low compacted density, High void ratio, Good compressibility, Water permeability, Thermal insulation Non-biodegradable

32 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 31 Slope stabilisation Erosion control Construction bale Coastal and fluvial protection Examples of whole tyre uses

33 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 32 Shred and Chips Shred and chips are the result of mechanical processes by which tyres are fragmented into irregular pieces Shred can vary in size from ±75mm to 300mm in any dimension. Smaller shred, of <±100mm, can be used loose or compacted, in applications with or without binders Chips, from ±15 - ±75mm, can be used in applications with or without binders

34 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 33 Characteristics of shred and chips Characteristics Lightweight, Low compacted density, High void ratio, Good compressibility, Water permeability to m/s Thermal insulation Low earth pressure

35 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 34 Loose unbound chips : Compacted unbound chips Bound chips Compacted shred Landfill cell (geotextile) Loose shred Building insulation Examples of shred and chips Drainage systems

36 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 35 Granulate Granulate is the result of processing rubber to reduce it in size into finely dispersed particles from ±1mm to ±10mm There are two principal methods of production : ambient and cryogenic Ambient size reduction is the most common, particularly for larger truck tyres.

37 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 36 Characteristics of granulate Characteristics Variations are based upon the treatment technology Ambient : irregular shape; some thermal degradation due to treatment; reduced cross-linking Cryogenic : regular shape and particle size; smooth, glossy surface; no surface decomposition or thermal stress

38 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 37 Road furniture Running tracks Sports stadia Childrens play grounds Indoor or outdoor tiles/pavers Artificial turf Examples of granulate uses Sports arenas Road furniture Artificial turf Insulation

39 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 38 Powders and fine powders Fine granulate is the result of ambient or cryogenic process- ing to obtain finely dispersed particles of less than ±2mm. Powders and fine powders are the result of processing and post-treating the material to obtain finely dispersed particles of ±500µm - <1.mm

40 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 39 Characteristics of powders Characteristics Powders are processed to modify one or more charac- teristic to restore some properties of virgin rubber. Powders include reclaim, surface modified or re- activated material, elasto- meric alloys, among others. They are most often used as ingredients in compounds that are mixed or blended with virgin material

41 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 40

42 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 41 Well continue to work on it Thank you for your attention

43 17-19 February 2008 RecShow 08 Jordan 42 The 15th Annual European Conference on tyre recycling Towards a Recycling society : the challenge April 2008 The Crowne Plaza Europa, Brussels


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