3Origins: ECSCEuropean Coal and Steel Community: unify western Europe during Cold War, help economy, and prevent warFormed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium. Luxembourg, NetherlandsCreated common market for coal and steelServed for economic purposesEstablished by the Treaty of Paris 1951
4Origins: EECEuropean Economic Community: aimed to bring about economic integration and a single market among the 6 nationsFormed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium. Luxembourg, NetherlandsServed for economic purposesLater became the European Community (EC)Established by the Treaty of Rome
5Treaty of Maastricht1993 created the European Union and established a single currency- the EuroSet up the EU's current systemLater amended by the Treaty of Nice
7Government Setup: EU governed by three branches: Executive Judicial Legislative
8Executive Branch Chief of Union: President of the European Commission José Manuel Durão Barroso (Portuguese) President of the Council of the EU Belgium (July-Dec 2010)Hungary (Jan-June 2011)
9Executive Branch ctd. Elections: 1. President of Euro Commission designated by member governments2. Confirmed by Euro Parliament3. Commission president creates a "college" of Commission members4. Parliament confirms for next 5 years
10Judicial Branch Court of Justice of the European Communities makes sure treaties are interpreted and applied uniformly throughout the EUresolve "constitutional" issues among the EU institutions 27 justices (one from each member state) appointed for a six-year term
11Legislative Branch There are two legislative bodies: The Council of the European Union 27 member-state ministers having 345 votesthe number of votes is roughly proportional to member-states' populationThe European Parliament 736 seats; seats allocated among member states in proportion to populationmembers elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term
14How to Become a Member: Application Council must have unanimous vote NegotiationsAccession partnershipsAgreement to acquisTreatyTreaty of Amsterdam criteria:stable and functioning democratic regimemarket-oriented economywillingness to accept all EU laws and regulations
15Enlargement Fatigue Decline in support in enlargement among EU voters EU governments have lost enthusiasm for further growthExpansion has been bringing in many former communist countries with weak economiesOriginal government structure doesn't work for growing number of countriesShould the European Union extend to all of Europe or be selective?
16Turkey: Been in negotiations to join EU since 1963 Reasons against accepting membership:partly in Asiareligious differencesunderdevelopment of economyhigh population birth growth ratedomestic policiesviolate human rightsShould Turkey be admitted into the EU?
17The Slatest:The press, much like the European public and its leading politicians, is sharply divided over the question of Turkish EU entry. Many fear that Muslim Turkey would undermine Europe's commitment to secularism. French President Jacques Chirac supports Turkey's bid to join the club, but most of his party, the Union for a Popular Movement, does not.A key requirement for the European Union to begin negotiations over eventual terms for Turkey's entry is the reform of the country's penal code.
18The EU Now Voted to allow GM foods Supports Egypt to achieve political and economic reformDoes the EU still serve a valuable purpose?Is it more effective than single nations?Should it continue to exist like it does?What are the advantages/disadvantages of the system?