Presentation on theme: "School-wide/Program-wide Positive Behavior Support"— Presentation transcript:
1School-wide/Program-wide Positive Behavior Support Tim Lewis, Ph.D.University of MissouriCenter on PositiveBehavioral Intervention & Supportspbis.org
2Starting Point…. Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behaveEnvironments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency
3The ChallengeThe “core curriculum” in school is often “punishment” to try and reduce problem behavior in schoolHowever, “punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)
4The Good News…Research reviews continue to indicate that effective responses to significant behavioral challenges in school include:Social Skills TrainingAcademic RestructuringBehavioral Interventions= instructional strategies - “teaching”
5School-wide Positive Behavior Support SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behaviorOSEP Center on PBIS
6Big IdeasBuild Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviorsCreate environments to support the use of pro-social behaviorsSchool-wideClassroomIndividual student
7Essential Features at the School Level Teams of educators within the school (administrator)Data-based decision makingInstructional FocusTeach & PracticeAcknowledge student mastery of social skillsPositive Feedback
8Positive Behavior Support Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
9Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
10Continuum of Supports Intensive Targeted Universal Math Science SpanishSoc skillsNOTICE GREEN GOES IS FOR “ALL”EnglishReadingHorses
11Universal School-Wide/Program Wide Features Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)All SettingsClassroomsProcedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviorsProcedures for encouraging expected behaviorsProcedures for discouraging problem behaviorsProcedures for data-based decision makingFamily Awareness and Involvement
12Benton Elementary School I am….All SettingsClassroomHallwaysCafeteriaBathroomsPlaygroundAssembliesSafeKeep bodies calm in lineReport any problemsAsk permission to leave any settingMaintain personal spaceWalkStay to the right on stairsBanisters are for handsPush in chairsPlace trash in trash canWash hands with soap and waterKeep water in the sinkOne person per stallUse equipment for intended purposeWood chips are for the groundParticipate in school approved games onlyStay in approved areasKeep body to selfEnter and exit gym in an orderly mannerRespect-fulTreat others the way you want to be treatedBe an active listenerFollow adult direction(s)Use polite languageHelp keep the school orderlyBe honestTake care of yourselfWalk quietly so others can continue learningEat only your foodUse a peaceful voiceAllow for privacy of othersClean up after selfLine up at first signalInvite others who want to join inEnter and exit building peacefullyShare materialsApplaud appropriately to show appreciationA LearnerBe an active participantGive full effortBe a team playerDo your jobBe a risk takerBe preparedMake good choicesReturn to class promptlyUse proper mannersLeave when adult excusesFollow bathroom proceduresBe a problem solverLearn new games and activitiesRaise your hand to shareKeep comments and questions on topic
15I can also listen with my ears and try to do what the teacher says. Social StoriesI can sit nicely and look at the teacher.Everyone can go to circle and sit on their seat.I can also listen with my ears and try to do what the teacher says.
