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Basis of Estimates for Designers, Estimators, and Reviewers

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1 Basis of Estimates for Designers, Estimators, and Reviewers
Melissa Hollis Engineering Systems Support State Specifications and Estimates Office May 2011

2 Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates
Welcome to the Basis of Estimates training. This presentation is designed in three parts: Part 1 introduces users to the Basis of Estimates, including how to navigate the online manual. Part 2 helps Designers select the appropriate item(s) for the work required. Part 3 assists with reviews by FDOT and Consultants, highlighting recent changes, common errors, and related issues. Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Part 2: Selecting Pay Items Part 3: Estimating and Review

3 Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates
If you need additional information on a pay item or project specific conditions, please contact your District Estimates Office, or the Basis of Estimates Coordinator. Contact information is available on the Specifications and Estimates Office web page at: specificationsoffice/ This training is under development. Suggestions for future enhancement are welcome. Please contact Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Part 2: Selecting Pay Items Part 3: Estimating and Review

4 I Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Basis of Estimates
The general Information section includes a brief overview of the various estimating systems. The BOE Online section shows how to access and use the BOE files. The first 10 Chapters of the BOE provide additional details that are applicable to all items. Note: Chapters are pay item specific. They are detailed in Part 2 of the Basis of Estimates training. Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates General Information BOE Online Chapters Chapter 1: Updates & Registration Chapter 2: Units of Measure Chapter 5: Contact Lists Chapter 6: Pay Item Requests Chapter 7: Plan Notes Chapter 8: Forms Chapter 9: Trnsport & Webgate Chapter 10: Formatting Items I

5 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within the General Information section, we will review Terminology and Timelines that are important throughout the Design Process. Within our Department, we tend to use acronyms or abbreviations for commonly used terminology. Here are a few of the terms used throughout this presentation. General Information Terminology DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of Transportation BOE: Basis of Estimates Specs: Specifications, including the Standard Specifications (bound book), Supplemental Specifications (FHWA approved), Special Provisions, Developmental Specifications, and Technical Special Provisions Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price I

6 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
DOT or FDOT: The Florida Department of Transportation. General Information Terminology DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of Transportation BOE: Basis of Estimates Specs: Specifications, including the Standard Specifications (bound book), Supplemental Specifications (FHWA approved), Special Provisions, Developmental Specifications, and Technical Special Provisions Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price I

7 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
BOE: Basis of Estimates An online document which provides guidance on the use of pay items for use on Construction and Maintenance contracts. Note that this manual is NOT a contract document. All measurement and payment information must be included in the contract package. General Information Terminology DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of Transportation BOE: Basis of Estimates Specs: Specifications, including the Standard Specifications (bound book), Supplemental Specifications (FHWA approved), Special Provisions, Developmental Specifications, and Technical Special Provisions Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price I

8 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Specs: Specifications, including the Standard Specifications (bound book), Supplemental Specifications (FHWA approved), Special Provisions, Developmental Specifications, and Technical Special Provisions Complete specifications normally include: description material requirements construction or installation requirements method of measurement basis of payment General Information Terminology DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of Transportation BOE: Basis of Estimates Specs: Specifications, including the Standard Specifications (bound book), Supplemental Specifications (FHWA approved), Special Provisions, Developmental Specifications, and Technical Special Provisions Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price I

9 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
While the plan details often include a visual “description” of the work to be completed, the specifications are normally used to complete the materials, construction, and compensation details. Note: Plan details should never be used to repeat, modify, or “override” specifications. Conflicts between plans and specifications should be avoided. (More details in Chapter 6.) General Information Terminology DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of Transportation BOE: Basis of Estimates Specs: Specifications, including the Standard Specifications (bound book), Supplemental Specifications (FHWA approved), Special Provisions, Developmental Specifications, and Technical Special Provisions Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price I

10 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Estimates part of the contract package includes pay items, quantities, and prices. The pay items are selected to correspond with the specifications. Pay Item selection information is available in Part 2. Quantities are estimated according to the plans and specifications. General Information Terminology DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of Transportation BOE: Basis of Estimates Specs: Specifications, including the Standard Specifications (bound book), Supplemental Specifications (FHWA approved), Special Provisions, Developmental Specifications, and Technical Special Provisions Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price I

11 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Quantities may be tabulated the plans, or calculated in the computation book (COMP book). More on forms and documentation in Chapter 8. Note that most prices are based on “furnish and install” operations, as indicated in the contract documents (plans and/or specs). General Information Terminology DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of Transportation BOE: Basis of Estimates Specs: Specifications, including the Standard Specifications (bound book), Supplemental Specifications (FHWA approved), Special Provisions, Developmental Specifications, and Technical Special Provisions Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price I

12 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Together, the Plans, Specifications, and Estimates create the PSE package. General Information Terminology PSE Package Proposal Bidder Contract Project Category / Design Group Roadway, Structures, Signing & Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals, Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural, Mass Transit I

13 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The completed PSE package, also known as the proposal, is used by various bidders. The successful bidder is awarded the contract and becomes the Contractor. Proposals are identified by a 5 digit alpha/numeric value such as T12345, where the T indicates a Tallahassee let proposal. Other letters would indicate a District Let proposal. The number following the letter indicates the primary district. General Information Terminology PSE Package Proposal Bidder Contract / Contractor Project Category / Design Group Roadway, Structures, Signing & Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals, Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural, Mass Transit I

14 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within a proposal (or later, the contract), one or more projects are included. Projects are identified by a 11 digit number, normally in the following format: This may also be known as the Financial Management (FM) number. General Information Terminology PSE Package Proposal Bidder Contract Project Category / Design Group Roadway, Structures, Signing & Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals, Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural, Mass Transit I

