Presentation on theme: "Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-Based Support George Sugai University of Connecticut Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions."— Presentation transcript:
Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-Based Support George Sugai University of Connecticut Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports www.PBIS.org
Purpose Provide overview of critical features of function-based approach to addressing problem behavior Function Matters!
Outcomes (“Answers”) Supporting context –Effective SWPBS Features & requirements of function-based approach to behavior support –Process Behavioral description of “function” –Get or escape/avoid Steps in function-based approach to behavior intervention planning –Behaviorally competent team
Behavior Support Elements Problem Behavior Functional Assessment Intervention & Support Plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions *Implementation support *Data plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Team-based Behavior competence
Prerequisites Effective school-wide system of behavior support in place Local behaviorally competent team Function-based approach
Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Social Competence & Academic Achievement
What is FBA? A systematic process for developing statements about factors that –contribute to occurrence & maintenance of problem behavior, & –more importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.
What is Function Based Support? Foundations in behavioral theory, applied behavior analysis, & positive behavior support Attention to environmental context Emphasis on function of behavior Focus on teaching effective, efficient, & relevant behaviors Attention to behavior of implementers
Functional approach logic Behaviors are maintained by consequence events (function) –Positive or negative reinforcement Behaviors are occasioned by antecedent events –Relate antecedent to emission of behavior & likelihood of consequence event Changing behaviors requires consideration of maintaining consequences
FBA LEVELS 1.Informal Archival Review Problem Solving Meeting 2. Indirect Checklist FA Interview Routine Analysis 3. Direct Observation A-B-C Structured, Planned Observation 4. Planned Manipulation Experimental or Functional Analysis MORE INFORMAL EASIER SIMPLE INDIRECT MORE DIRECT COMPLICATED DIFFICULT FORMAL
Requirements 1.Behavior must be considered within context in which it is observed. 2.Intensity of behavior support plans must be matched to intensity of problem behavior.
3.Local behavioral competence must be available. FBA process Development, implementation, & evaluation of plans Collection & analysis of data Knowledge about research validated practices
4. Decisions must be data-based. 5. Staff must receive continuous feedback on their implementation of behavior intervention plans. 6. Effective school-wide system of behavior support must be in place. 7. FBA process should be team based
When has FBA been done? 1.Clear & measurable definition of problem behaviors. 2.Complete testable hypothesis or summary statement is provided. Statement of function (purpose) of behavior 3.Data (direct observation) to confirm testable hypothesis. 4.Behavior intervention plan based on testable hypothesis Contextually appropriate supports for accurate implementation
FBA Elements Contextually Appropriate Support Testable Hypothesis Function Statement Competing Path Analysis Supporting Data Behavior Intervention Plan Definition of Problem Behavior or Class
Defining behavior Must result in clear, measurable, & objective descriptions of individual, groups, or sequences of related behaviors Any observable or measurable action or act. Observable beginning & end Has measurable dimension(s) Frequency, duration, latency, force, topography, locus
Consider behavior dimensions : –Topography/shape –Frequency –Duration –Latency, –Intensity or force –Locus
Non- v. Observable (-)hyperactivity (+)initiates 5 different tasks within 2 minutes (+)leaves room at least 3 times during a 30 minute lesson (+)….
Consider response class Set of topographically different behaviors with similar or related purpose or function –Hit, spit, runaway, yell… Escape difficult task request –Cry, hit, whine, raise hand, spit….. Obtain adult attention
Consider response chains Predictable sequence of behaviors Possibly different functions at beginning & end of chains
Ex1. Behavior Chain Given doable task, student… 1.Whispers that work is stupid, 2.Writes on papers, 3.Says work is stupid, 4.Throws paper in waste basket, & 5.Leaves room. What is function of behavior? (Test)
Ex2. Given difficult task, student… 1.Says this work is stupid, 2.Pokes student at next table, 3.Argues with student, 4.Tells teacher to butt out, 5.Threatens teacher 6.Runs away from teacher who chases. What is function of behavior? (Test)
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed Represents basic working unit of FBA Directly guides development of BIP
Features 1.“Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed 2.Composed of (a) problem behavior, (b) triggering antecedent, (c) maintaining consequences, & (d) setting events. 3.Represents basic working unit of FBA
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” Following events that maintain behaviors of concern Preceding events that trigger or occasion Set of related behaviors of concern Infrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq.