20Tier II (small group)Efficient and effective way to identify at-risk studentsScreenData decision rulesInformal assessment process to match intervention to student needSmall group Social Skill InstructionSelf-managementAcademic SupportPart of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system
21Tier III (individualized support) When small group not sufficientWhen problem intense and chronicDriven by Functional Behavioral AssessmentConnections to Mental Health and Community AgenciesPart of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system
22A Working Definition of “Family Involvement” AwarenessInvolvementSupportEmphasis changes across the continuum, but all three should be considered
23Universal Connect Points To Families Primary Focus = AwarenessInformation, Information, Information (2-way)Educators and parents sharing information across multiple venuesInvolvementParent team memberSpecific activities to partner with families at schoolClear timelines, what is expected, outcomesSupportInformation regarding range of services & supportsReferral PointsStrategies for home use
24Tier II Connect Points To Families Primary Focus = InvolvementParent consent/ information meetingParent part of planningFollow-up meetings and outcome sharingAwarenessContinuum of supports explainedReferral points definedSupportPartnership to explore school / home strategiesQuick easy “generalization strategies” for home use
25Individual/Intensive: Connect Points To Families Primary Focus = SupportPartner planning – strengths-based focus using functional behavioral assessmentFacilitating interagency programsTargeted training/supports for familiesAwarenessInformation (e.g., Special Education, Mental Health, District Services, Community Supports)Accessible referral point (special education / non-special education)Teacher education RE impact on family“Science” of behavior for both educators and familyInvolvementFamily advocacy groups on school/district teamParents of children with disabilities on school/district team
26Impact of our SW-PBS Center’s Efforts To Date In the US over 17,000 schools; 46 state initiativesIn Missouri, over 700 schools, including pre-schoolsHead StartPrivate pre-schoolsMental HealthJuvenile Justice / Safe SchoolsWorking with researchers and educators in Canada, Australia, and several countries in Europepbis.orgpbismissouri.org
27Positive Discipline = Great Kids! Preventing Problems with Positive Behavior SupportsBecky Beckner, PhDColumbia Public SchoolsEarly Childhood Behavior Consultant
29Program-wide PBS Center on the Social and Emotional MU, and other schools have researched what the PBS approach looks like in early childhood settings, addressing developmental issues.Columbia Public Schools early childhood programs began implementation in 2001, followed by Head Start across 8 counties in 2002 and various early childhood programs across the state (and nation).Two national early childhood centers were created:Center on the Social and EmotionalFoundations for Early Learning(http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/)Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children
30PW-PBS Practices: How Staff Interact with Children MBI Initial Team Training- Module 1PW-PBS Practices: How Staff Interact with ChildrenTeaching clearly defined expected behaviors and routines in all settingsModeling and practicing expected behaviorsUse of common language by allAcknowledging expected behaviorsGiving reminders to ensure positive behaviors are displayedCulture and context consideredFamily awareness and involvementFOUNDATION: Building relationships with children and families30
31Clearly Defined Expected Behaviors Determine school-wide expectations with rule examples for classrooms and other settings*Be Safe, Be Kind, Be Responsible*
32The PBS Teaching Matrix Defines what the expectations “look like” in the common areas of the school building (e.g., hallways, playground, bathrooms…) and in the classroomGives behavior examplesKeeps expectations positiveHow to use at home: What does it LOOKLIKE to be safe in the car? Kind at church?Responsible in the bathtub?
332. NATURAL CONTEXT 1. SOCIAL SKILL 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES Teaching MatrixSETTINGAll SettingsHallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteriaLibrary/Computer LabAssemblyBusRespect OurselvesBe on task.Give your best effort.Be prepared.Walk.Have a plan.Eat all your food.Select healthy foods.Study, read, compute.Sit in one spot.Watch for your stop.Respect OthersBe kind.Hands/feet to self.Help/share with others.Use normal voice volume.Walk to right.Play safe.Include others.Share equipment.Practice good table mannersWhisper.Return books.Listen/watch.Use appropriate applause.Use a quiet voice.Stay in your seat.Respect PropertyRecycle.Clean up after self.Pick up litter.Maintain physical space.Use equipment properly.Put litter in garbage can.Replace trays & utensils.Clean up eating area.Push in chairs.Treat books carefully.Pick up.Treat chairs appropriately.Wipe your feet.Sit appropriately.2. NATURAL CONTEXT1. SOCIAL SKILLExpectations3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
34Family Teaching Matrix SETTINGAt church or storeMorning routineHomeworkMeal timesIn carPlay timeBedtimeBe SafeBe KindBe ResponsibleExpectations
35Behavioral Errors Often occur because: Children do not have the skills They do not know when to use the skillsThey have not been taught specific procedures and routinesSkills are not taught where and when they need to be usedOr simply, they have learned that inappropriate behavior works quicker and better!35
36Prevention Strategies for Supporting Young Children Children are less likely to engage in problem behavior when they know what is expected and how to do it:Give clear directions in positively stated language.“Please be safe and use walking feet in the house.”Establish routines that allow children to demonstrate appropriate skills AND that minimize problem behaviorWhat are the steps of getting ready for bed?What do the adults do to make this routine go smoothly?
