Presentation on theme: "School-wide/Program-wide Positive Behavior Support Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports pbis.org."— Presentation transcript:
School-wide/Program-wide Positive Behavior Support Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports pbis.org
Starting Point…. Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency
The Challenge The “core curriculum” in school is often “punishment” to try and reduce problem behavior in school However, “ punishing ” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)
The Good News… Research reviews continue to indicate that effective responses to significant behavioral challenges in school include: Social Skills Training Academic Restructuring Behavioral Interventions = instructional strategies - “teaching”
School-wide Positive Behavior Support SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior OSEP Center on PBIS
Big Ideas Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors Create environments to support the use of pro- social behaviors 1.School-wide 2.Classroom 3.Individual student
Essential Features at the School Level Teams of educators within the school (administrator) Data-based decision making Instructional Focus – Teach & Practice Acknowledge student mastery of social skills – Positive Feedback
SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Social Competence & Academic Achievement
Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success
Continuum of Supports Science Reading Math Soc skills Horses Spanish English
Universal School-Wide/Program Wide Features Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules) – All Settings – Classrooms Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors Procedures for data-based decision making Family Awareness and Involvement
I am….All SettingsClassroomHallwaysCafeteriaBathroomsPlaygroundAssemblies SafeKeep bodies calm in line Report any problems Ask permission to leave any setting Maintain personal space Walk Stay to the right on stairs Banisters are for hands Walk Push in chairs Place trash in trash can Wash hands with soap and water Keep water in the sink One person per stall Use equipment for intended purpose Wood chips are for the ground Participate in school approved games only Stay in approved areas Keep body to self Walk Enter and exit gym in an orderly manner Respect- ful Treat others the way you want to be treated Be an active listener Follow adult direction(s) Use polite language Help keep the school orderly Be honest Take care of yourself Walk quietly so others can continue learning Eat only your food Use a peaceful voice Allow for privacy of others Clean up after self Line up at first signal Invite others who want to join in Enter and exit building peacefully Share materials Use polite language Be an active listener Applaud appropriately to show appreciation A Learner Be an active participant Give full effort Be a team player Do your job Be a risk taker Be prepared Make good choices Return to class promptly Use proper manners Leave when adult excuses Follow bathroom procedures Return to class promptly Be a problem solver Learn new games and activities Raise your hand to share Keep comments and questions on topic Benton Elementary School
Social Stories Everyone can go to circle and sit on their seat. I can sit nicely and look at the teacher. I can also listen with my ears and try to do what the teacher says.
Tier II (small group) Efficient and effective way to identify at-risk students – Screen – Data decision rules Informal assessment process to match intervention to student need – Small group Social Skill Instruction – Self-management – Academic Support Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system
Tier III (individualized support) When small group not sufficient When problem intense and chronic Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment Connections to Mental Health and Community Agencies Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system
A Working Definition of “Family Involvement” Awareness Involvement Support Emphasis changes across the continuum, but all three should be considered
Universal Connect Points To Families Primary Focus = Awareness – Information, Information, Information (2-way) Educators and parents sharing information across multiple venues Involvement – Parent team member – Specific activities to partner with families at school Clear timelines, what is expected, outcomes Support – Information regarding range of services & supports – Referral Points – Strategies for home use
Tier II Connect Points To Families Primary Focus = Involvement – Parent consent/ information meeting – Parent part of planning – Follow-up meetings and outcome sharing Awareness – Continuum of supports explained – Referral points defined Support – Partnership to explore school / home strategies – Quick easy “generalization strategies” for home use
Individual/Intensive: Connect Points To Families Primary Focus = Support – Partner planning – strengths-based focus using functional behavioral assessment – Facilitating interagency programs – Targeted training/supports for families Awareness – Information (e.g., Special Education, Mental Health, District Services, Community Supports) – Accessible referral point (special education / non-special education) – Teacher education RE impact on family – “Science” of behavior for both educators and family Involvement – Family advocacy groups on school/district team – Parents of children with disabilities on school/district team
Impact of our SW-PBS Center’s Efforts To Date In the US over 17,000 schools; 46 state initiatives In Missouri, over 700 schools, including pre-schools – Head Start – Private pre-schools – Mental Health – Juvenile Justice / Safe Schools Working with researchers and educators in Canada, Australia, and several countries in Europe pbis.org pbismissouri.org
Becky Beckner, PhD Columbia Public Schools Early Childhood Behavior Consultant Positive Discipline = Great Kids! Preventing Problems with Positive Behavior Supports
MU, and other schools have researched what the PBS approach looks like in early childhood settings, addressing developmental issues. Columbia Public Schools early childhood programs began implementation in 2001, followed by Head Start across 8 counties in 2002 and various early childhood programs across the state (and nation). Two national early childhood centers were created: – Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/) – Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children Program-wide PBS
PW-PBS Practices: How Staff Interact with Children Teaching clearly defined expected behaviors and routines in all settings Modeling and practicing expected behaviors Use of common language by all Acknowledging expected behaviors Giving reminders to ensure positive behaviors are displayed Culture and context considered Family awareness and involvement FOUNDATION: Building relationships with children and families
Clearly Defined Expected Behaviors Determine school-wide expectations with rule examples for classrooms and other settings *Be Safe, Be Kind, Be Responsible*
The PBS Teaching Matrix Defines what the expectations “look like” in the common areas of the school building (e.g., hallways, playground, bathrooms…) and in the classroom Gives behavior examples Keeps expectations positive How to use at home: What does it LOOK LIKE to be safe in the car? Kind at church? Responsible in the bathtub?