Setting Events –Unique situations in which factors unique to individual Make problem behavior more intense or more likely to occur (e.g., illness, fatigue, hunger, social conflict). –By changing value of reinforcers E.g., praise less effective, peer attention is more reinforcing, work completion is less important.
Work completion is less important (reinforcing) to Demetri after he has had an argument with his girlfriend before class, or Cologne’s use of verbal profanity is more likely (escape) when she hasn’t had enough sleep night before, or Peer attention is less distracting (reinforcing) when Manuella isn’t feeling well.
Lack of sleep decreases value (reinforcement) of getting to school on time, increases value of going to Hot Dog Haven. Lack of breakfast increases value (reinforcement) of getting sent to office (by fending machines) for failing to follow directions. Having a fight with boyfriend decreases value (reinforcement) of listening to lecture. Getting >50% of problem wrong decreases value (reinforcement) of starting new worksheets.
When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in- school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. New studentStudent approaches & speaks in English Cleo turns away Other student walks away What function? Escape peer attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment. None Teacher asks what capitol city of country is Napoleon give correct answer Teacher gives verbal praise & time to work with a friend What function? Access peer & adult attention
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.” ??Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo” What function? Access OR escape peer attention? How do you know? Assess?
TE is “best guess.” What if testable hypothesis is incomplete or inaccurate? Review what you know Collect more information Change hypothesis statement Test/confirm new hypothesis statement
TE1 for Hillary: "When Hillary sits next to Bill, Hillary whispers in his ear. Bill laughs." Test manipulation? –Put Al in Bill’s seat. Effect: –Hillary whispers in Al’s ear. Develop new TE!
TE2: “When Hillary sits next to boys, she whispers in their ears. The boys laugh.” Test manipulation? –Put Monica in Bill’s seat. Effect: –Hillary does not whisper.
Avoid explanatory fictions Restatement of problem & not measurable (-) She’s aggressive because she’s angry (+) When she is teased about her looks & family, she uses profanity & hits until the teasing stops.
Avoid explanatory fictions Not measurable or testable (-) He’s emotionally disturbed (+) When he is with peers, he talks about hurting them & himself.
“Petunia” Problem: Petunia is in 9th grade & very inattentive. In class, she is forever inattentive, distractible, off-task, & bothering others. Explanatory fiction: Petunia has ADHD & conduct disorders Testable hypothesis: Petunia works on each assignment for about 2 minutes, answers before presentation of questions are completed, asks other students for help, & gets out of her seat 12 times per 30 min. period.
“Rhus” Problem: Rhus is an 11th grader with autism. He’s high functioning but is hated by his peers. When he gets frustrated, he screams & bites his hand. Explanatory fiction: Rhus has Fragile X & is emotionally disturbed Testable hypothesis: Rhus has verbal skills to describe his situation, but if presented with difficult academic work & short timelines, he screams until teachers help him. If peers tease him, he bites his hand, & the teasing stops.
“Catoneaster” Problem: Catoneaster is a 7th grader who resists going to school each morning. Explanatory fiction: Catoneaster has parent separation anxiety Testable hypothesis: Catoneaster finds attention from his Dad to be very rewarding. His mother died when he was 5 years old. When he argues with his Dad in the parking lot, his Dad takes him out for breakfast & brings him back during 2nd period.
“Azalea” Problem: Azalea is an 8th grader who skips most of her morning classes. Explanatory fiction: Azalea is a school phobic. Testable hypothesis: On days she misses breakfast, Azalea goes to the cafeteria to eat instead of going to class. When she gets to the cafeteria, she visits with her friends until a teacher tells her to go class. Her friends tell her she is cool the way she talks to teachers & skips 1 st period.
Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence WRITE TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS: As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.” ??Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo”
Example 1: Different behaviors with different functions Kirsten’s teachers agree that she has two behaviors that interfere with her social success at school, & develop two testable hypotheses:
Setting Event Antecedent Event Behavior Consequence Event None Teacher presents multiple step request. Verbal protest, non- compliance, foot stomping. Teacher repeats request 4 to 5 times & threatens after school suspension. Setting Event Antecedent Event Behavior Consequence Event None Peers play game & have conflict. Pushes peers away, uses profanity, throws rocks. Peers stop playing with Kirsten. Get adult attention Escape peer social
Example 2: Same behaviors with different functions Amy teachers have noticed two different conditions when Amy displays same problem behaviors. They developed following two testable hypotheses:
Setting Event Antecedent Event Behavior Consequence Event None Peers try to engage Amy in con- versations. Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Peers move away. Setting Event Antecedent Event Behavior Consequence Event None Teachers give Amy corrective feedback about her work. Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Teachers sit down next to her, rub her shoulders, & say comforting words. Avoid peer attention Get adult social
Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS” STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____Date: ____January 11___________ Interviewer: ___________Sugai________Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____ STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school. C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum. STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.
STEP 4: Routine Analysis Schedule (Times) ActivityLikelihood of Problem BehaviorSpecific Problem Behavior 8:00Waiting to enter building Low High 1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above 8:15Advisory & Planning1 2 3 4 5 6 Mostly teasing and touching property of others. Doesn’t escalate much further 9:15Language Arts1 2 3 4 5 6 Occasional name calling/teasing 10:15Recess1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above 11:30Math1 2 3 4 5 6Occasional teasing 12:00Lunch1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above 12:35Earth Science1 2 3 4 5 6Minor verbal harassment 1:15Art or Phy Ed1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above 2:00Reading1 2 3 4 5 6Rarely a problem 2:50Waiting for bus1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above
Fundamental Rule! “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision makers. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child & Family Studies, Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health. http://rtckids.fmhi.usf.edu Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guildford Press. Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The behavior education program. New York: Guilford Press.
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement
Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Lack of peer contact in 30 minutes. Do difficult math assignment. Noncompliance, profanity, physical aggression, Avoid task, remove from class. Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Points, grades, questions, more work. Do work w/o complaints. Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative Ask for break, ask for help. Why is function important? Because consequences compete!! Function
Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Ask for break 2. Ask for help 3. Turn in assignment as is. Teach missing math skills Arrange for peer interaction before math class Provide positive adult contact Sit with preferred peer Introduce review type problem before difficult tasks Remind of alternative behaviors Do first problem together Immediately reinforce entering class. Provide reinforcer w/in 1 min. of starting task (3 min., 5 min., 10 minutes) Give break & help Sit with preferred peer when done
On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting.
On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting. + Give time to review homework. + Give quiet time before starting. + Give easy “warm- up” task before doing quiz. + Precorrect behavior options & consequences. + With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or request completion of task next period. + Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO). + Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers. Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Turn in blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.
BIP Guidelines 1.Design antecedent strategies to make triggering antecedents irrelevant….so they no longer serve as triggers. 2.Design behavior teaching strategies to make problem behaviors inefficient….so more acceptable behaviors are easier to do.
3.Design consequence strategies to make maintaining consequences ineffective…so they no longer are present or are less reinforcing. 4.Design setting event strategies to eliminate or neutralize effects of setting events…so they have less impact on routines & reinforcers.
Neutralize/ eliminate setting events Add relevant & remove irrelevant triggers Teach alternative that is more efficient Add effective & & remove ineffective reinforcers
FBA Team Process Steps 1.Collect information. 2.Develop testable hypothesis or summary statement. 3.Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement. 4.Develop “competing pathways” summary statement. 5.Develop BIP. 6.Develop details & routines for full implementation of BSP. 7.Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating implementation of BSP.
Process Guidelines 1.Conducted by team Behaviorally competent Student-knowledgeable 2.Led by behavior specialist 3.Link behavioral strategies to summary statement 4.Ensure that implementers are fluent 5.Monitor continuously & evaluate early ٭