37What We TeachWhat it LOOKS LIKE to follow the behavior examples in different settings on the matrixRoutines of your lifeHow to identify and control emotionsConversation skills-facial expressions, personal space, turn taking, body languageFriendship and play skills-interacting and cooperatingResponding to conflict and stress
38Family Routine Guide Transitions!!! Getting Dressed and Shopping UndressedBrushing Teeth/HairMeals/SnacksPlayOutside PlayClean-upRiding in the CarShoppingRestaurantsGoing to the DoctorTaking MedicineTaking a BathBathroom TimeWhen Parents Can’t PlayTransitions!!!
39Make Your “Expectations” Clear Tell your child what TO do instead of what NOT to doHave age-appropriate expectations (how long should a two-year-old be able to sit at church or at the doctor’s office?)
40Using Pictures to Teach Rules Get out your cameraSnap a photograph of what you want your child TO DOPost it, model it, practice it, and notice when it’s done and praise it!If your rule is “clean up”…show your child how to do it!
41PrecorrectionResponding to behaviors after the fact does not prevent the behavior from happening again.GOAL: anticipate problems there might be in a setting/situation and correct for them in advance by reminding of expectations.Precorrects prompt children for expected behavior: “We are going to the playground. How will you be safe there?”
42Precorrection: BODY CHECK Teach children and practice what to dowith their bodies in order to be safeand responsible in different settings.
43Encouraging Expected Behavior: Positive Feedback Point out when expectations are met and specific behavior is displayed (specific and descriptive verbal feedback).EVERYONE should focus on the same expectations.“You are being safe when you stay in your carseat.”“That was so responsible-you picked up the blocks!”“Your sister likes it when you kindly share crayons.”
44Catch Your Child Being Good! Give specific, positive attention to your child for the behavior that you want to see, and teach your child what to do!“Wow! You are being so careful keeping all the pieces on the table!”44
45Ways to Give Children Encouragement (Examples) “Thank you for taking care of your dishes.”“What a good problem solver you are, you were able to fit all the blocks in the tub.”“It’s so much fun to play with you; you are so good at taking turns.”“Thank you for using your inside voice when your sister was sleeping.”
46Providing Positive Feedback Based on the concept that most young children want and need adult attention (which is a powerful AND unavoidable reinforcer).Focus on teaching children to get attention through responsible behavior rather than with misbehavior.I WAS CAUGHT“BEEING”SAFE TODAY!
47Tips for Encouraging Your Child Get your child’s attention.Keep it simple—avoid combining encouragement with criticism.Encourage with enthusiasm.Double the impact with physical warmth.Use positive comments and encouragement with your child infront of others.47
48Setting The Stage for Success! Know what your child’s limits areTry to anticipate problems-plan aheadStay near your childSupport your child in completing tasks48
52The Power of Play One of the best ways to build a positive relationship with yourchild is to play with him/her!Follow your child’s lead-wait, watch, and then join your child’s playTalk, talk, talk about what your child is doingWatch for your child’s cuesAvoid power struggles-it is about your child’s self-esteem and creativity
53Teach About Feelings Ask your child to tell you how he/she feels Talk about how characters in a book, video, or on TV may feelTeach new emotion words (e.g., frustrated, confused, anxious, excited, worried)Reflect on situations and discuss feelingsAccept and support your child’s expression of feelingsExplain that anger is okay-it is what we do with it that mattersTalk about your own feelings and demonstrate out loud how you calm down and get help when you need it53
54Use Songs and Games… “If You’re Happy and You Know It…” *If you’re happy and you know it, yell “Yippee!”*If you’re sad and you know it, cry a tear: “Boo hoo.”*If you’re mad and you know it, use your words: “I’m mad!”*If you’re scared and you know it, get some help, “HEEELLLLPPP!”Add new verses to introduce new feeling words
