5 Outcomes (“Answers”) Supporting context Effective SWPBS Features & requirements of function-based approach to behavior supportProcessBehavioral description of “function”Get or escape/avoidSteps in function-based approach to behavior intervention planningBehaviorally competent team
6 Behavior Support Elements *Response class*Routine analysis*Hypothesis statement*Alternative behaviors*Competing behavior analysis*Contextual fit*Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes*Evidence-based interventionsProblem BehaviorFunctional Assessment*Implementation support*Data planTeam-basedBehavior competenceIntervention & Support Plan*Continuous improvement*Sustainability planFidelity of ImplementationImpact on Behavior & Lifestyle
7 PrerequisitesEffective school-wide system of behavior support in placeLocal behaviorally competent teamFunction-based approach
8 Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorCONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDEINSTRUCTIONAL &POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings~80% of Students
9 Positive Behavior Support Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
10 What is FBA?A systematic process for developing statements about factors thatcontribute to occurrence & maintenance of problem behavior, &more importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.
11 What is Function Based Support? Foundations in behavioral theory, applied behavior analysis, & positive behavior supportAttention to environmental contextEmphasis on function of behaviorFocus on teaching effective, efficient, & relevant behaviorsAttention to behavior of implementers
12 Functional approach logic Behaviors are maintained by consequence events (function)Positive or negative reinforcementBehaviors are occasioned by antecedent eventsRelate antecedent to emission of behavior & likelihood of consequence eventChanging behaviors requires consideration of maintaining consequences
14 Problem Solving Meeting 2. Indirect Checklist FA Interview MORE INFORMALEASIERSIMPLEINDIRECTMOREDIRECTCOMPLICATEDDIFFICULTFORMALFBA LEVELSInformalArchival ReviewProblem Solving Meeting2. IndirectChecklistFA InterviewRoutine Analysis3. Direct ObservationA-B-CStructured, Planned Observation4. Planned ManipulationExperimental or Functional Analysis
15 RequirementsBehavior must be considered within context in which it is observed.Intensity of behavior support plans must be matched to intensity of problem behavior.
16 Local behavioral competence must be available. FBA processDevelopment, implementation, & evaluation of plansCollection & analysis of dataKnowledge about research validated practices
17 Decisions must be data-based. Staff must receive continuous feedback on their implementation of behavior intervention plans.Effective school-wide system of behavior support must be in place.FBA process should be team based
18 When has FBA been done?Clear & measurable definition of problem behaviors.Complete testable hypothesis or summary statement is provided.Statement of function (purpose) of behavior3. Data (direct observation) to confirm testable hypothesis.Behavior intervention plan based on testable hypothesisContextually appropriate supports for accurate implementation
19 FBA Elements Definition of Problem Behavior Testable or Class HypothesisFBAElementsContextuallyAppropriateSupportFunctionStatementBehaviorInterventionPlanSupportingDataCompetingPathAnalysis
20 Defining behaviorMust result in clear, measurable, & objective descriptions of individual, groups, or sequences of related behaviorsAny observable or measurable action or act.Observable beginning & endHas measurable dimension(s)Frequency, duration, latency, force, topography, locus
21 Consider behavior dimensions: Topography/shapeFrequencyDurationLatency,Intensity or forceLocus
22 Non- v. Observable (-) hyperactivity (+) initiates 5 different tasks within 2 minutes(+) leaves room at least 3 times during a 30 minute lesson(+)….
23 Consider response class Set of topographically different behaviors with similar or related purpose or functionHit, spit, runaway, yell…Escape difficult task requestCry, hit, whine, raise hand, spit…..Obtain adult attention
24 Consider response chains Predictable sequence of behaviorsPossibly different functions at beginning & end of chains
25 What is function of behavior? (Test) Ex1. Behavior ChainGiven doable task, student…Whispers that work is stupid,Writes on papers,Says work is stupid,Throws paper in waste basket, &Leaves room.What is function of behavior? (Test)
26 What is function of behavior? (Test) Ex2.Given difficult task, student…Says this work is stupid,Pokes student at next table,Argues with student,Tells teacher to butt out,Threatens teacherRuns away from teacher who chases.What is function of behavior? (Test)
27 Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequences“Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observedRepresents basic working unit of FBADirectly guides development of BIP
28 Features“Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observedComposed of (a) problem behavior, (b) triggering antecedent, (c) maintaining consequences, & (d) setting events.Represents basic working unit of FBA
29 Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesInfrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq.Following events that maintain behaviors of concernPreceding events that trigger or occasionSet of related behaviors of concern
30 Setting Events Unique situations in which factors unique to individual Make problem behavior more intense or more likely to occur (e.g., illness, fatigue, hunger, social conflict).By changing value of reinforcersE.g., praise less effective, peer attention is more reinforcing, work completion is less important.
