Presentation on theme: "Identifying the Function of Behavior and Managing it in the Classroom"— Presentation transcript:
1 Identifying the Function of Behavior and Managing it in the Classroom Dr. Jennifer FosterPsychologist, Coordinator of Mental Health ProgramsPerth Amboy Public Schools
2 Agenda Brief Overview of Disruptive Behavior Disorders Oppositional Defiant DisordersConduct Disorders (Early & Late Onset)Disruptive Behavior Disorders (NOS)ABC’s of BehaviorFunctions of BehaviorManagement of Acute and Chronic Behavioral ProblemsCPI Crisis Development ModelDistrict Referral Process
3 What is a Disruptive Behavior Disorder? Attention-Deficit Disorders and Disruptive Behavior Disorders are the two categories considered under “Disruptive Behavior Disorder”Disruptive Behavior Disorders are broken down into to 3 major categories of mental health disordersOppositional Defiant DisorderConduct Disorder (Early & Late Onset)Disruptive Behavior Disorder (NOS)
4 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) Diagnostic Criteria A persistent pattern of defiant, angry, antagonistic, hostile, irritable, or vindictive behaviorMost often directed toward authority figuresPattern of behavior must be present for 6 monthsExtremely difficult to manage due to confrontational natureBehavior must be causing significant problems, in school and in relationships with family and friends
5 ODD Diagnostic Criteria Must have 4 of 8 symptoms occurring frequentlyLoses temperArgues with adultsActively defies or refuses to comply with adult’s requests or rulesDeliberately annoys peopleBlames others for own mistakes or misbehaviorTouchy and easily annoyed by othersAngry and resentfulSpiteful of vindictive
6 ODD Signs & Symptoms Stubborn and noncompliant Contentious and argumentativeQuick to shift blameHighly DefensiveSee demands as unreasonablePassive aggressive/systematically ignore othersRefusal to negotiateDeliberate annoyance of othersThreatens/intimidates othersVerbally aggressivePresent with low self-concept or inflated self-esteem
7 Oppositional Defiant Disorder Average age of onset is 6 years old, symptoms can be seen in children as early as 3 years oldSymptoms usually manifests by 8 years old, with most children diagnosed during preadolesenceEarly onset of ODD is more likely to persist and lead to subsequent development of CDMore prevalent in males than females prior to puberty, but evens out in adolescenceComorbid with:CD, learning disabilities, ADHD, depression, anxiety80%+ with ODD have comorbid ADHD65% with ADHD have comorbid ODD
8 Criteria for Conduct Disorder (CD) A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that involves violation of age appropriate social norms and the rights of othersFour categories of aggressive behaviors and violations of rules and age appropriate normsAggression toward people and animalsDestruction of propertyDeceitfulness or theftSerious violations of rulesAggression to people or animals includes:engaging in frequent bullying or threateningoften starting fightsusing a weapon that could cause serious injury (gun, knife, club, broken glass)showing physical cruelty to peopleshowing physical cruelty to animalsengaging in theft with confrontation (armed robbery, extortion, mugging, purse snatching)forcing sex upon someoneProperty destruction includes:deliberately setting fires to cause serious damagedeliberately destroying the property of others by means other than fire settingLying or theft includes:breaking into building, car, or house belonging to someone elsefrequently lying or breaking promises for gain or to avoid obligations (called "conning")stealing valuables without confrontation (burglary, forgery, shop lifting)Serious rule violations include:beginning before age 13, frequently staying out at night against parents' wishesrunning away from parents overnight twice or more or once if for an extended periodengaging in frequent truancy beginning before the age of 13
9 Criteria for CD (Cont.)At least 3 of the 15 items, present for 12 monthsOf which one symptom in the past 6 monthsSignificant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioningDifferences in age of onsetEarly Childhood Onset—onset of at least one criterion characteristic of CD prior to age 10Outcomes are poor, ingrained behavior is highly resistantAdolescence Onset—absence of any criteria characteristic prior to the age of 10More resilient b/c they developed better coping skills at earlier ageEarly Childhood OnsetUsually male, frequent display of physical aggression, disturbed peer relationships, may have had ODD in early childhood, usually have many symptoms that meet full criteria for conduct disorder prior to pubertyThese individuals more likely to have persistent CD with the possibility to develop adult Anti Social Personality DisorderAdolescent-Onset TypeLess likely to display aggressive behaviorsTend to have more normative peer relationships, although tend to display conduct problems in the presence of othersLess likely to have persistent CD or develop ASPDLower male to female ratio than Early onset typeAge of onset of CD is criticalThe earlier the age of onset the worse the prognosisComorbid with:ADHD, substance abuse, depression