55Present Limited, Reasonable Choices Most children are not born with the ability to make decisions and THEN to accept the consequences.Learning to take responsibility for actions requires lots of support and practice!A good way to help your child develop these skills is to offer limited, reasonable choices throughout the day.Dressing- “Which shirt? The blue or red one?”Bathing- “Do you want bubbles tonight?”Dinner- “Which vegetable should I cook-corn or peas?”Shopping- “Do you want to sit in the front or back of the cart?”55
56Avoiding a Choice When the Direction is Mandatory If you ask your child if he/she will complete a task, you are giving the choice not to: “Will you put on your shoes now?”A “first-then” statement is a simple instruction that tells your child what to do in order to do something that he/she wants to do: “First put on your shoes. Then you can go outside.”“First pick up your toys, then you can have a snack.”“First finish getting dressed, then you can play Nintendo.”56
57Problem Behavior Happens… How to Respond: Redirection Redirection is providing guidance to children when they are misbehaving by interrupting a challenging behavior and redirecting a child to another activity using either physical or verbal support.A verbal redirection distracts the child and provides an alternative activity.Example: A child might be trying to gain the attention of a parent who is on the telephone with an important call.Another adult might then say to the child something like, “Hey, let’s go up stairs, and read some of your new library books.”57
58STAY CALM!!!When a child’s behavior is challenging, you can either respond to it or ignore it.If a reaction is necessary, remember that LESS is usually BEST.Attending to negative behavior MAY breed more negative behavior… avoid eye contact and verbal engagement.58
59Behavior ChoiceWhen misbehavior begins, give a choice to either change the behavior or understand there is a consequence.Name the problem behaviorState the expected behaviorModel the expected behaviorAsk child to demonstrate behavior“Your job is to walk in the house. You can show me or I can help you.”Provide acknowledgement for change
60If Your Child Doesn’t Comply…FLIP IT State the “Do” directionWait for compliance (silently count to 5)Ask the child to restate the directionProvide encouragement or help60
61Common Mistake: Timeout Angrily threatening timeout gives the child the attention he/she is wantingIf you are using timeout all the time, it isn’t working!Use it appropriately or not at all>not effective!Timeout = removing the child from ALL rewarding activities and into a boring, unrewarding environment.Watch for desire to leave the activity (escape) as reason for misbehavior
62Time AwayNeeds to be a place and time to cool off and reflect on behavior and what to do differently next timeSupport the young child to make better choicesAdults should take a break instead of resorting to reprimands, lecturing, punishment…Model how to use “time away”
63Remember: Challenging Behavior Works! Children engage in challenging behavior because it works for themFigure out the meaning of your child’s behaviorWhat is the child’s behavior “saying”?63
64“I want you to pay attention to me “I want you to pay attention to me.” “I want that (toy, food, paint, etc.).” “I don’t want to stop what I am doing.” “I don’t want to clean up!” “I am hungry!” “I am so tired and I am trying to keep myself awake by running around.”64
65Instead of Giving In!There are times that it feels easier (and less embarrassing) to just give in to our children.When we do we are telling them that all they have to do to get what they want is to (scream, hit, curse…).Hold your ground, and state exactly what you want your child to do in a calm tone of voice:“I know you are ___ (sad, angry, mad), but youhave to _____” AND THEN WALK AWAY.Give the child a choice of how to do the expected action: “...do you want to pick up the blocks first or the vehicles first?”
66The Plan: Start with Prevention Try to minimize the possibility that your child will have challenging behaviorSimplify the taskExplain what will come nextUse a job chartShow a pictureReduce distractionsOffer helpMake the expected activity funand interesting to the child66
67Resources for Families Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (www.pbis.org)Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children(www.challengingbehavior.org)Check out: TACSEI Families CommunityCenter on the Social and Emotional Foundations in Early Learning(http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu)Check out: Family ToolsUniversity of Arkansas Extension Services(http://www.arfamilies.org/family_life)Check out: See the World Through My Eyes