Teaching Matrix SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Compute r Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. Expectations 1. SOCIAL SKILL 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
Family Teaching Matrix SETTING At church or store Morning routine Homework Meal times In carPlay timeBedtime Be Safe Be Kind Be Responsible Expectations
Behavioral Errors Often occur because: – Children do not have the skills – They do not know when to use the skills – They have not been taught specific procedures and routines – Skills are not taught where and when they need to be used – Or simply, they have learned that inappropriate behavior works quicker and better!
Children are less likely to engage in problem behavior when they know what is expected and how to do it: – Give clear directions in positively stated language. “Please be safe and use walking feet in the house.” – Establish routines that allow children to demonstrate appropriate skills AND that minimize problem behavior What are the steps of getting ready for bed? What do the adults do to make this routine go smoothly? Prevention Strategies for Supporting Young Children
What it LOOKS LIKE to follow the behavior examples in different settings on the matrix Routines of your life How to identify and control emotions Conversation skills-facial expressions, personal space, turn taking, body language Friendship and play skills-interacting and cooperating Responding to conflict and stress What We Teach
Family Routine Guide Shopping Restaurants Going to the Doctor Taking Medicine Taking a Bath Bathroom Time When Parents Can’t Play Getting Dressed and Undressed Brushing Teeth/Hair Meals/Snacks Play Outside Play Clean-up Riding in the Car Transitions!!!
Make Your “Expectations” Clear Tell your child what TO do instead of what NOT to do Have age-appropriate expectations (how long should a two-year-old be able to sit at church or at the doctor’s office?)
Using Pictures to Teach Rules Get out your camera Snap a photograph of what you want your child TO DO Post it, model it, practice it, and notice when it’s done and praise it! If your rule is “clean up”…show your child how to do it!
Precorrection Responding to behaviors after the fact does not prevent the behavior from happening again. GOAL: anticipate problems there might be in a setting/situation and correct for them in advance by reminding of expectations. Precorrects prompt children for expected behavior: “We are going to the playground. How will you be safe there?”
Precorrection: BODY CHECK Teach children and practice what to do with their bodies in order to be safe and responsible in different settings.
Encouraging Expected Behavior: Positive Feedback Point out when expectations are met and specific behavior is displayed (specific and descriptive verbal feedback). EVERYONE should focus on the same expectations. “You are being safe when you stay in your carseat.” “That was so responsible-you picked up the blocks!” “Your sister likes it when you kindly share crayons.”
Catch Your Child Being Good! Give specific, positive attention to your child for the behavior that you want to see, and teach your child what to do! “Wow! You are being so careful keeping all the pieces on the table!”
Ways to Give Children Encouragement (Examples) “Thank you for taking care of your dishes.” “What a good problem solver you are, you were able to fit all the blocks in the tub.” “It’s so much fun to play with you; you are so good at taking turns.” “Thank you for using your inside voice when your sister was sleeping.”
Providing Positive Feedback Based on the concept that most young children want and need adult attention (which is a powerful AND unavoidable reinforcer). Focus on teaching children to get attention through responsible behavior rather than with misbehavior. I WAS CAUGHT “BEEING” SAFE TODAY!
Get your child’s attention. Keep it simple—avoid combining encouragement with criticism. Encourage with enthusiasm. Double the impact with physical warmth. Use positive comments and encouragement with your child in front of others. Tips for Encouraging Your Child
Setting The Stage for Success! Know what your child’s limits are Try to anticipate problems-plan ahead Stay near your child Support your child in completing tasks
Foundation: Building Relationships
Filling Your Relationship Piggybank! Make it a GOAL to have more positive interactions with your child than negative ones! It isn’t just about responding to expected behavior with positive feedback.
Have FUN Together!