10 Signs & Symptoms of CDAggressive behavior that harms or threatens other people or animals (i.e., physical altercations, intimidation, bullying)Destructive behavior that damages or destroys propertyManipulation via lying, deceitTheftTruancy or other serious violations of rulesEarly tobacco, alcohol, and substance use and abusePrecocious sexual activityShow little remorse for their actions, empathy, or concern for the thought or feelings of othersRead hostile intent in the actions of others, reactiveFake feelings to get lesser consequence, seek to blame othersPossible causes of CD include:Early maternal rejectionSeparation from parents, without an adequate alternative caregiverEarly institutionalizationFamily conflict/neglectAbuse or violence, family neglectParental mental illnessParental marital discordLarge family sizeCrowdingPovertyBrain DamageGenetic Vulnerability
11 Disruptive Behavior Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (DBD NOS) This category of DBD was created for children who demonstrate similar behaviors as children with ODD or CD but do not display the same frequency /severity and only met one or two of the behavior criteria for this disorder. Like ODD and CD, this disorder causes significant impairment in the child’s life.
12 Antecedent Behavior Consequence ABC’s of Behavior Every behavior happens for a reason.The ABCs of behavior were bourn out of development of basic Learning Theory which states that learning is defined or demonstrated by a change in behavior that endures over timeThe components of behavior include:Antecedent: That which occurs before a behavior this can include an instruction, command, event, the presence of another person, a setting, or a particular situationBehavior: The action or series of actions which create a given response direction following, a verbal response, quiet sitting, appropriate use of work related materials, a tantrum, Non complianceConsequence: That which occurs immediately following a behavior individual is rewarded, individual is ignored, verbally reprimanded, removal from the setting, someone laughs, someone screams, chaos, all eyes and attention on this student.All behavior is maintained, changed, or shaped by the consequences of that behaviorTo change behavior we need to alter the consequence.Can also change the Antecedent--This is more of a preventative approach
13 The Dance of Behavior Antecedent Behavior Consequence Teacher giving lessonChild raises handTeacher continues with lessonTeacher continues with lessonChild calls outTeacher asks child to quiet downChild keeps talkingTeacher moves onto another activity, singing and dancing, and asks the class to stand upChild refuses to stand upTeacher asks child to stand upChild refuses and remains seated on the floorTeacher walks over to child and tries to physically pick him upChild becomes weightless as teacher tries to lift himTeacher whispers, “Either I can pick you up like mommies pick up their little babies or you can stand up on your own,” in his ear.Child stands upTeacher continues with activityChild is cooperating and enjoying himselfThe song and dance ends and teacher says, “okay, now we are going to sing the color song”
14 Antecedent Behavior Consequence The song and dance ends and teacher says, “okay, now we are going to sing the color song”Child calls out “I win, I win, I win”Teacher asks children to sit down on the floorChild sits downTeacher passes out colored blocksChild calls out “I want orange, I want orange”Teacher gives the child an Orange blockChild is happy and shows his blocks to his friendTeacher realizes that the color orange is not in the song and asks the child for the block backChild puts block behind his back and says “no”Teacher tries to grab the block out of child’s handChild holds on to the block tight and tries to pull it away from the teacherTeacher tells child there is no orange in the song, and tries to give him a blue block insteadChild refuses to give her the orange blockTeacher tells child that he can keep the orange block on the floor next to him, but he has to use the blue blockChild puts the orange block by his side on the floor and takes the blue blockTeacher begins song with children