31 Work completion is less important (reinforcing) to Demetri after he has had an argument with his girlfriend before class, orCologne’s use of verbal profanity is more likely (escape) when she hasn’t had enough sleep night before, orPeer attention is less distracting (reinforcing) when Manuella isn’t feeling well.
32 Lack of sleep decreases value (reinforcement) of getting to school on time, increases value of going to Hot Dog Haven.Lack of breakfast increases value (reinforcement) of getting sent to office (by fending machines) for failing to follow directions.Having a fight with boyfriend decreases value (reinforcement) of listening to lecture.Getting >50% of problem wrong decreases value (reinforcement) of starting new worksheets.
33 When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful.Avoid difficult tasksWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceSequoia makesnegative self-statements &writes profanelanguageTeacher sendsSequoia tooffice for beingdisrespectfulMisses 12:30medicationTeachersmakemultipletask demands
34 Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention.Escape adult &peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceCaesar isteased severaltimes about hishair by hisfriends beforeclassHis teacherstares at hishair in classCaesar askshis teacherwhat she’sstaring atHis teachersends him toin-schooldetention
35 Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day.Escape peer attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceNew studentStudentapproaches &speaks inEnglishCleo turnsawayOtherstudent walksaway
36 When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment.Access peer &adult attentionWhat function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceTeacher askswhat capitolcity of countryisNapoleongive correctanswerTeacher givesverbal praise& time to workwith a friendNone
37 As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”Access OR escapepeer attention?What function?Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequenceHow do you know?Assess?How do you know???Look at him.“What’s up!”“Who yalookin’ at?”“Ya wantSome?” “Yatalkin’ to me?Kids shakeheads &call him“weirdo”
38 TE is “best guess.” What if testable hypothesis is incomplete or inaccurate? Review what you knowCollect more informationChange hypothesis statementTest/confirm new hypothesis statement
39 Test manipulation? Effect: TE1 for Hillary: "When Hillary sits next to Bill, Hillary whispers in his ear. Bill laughs."Test manipulation?Put Al in Bill’s seat.Effect:Hillary whispers in Al’s ear.Develop new TE!
40 Test manipulation? Effect: TE2: “When Hillary sits next to boys, she whispers in their ears. The boys laugh.”Test manipulation?Put Monica in Bill’s seat.Effect:Hillary does not whisper.
41 Avoid explanatory fictions Restatement of problem & not measurable(-) She’s aggressive because she’s angry(+) When she is teased about her looks & family, she uses profanity & hits until the teasing stops.
42 Avoid explanatory fictions Not measurable or testable(-) He’s emotionally disturbed(+) When he is with peers, he talks about hurting them & himself.
43 “Petunia”Problem: Petunia is in 9th grade & very inattentive. In class, she is forever inattentive, distractible, off-task, & bothering others.Explanatory fiction: Petunia has ADHD & conduct disordersTestable hypothesis: Petunia works on each assignment for about 2 minutes, answers before presentation of questions are completed, asks other students for help, & gets out of her seat 12 times per 30 min. period.
44 “Rhus”Problem: Rhus is an 11th grader with autism. He’s high functioning but is hated by his peers. When he gets frustrated, he screams & bites his hand.Explanatory fiction: Rhus has Fragile X & is emotionally disturbedTestable hypothesis: Rhus has verbal skills to describe his situation, but if presented with difficult academic work & short timelines, he screams until teachers help him. If peers tease him, he bites his hand, & the teasing stops.
45 “Catoneaster”Problem: Catoneaster is a 7th grader who resists going to school each morning.Explanatory fiction: Catoneaster has parent separation anxietyTestable hypothesis: Catoneaster finds attention from his Dad to be very rewarding. His mother died when he was 5 years old. When he argues with his Dad in the parking lot, his Dad takes him out for breakfast & brings him back during 2nd period.
46 “Azalea”Problem: Azalea is an 8th grader who skips most of her morning classes.Explanatory fiction: Azalea is a school phobic.Testable hypothesis: On days she misses breakfast, Azalea goes to the cafeteria to eat instead of going to class. When she gets to the cafeteria, she visits with her friends until a teacher tells her to go class. Her friends tell her she is cool the way she talks to teachers & skips 1st period.