One of the best ways to build a positive relationship with your child is to play with him/her! Follow your child’s lead-wait, watch, and then join your child’s play Talk, talk, talk about what your child is doing Watch for your child’s cues Avoid power struggles-it is about your child’s self-esteem and creativity The Power of Play
Ask your child to tell you how he/she feels Talk about how characters in a book, video, or on TV may feel Teach new emotion words (e.g., frustrated, confused, anxious, excited, worried) Reflect on situations and discuss feelings Accept and support your child’s expression of feelings Explain that anger is okay-it is what we do with it that matters Talk about your own feelings and demonstrate out loud how you calm down and get help when you need it Teach About Feelings
Use Songs and Games… “If You’re Happy and You Know It…” *If you’re happy and you know it, yell “Yippee!” *If you’re sad and you know it, cry a tear: “Boo hoo.” *If you’re mad and you know it, use your words: “I’m mad!” *If you’re scared and you know it, get some help, “HEEELLLLPPP!” Add new verses to introduce new feeling words
Present Limited, Reasonable Choices Most children are not born with the ability to make decisions and THEN to accept the consequences. Learning to take responsibility for actions requires lots of support and practice! A good way to help your child develop these skills is to offer limited, reasonable choices throughout the day. – Dressing- “Which shirt? The blue or red one?” – Bathing- “Do you want bubbles tonight?” – Dinner- “Which vegetable should I cook-corn or peas?” – Shopping- “Do you want to sit in the front or back of the cart?”
If you ask your child if he/she will complete a task, you are giving the choice not to: “Will you put on your shoes now?” A “first-then” statement is a simple instruction that tells your child what to do in order to do something that he/she wants to do: “First put on your shoes. Then you can go outside.” “First pick up your toys, then you can have a snack.” “First finish getting dressed, then you can play Nintendo.” Avoiding a Choice When the Direction is Mandatory
Redirection is providing guidance to children when they are misbehaving by interrupting a challenging behavior and redirecting a child to another activity using either physical or verbal support. A verbal redirection distracts the child and provides an alternative activity. – Example: A child might be trying to gain the attention of a parent who is on the telephone with an important call. – Another adult might then say to the child something like, “Hey, let’s go up stairs, and read some of your new library books.” Problem Behavior Happens… How to Respond: Redirection
When a child’s behavior is challenging, you can either respond to it or ignore it. If a reaction is necessary, remember that LESS is usually BEST. Attending to negative behavior MAY breed more negative behavior… avoid eye contact and verbal engagement. STAY CALM!!!
Behavior Choice When misbehavior begins, give a choice to either change the behavior or understand there is a consequence. – Name the problem behavior – State the expected behavior – Model the expected behavior – Ask child to demonstrate behavior “Your job is to walk in the house. You can show me or I can help you.” – Provide acknowledgement for change
If Your Child Doesn’t Comply…FLIP IT State the “Do” direction Wait for compliance (silently count to 5) Ask the child to restate the direction Wait for compliance (silently count to 5) Provide encouragement or help
Angrily threatening timeout gives the child the attention he/she is wanting If you are using timeout all the time, it isn’t working! Use it appropriately or not at all>not effective! Timeout = removing the child from ALL rewarding activities and into a boring, unrewarding environment. Watch for desire to leave the activity (escape) as reason for misbehavior Common Mistake: Timeout
Time Away Needs to be a place and time to cool off and reflect on behavior and what to do differently next time Support the young child to make better choices Adults should take a break instead of resorting to reprimands, lecturing, punishment… Model how to use “time away”
Remember: Challenging Behavior Works! Children engage in challenging behavior because it works for them Figure out the meaning of your child’s behavior – What is the child’s behavior “saying”?
“I want you to pay attention to me.” “I want that (toy, food, paint, etc.).” “I don’t want to stop what I am doing.” “I don’t want to clean up!” “I am hungry!” “I am so tired and I am trying to keep myself awake by running around.”
There are times that it feels easier (and less embarrassing) to just give in to our children. When we do we are telling them that all they have to do to get what they want is to (scream, hit, curse…). Hold your ground, and state exactly what you want your child to do in a calm tone of voice: “I know you are ___ (sad, angry, mad), but you have to _____” AND THEN WALK AWAY. Give the child a choice of how to do the expected action: “...do you want to pick up the blocks first or the vehicles first?” Instead of Giving In!
Try to minimize the possibility that your child will have challenging behavior – Simplify the task – Explain what will come next – Use a job chart – Show a picture – Reduce distractions – Offer help – Make the expected activity fun and interesting to the child The Plan: Start with Prevention
Resources for Families Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (www.pbis.org)www.pbis.org Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children (www.challengingbehavior.org)www.challengingbehavior.org – Check out: TACSEI Families Community Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations in Early Learning (http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu)http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu – Check out: Family Tools University of Arkansas Extension Services (http://www.arfamilies.org/family_life)http://www.arfamilies.org/family_life – Check out: See the World Through My Eyes