15 Reinforcers are consequences that strengthen behavior Punishment are consequences that weaken behaviorBehavior modification techniques rarely fail, rather thay are either applied inefficiently or inconsistently, which leads to less than desired changeTo manage behavior through consequences, the following 4-step approach can be applied:Define the problem, usually count by descriptionDesign a way to change the behaviorIdentify an effective reinforcerApply the reinforcer consistently to shape or change the behaviorReinforcement and Punishment follow a clear set of basic principles:Both always follow the behaviorBoth follow the target behavior immediatelyBoth fit the tartget behavior and must be meaningful to the childMultiple reinforcers or punishments are likely to be more effective than single reinforcers or punishmentsPoint is to respond with a consequence that is going to increase the likelihood of the behaviors reoccurrenceReinforcement is always the better choiceEffective in helping children develop alternative behaviors—more functional behaviorsIt is not bribery if used properlySchedules:Should use a variable schedule rather than a fixed schedulew/fixed the child usually works diligently when getting closer to the reward, and slows down after—good for shapingw/variable, they don’t know when they’re going to get rewarded—keeps a child guessing—but not if intervals are too far apart—good for maintenance
16 Functional Analysis Determining the function of the behavior The process of gathering information to determine the relations between variables, particularly functional relationsLooking to answer the question “What is the function of the behavior?”A functional relationship exists when a cause and effect relationship between variables has been experimentally establishedTrying to find what contingencies maintain the behaviorCan be environmentalCan be “internal” environmental effectsMust “listen” or observe behavior to determine causes!Careful assessment and systematic evaluation to isolate precisely the factors that control and maintain behaviorPurpose is to prove that the hypothesized relationships are in fact causalThe antecedents and consequences are identified, but the function is hypothesized, we haven’t proven them yetContents of a functional analysisKey ElementsAssessment-Identification of Patterns of BehaviorDevelopment and Evaluation of Hypotheses about factors that control behaviorInterventionSteps are Continuous rather than DiscreteAn Experimental PhaseProvides Evidence that Behaviors are Influenced Under Certain ConditionsHypotheses are tested directly by assessing the target behavior as various conditions are changedIf one or two conditions are considered to control behavior, the situation is manipulated to see if changing the condition alters the behaviorThis is an experimental phase designed to evaluate if the controlling conditions can be identified
17 Primary Functions of Behavior Escape/Avoidance:from person, task, environment, etc.behavior usually occurs in response to specific person, event or requests to perform activity.Tangible:desire for a specific item or activitybehavior often occurs when something has been denied or taken away -- it is not person or event specificAttention (positive or negative):desire for attention from peers, adults, can include “power”behaviors usually occurs when specific individuals are present -- may be all the time if the desire is for attention from peers -- it is person specific -- not event or location.Sensory:the behavior feels good or meets a sensory need.behaviors occur anytime, anywhere--not person, event or location specific but may occur more often when under stress
18 Functions of BehaviorBehaviors may result from a combination of functionEscape and sensory are often related to circumstances that are stressful or boringAttention and escape may result from difficult/boring curricular demands and not much attentionTangible in combination with any of the others may be a result of boredom.Combinations of 2 or more functions require a careful look at curricular requirements, basic classroom management, and availability of noncontingent reinforcement.Noncontingent reinforcement: A method for changing behavior that consists of providing an individual with rewards without linking the rewards to particular behaviors.
19 Questions To Be Answered. . . What are the setting events (i.e., conditions that alter the probability of a behavior occurringWhat are the antecedents of the challenging behavior (i.e., specific events that precede a behavior)?What are the consequences for the challenging behavior, which may reinforce it?What does the student gain?What does the student avoid?