47 WRITE TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS: As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence??Look at him.“What’s up!”“Who yalookin’ at?”“Ya wantSome?” “Yatalkin’ to me?Kids shakeheads &call him“weirdo”
48 Example 1: Different behaviors with different functions Kirsten’s teachers agree that she has two behaviors that interfere with her social success at school, & develop two testable hypotheses:
49 Get adult attention Escape peer social Setting Event Antecedent EventBehaviorConsequence EventNoneTeacher presents multiple step request.Verbal protest, non-compliance, foot stomping.Teacher repeats request 4 to 5 times & threatens after school suspension.Get adult attentionSetting EventAntecedent EventBehaviorConsequence EventNonePeers play game & have conflict.Pushes peers away, uses profanity, throws rocks.Peers stop playing with Kirsten.Escape peer social
50 Example 2: Same behaviors with different functions Amy teachers have noticed two different conditions when Amy displays same problem behaviors. They developed following two testable hypotheses:
51 Avoid peer attention Get adult social Setting Event Antecedent Event BehaviorConsequence EventNonePeers try to engage Amy in con-versations.Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head.Peers move away.Avoid peer attentionSetting EventAntecedent EventBehaviorConsequence EventNoneTeachers give Amy corrective feedback about her work.Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head.Teachers sit down next to her, rub her shoulders, & say comforting words.Get adult social
52 Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS” STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____ Date: ____January 11___________Interviewer: ___________Sugai________ Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school.C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum.STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injuryDescribe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.
53 STEP 4: Routine Analysis Schedule(Times)ActivityLikelihood of Problem BehaviorSpecific Problem Behavior8:00Waiting to enter buildingLow HighSee escalation described above8:15Advisory & PlanningMostly teasing and touching property of others. Doesn’t escalate much further9:15Language ArtsOccasional name calling/teasing10:15Recess11:30MathOccasional teasing12:00Lunch12:35Earth ScienceMinor verbal harassment1:15Art or Phy Ed2:00ReadingRarely a problem2:50Waiting for bus
54 Fundamental Rule!“You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
55 Kutash, K. , Duchnowski, A. J. , & Lynn, N. (2006) Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An empirical guide for decision makers. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child & Family Studies, Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health. Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guildford Press. Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The behavior education program. New York: Guilford Press.
56 Summary Statement Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesAcceptableAlternative
59 Summary Statement Function Why is function important? DesiredAlternativeTypicalConsequencePoints,grades,questions,more work.Do workw/ocomplaints.Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesNoncompliance,profanity,physicalaggression,Lack of peercontact in 30minutes.Do difficultmathassignment.Avoid task,remove fromclass.FunctionAcceptableAlternativeWhy is function important?Ask forbreak,ask forhelp.Because consequencescompete!!
60 Setting EventManipulationsAntecedentManipulationsBehaviorManipulationsConsequenceManipulationsImmediately reinforce entering class.Provide reinforcer w/in 1 min. of starting task (3 min., 5 min., 10 minutes)Give break & helpSit with preferred peer when doneArrange for peer interaction before math classProvide positive adult contactSit with preferred peerIntroduce review type problem before difficult tasksRemind of alternative behaviorsDo first problem togetherTeach options to problem behavior:1. Ask for break2. Ask for help3. Turn in assignment as is.Teach missing math skills
61 Do quiz withoutcomplaints.Discussion aboutanswers & homework.On Mondays and/orwhen up all of thenight before.Daily nongraded quizon previous night’shomeworkVerbal protests, slumpin chair, walks out ofroom.Avoids doing quiz &homework discussion.Turn in with name &sit quietly w/ointerrupting.
62 Do quiz withoutcomplaints.Discussion aboutanswers & homework.On Mondays and/orwhen up all of thenight before.Daily nongraded quizon previous night’shomeworkVerbal protests, slumpin chair, walks out ofroom.Avoids doing quiz &homework discussion.Turn in with name &sit quietly w/ointerrupting.+ Give time to reviewhomework.+ Give quiet time before starting.+ Give easy “warm-up” task before doing quiz.+ Precorrect behavior options & consequences.+ With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, orrequest completion of task next period.+ Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO).+ Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers.Teach options to problem behavior:1. Turn in blank2. Turn in w/ name3. Turn in w/ name & first item done.4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.
63 BIP GuidelinesDesign antecedent strategies to make triggering antecedents irrelevant….so they no longer serve as triggers.Design behavior teaching strategies to make problem behaviors inefficient….so more acceptable behaviors are easier to do.
64 3. Design consequence strategies to make maintaining consequences ineffective…so they no longer are present or are less reinforcing.4. Design setting event strategies to eliminate or neutralize effects of setting events…so they have less impact on routines & reinforcers.
65 Add effective && removeineffectivereinforcersNeutralize/eliminatesettingeventsAdd relevant& removeirrelevanttriggersTeachalternativethat is moreefficient
66 FBA Team Process Steps Collect information. Develop testable hypothesis or summary statement.Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement.Develop “competing pathways” summary statement.Develop BIP.Develop details & routines for full implementation of BSP.Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating implementation of BSP.
68 ٭ Process Guidelines Conducted by team Led by behavior specialist Behaviorally competentStudent-knowledgeableLed by behavior specialistLink behavioral strategies to summary statementEnsure that implementers are fluentMonitor continuously & evaluate early