20 When Samantha misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful.Avoid difficult tasksWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceSemantha makesnegative self-statements &writes profanelanguageTeacher sendsSamantha tooffice for beingdisrespectfulMisses 12:30medicationTeachersmakemultipletask demands
21 Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention.Escape adult &peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceCaesar isteased severaltimes about hishair by hisfriends beforeclassHis teacherstares at hishair in classCaesar askshis teacherwhat she’sstaring atHis teachersends him toin-schooldetention
22 Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day.Escape peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceNew studentStudentapproaches &speaks inEnglishCleo turnsawayOtherstudent walksaway
23 When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment.Access peer &adult attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceTeacher askswhat capitolcity of countryisNapoleongive correctanswerTeacher givesverbal praise& time to workwith a friendNone
24 As Manny is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up As Manny is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & call him “weirdo.”Access peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence??Look at him.“What’s up!”“Who yalookin’ at?”“Ya wantSome?” “Yatalkin’ to me?Kids shakeheads &call him“weirdo”
25 Describing the Problem Behavior? Note the type of problem behaviorNote where the problem behavior occursNote when the problem behavior occursNote characteristics of the setting and events related to the problem behaviorNote situations or personal events that might induce the behaviorinclude actions of others that increase or trigger the behavior.Note the consequences associated with the problem behavior.Once this is understood, you can test a hypothesisType of Problem BehaviorsHead banging, Being physically aggressive, Being truant, Biting, Crying, Defying authority, Destroying property, Pushing, pulling others, Running away, Threatening others, Throwing things, Inappropriate sexual behavior, Failing to complete assignments, Failure to follow directions, Failure to remain seated, Fighting ,Yelling, Cursing, Talking out of turn, Use of inappropriate languageWhere does the Problem Behaviors occur?Auditorium, Bus, Bus stop, Cafeteria, Classroom (Reading, Writing, Math), Computer room, Hallway, Bathroom, Library, Special classrooms, WalkwaysWhen does the Problem Behaviors Occur?Subjects being taught (history writing, reading, math, etc.)Time of day (before school, morning, afternoon)Instructional activity, or lack of, (individual assignments, group activity, small groupNonacademic activity (changing class, playground, lunch)Situations or setting events….Arguing with parents before school, Fight with peer, Getting in trouble previously, Dislikes or has difficult time with assignment or required activity, Being teased, harassed or intimidated by a peer, Fatigue, illness, Test anxiety, Social conflictConsequencesAdditional writing assignments, Alternative educational placement, Being given alternative task, different from peers, Being sent to office or removed from the class, Suspensions, Loss of privileges, Ignoring, Physical restraint, Call to parents, Referral to counselor
26 Developing/Testing a Hypothesis Develop a hypothesis based on the information gatheredTest the Hypothesis—Experimentally evaluating precisely whether the antecedents and consequences that may control behavior, actually do.Testing the hypothesis is important because important information may have been overlooked during data collectionIntended to reveal what is likely to be an effective intervention before moving to the intervention stage
27 Example of hypothesis statement When he misses breakfast & peers tease him about his walk, Caesar calls them names & hits them. Teasing stops.
28 Hypothesis StatementSetting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesNamecalling &Hits.Missesbreakfast.Teasedby peers.Teasingstops.FunctionEscapeaversive socialcontactFunctionEscape negative social contactOnce you have a have a hypothesis, you can experiment with interventions
29 The Conflict CycleA stressful incident occurs (i.e., frustration, failure) which ACTIVATES a troubled student’s irrational beliefs (i.e., "Nothing good ever happens to me!" "Adults are unfair.").These negative thoughts determine and trigger his feelings.His feelings and not his rational forces DRIVE his inappropriate behavior.His inappropriate behaviors (yelling, threatening, sarcasm, refusing to speak) INCITE adults.Adults not only pick up the student’s feelings, but also they frequently MIRROR his behaviors (yell back, threaten, etc.)This negative adult REACTION increases the student’s stress escalating the conflict into a self-defeating power struggle.Although the student may lose the battle (i.e., he is punished), he wins the war! His SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY (i.e. irrational belief) is REINFORCED and therefore, he has no motivation to change or alter his beliefs or his inappropriate behaviors.
30 Crisis Development Model (CPI, 2005) Level 1: Student presents with AnxietyNoticeable increase or change in behavior such as pacing, finger drumbing, wringing hands, staring, crying, facial tension, self injuriousbehaviors, disrupting otherLevel 1: Staff Approach is SupportiveStaff Member responds with an Empathetic, nonjudgemental approach and attempts to alleviate anxiety through the use of redirection,offering a break, or creating distanceLevel 2: Student becomes DefensiveThis is the beginning stage of the loss of rationalityAt this point the individual often becomes belligerent and challenges authorityLevel 2: Staff Approach is DirectiveMeaning that the staff member takes control of a potentially escalating situationStaff member is going to want to provide students with a choice, perhaps use “first-then” verbally or via a board depending on the ageHere is the point where you need to pick your battles—sometimes its not worth escalating the situation to the crisis levelLevel 3: Student is now Acting OutThis is a total loss of control which often results in a physical-acting out episodeBehavior falls into the “Danger to self, Danger to others” categoryHitting, kicking, biting, spittingLevel 3: Staff Approach is Non-Violent Physical Crisis InterventionSafe-nonharmful control and restraint techniques used to control an individual until he/she can regain control of his/herbehaviorThese techniques should be used as a last resortLevel 4: Student exhibits Tension ReductionNoticeable decrease in physical and emotional energy which occurs after a person has acted out, characterized by the regaining ofrationalityUse of compliance directives are appropriate hereLevel 4: Staff Approach is to develop Therapeutic RapportAn attempt to re-establish communication with an individual who is experiencing tension reductionCrisis Development/Behavior LevelsStaff Attitudes/ApproachesAnxietyDefensiveActing Out-PersonTension ReductionSupportiveDirectiveNon-Violent Physical Crisis Intervention (last resort)Therapeutic RapportINTEGRATED EXPERIENCE: The concept that behaviors and attitudes of staff impact the behaviors and attitudes of those in their care
31 Proactive Approaches Maintain sufficient personal space Awareness of non-verbal cues from body languageIt’s not what you say, but how you say itSet LimitsEmpathetic ListeningPersonal SpaceVaries from individual, usually between 1.5 to 3 feetGender, age, culture, size, hygiene all impact personal spaceInvasion of personal space tends to increase a persons anxietyBody LanguageIncludes facial expressions, gestures, posture, and movementsBe aware of nonverbal body language, signs of anxiety of individual in your careStaff body language can escalate and deescalate a situationUse a supportive stance—when student is facing you stand sideways with your arms to the side-palms upCommunicates respect, honors personal space, contributes to staff personal safety and allows for a way outIt’s not what you say, but how you say itTone: avoid inflections of impatience, condescension, or inattention—think about how this makes you feel when it happensVolume: Keep volume appropriate for the distance and the situationCadence: Deliver message using an even rate and rhythmKeys to Setting LimitsRecognize that you cannot force individuals to act appropriatelyOffer choices and state the consequences of those choices—starting with the positive firstSet limits that are simple and clear—quiet hands, quiet mouth (should be developmentally appropriate)Set limits that are reasonable—if you the limit is to high of an expectation, the student will fail and ultimately so will youSet limits that are enforceable—if you can’t carryout the consequence—positive you will anger the student, negative—you will lose yourcreditabilityEmpathetic ListeningThis is an active process to show understanding of what a person is sayingBe nonjudgementalGive your undivided attentionListen carefully to what the person is really trying to say—focus on feelings not just factsAllow silence for reflectionUse paraphrasing and restatement to clarify messages
32 When Responding… Do Don’t Remain Calm Isolate the Situation Enforce LimitsListenBe aware of Non-Verbal cuesBe consistentOverreactGet into power strugglesMake false promisesFake attentionBe threateningUse jargon—tends to confuse and frustrate
33 Effective Environments Problem behaviors are irrelevantAversive events are removedAccess to positive events are more commonProblem behaviors are inefficientAppropriate behavioral alternatives availableAppropriate behavioral alternatives are taughtProblem behaviors are ineffectiveProblem behaviors are not rewarded
34 District Behavioral Referral Process Speak to your student’s Child Study Team Case Manager and/or Crisis Counselor to determine if a referral is warranted.Children diagnosed with Autism are an automatic referral.If the student sees a Crisis Counselor, the referral is submitted by the student’s Crisis CounselorIf there is no Crisis Counselor assigned, then the case manager should complete the formOnce submitted & reviewed, a behavioral consultant will be assigned to the case and contact the Crisis Counselor/Case ManagerInitial observations will be conductedA meeting will be coordinated with the consultant/crisis counselor and/or case manager, and teacherRecommendations will be made. This may or may not include the decision to conduct a functional behavioral assessment and develop a behavior plan.Case follow-up will continue throughout the process.