15 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within a project, work is divided into various categories or design groups. Each category normally has a corresponding component set of plans. Note: Each bridge is entered as a separate category, but the plans may be developed together, especially for parallel bridges. A separate category is required for each bridge, to capture the length and width, as well as the corresponding items, quantities, and costs for the bridge. General Information Terminology PSE Package Proposal Bidder Contract Project Category / Design Group Roadway, Structures, Signing & Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals, Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural, Mass Transit I

16 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Note: Exceptions exist for incidental landscaping that may be included on Roadway plans; refer to the Plans Preparation Manual (PPM) for details. Items for each category should correspond to the work shown in the component plans. For example, lighting items loaded in the lighting category should correspond with the work shown in the lighting plans. General Information Terminology PSE Package Proposal Bidder Contract Project Category / Design Group Roadway, Structures, Signing & Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals, Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural, Mass Transit I

17 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Continuing with System terminology… LRE is the Long Range Estimates System. This system produces a budget cost estimate before plans/quantities are available. Expected items and quantities are determined from the typical section(s) and length. Items, quantities, and prices are updated as the scope is refined and updated. Prices are based on the previous 12 months’ historical bid prices, and/or updated based on project conditions. General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

18 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Trnsport is a suite of programs designed to meet the needs of state transportation departments. Trnsport is an AASHTO product. (pronounced “ash-toe”) AASHTO = American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials. General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

19 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within the Trnsport suite, separate programs are used by Designers, Estimators, Contracts Administration, and Construction. The modules include: PES: Proposal and Estimating System Items and quantities are loaded into PES. (Consultant Designers use the Designer Interface to complete this task.) General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

20 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
CES: Cost Estimating System FDOT Estimators use CES to compare item history for similar quantities and similar project types. Item prices normally include materials, labor, and equipment costs. The unit price for small quantities is generally higher than the unit price for a large quantity, due to equipment set- up and related labor costs. General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

21 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
LAS: Letting and Award System The Contracts Administration Office uses LAS to distribute bid packages to potential bidders. Once bids are received, the successful bid is awarded. (Details on the letting and award process are included in the Specifications, Section 3.) General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

22 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
After award, Proposal information, including items, quantities, and awarded bid prices are transferred to SiteManager. SiteManager is the database used to track daily construction activities. Monthly payments are made to the contractor, based on the progress of the construction activities. Historical bid information is stored in DSS: Decision Support System General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

23 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Webgate and the Designer Interface were designed by DOT staff to simplify access to various Trnsport modules and databases. Webgate includes various reports: Project Edit Report Proposal Summary Master Pay Item List Item Average Unit Cost We’ll demonstrate these reports at the end of the presentation. General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

24 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
WebTrnsport is the next generation Trnsport product. We have recently received a test version. An implementation schedule will be determined as more details are available. General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

25 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Plans Preparation Manual is maintained by the State Roadway Design Office. It includes guidance on when specific items of work should or shouldn’t be included on a project. This manual is directed towards designers working on FDOT projects. While the PPM is a part of the Design firm’s contract with the Department, it is not a contract document between the construction contractor and the Department. General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

26 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Construction Project Administration Manual is maintained by the State Construction Office. This manual is directed towards FDOT Engineers and other representatives, acting on behalf of the Department. General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes I

27 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Standards are also known as the Design Standards, Interim Standards, or Indexes. The standards become a part of the contract documents, by reference in the plans or specifications. They are used by both designers and contractors. The standards, including any interims or updates, are available on the Roadway Design web pages. Be sure to use the Instructions for Design Standards (IDS), when available; they will provide pay item guidance. General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS Webgate, Designer Interface WebTrnsport PPM: Plans Preparation Manual CPAM: Construction Project Administration Manual Standards: Design Standards, Interim Standards, Indexes, Instructions for Design Standards DesignStandards/Standards.shtm I

28 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
With a typical project, there are several common stages of development. In the Pre-Design stage, the project scope is loosely defined. Project limits and type of work are identified. Using LRE, a Scope Estimate is produced. The project and scope estimate are entered into the 5 year work program- a system to schedule proposed work with expected funding. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

29 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Following the selection of a designer, the initial design and creation of plans begins. Reviews are conducted at various phases, throughout the development of the PSE package. During phase 1, basic plan and profile information is created. Complete requirements for each phase are shown in the PPM. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

30 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
During phase II, additional details are defined- lighting, landscape, etc. Pay Items are identified at this time. During phase III, most of the design work is completed. Quantities for all pay items are loaded into the Trnsport system. Specifications are under review, as needed. Note: The LRE continues to be the primary source for project costs, until items, quantities, and prices are complete in Trnsport. It is important to maintain the LRE scope and details. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

31 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Sometime between phases III and IV, when the items and quantities are finalized, the LRE is archived, and the Trnsport estimate is used. Where LRE contains expected values based on typical section and length, Trnsport contains known values based on calculation of quantities shown in the plans. Hint: If the LRE is maintained with scope changes, we are able to give you an earlier “heads up” when pay item changes are expected. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

32 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
During Phase IV, designers should be resolving any comments from the phase III reviews, as well as updating the traffic control plans. Specifications and estimates are completed. With the phase IV submittal, the PSE package should be complete- ready for the letting process. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

33 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
During Phase IV, designers should be resolving any comments from the phase III reviews, as well as updating the traffic control plans. Specifications and estimates are completed. With the phase IV submittal, the PSE package should be complete- ready for the letting process. ALL design work should be COMPLETE before the PHASE IV “Final Plans” submittal. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

34 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within the Letting and Bid Review process, the project(s) is/are attached to a proposal number, authorized for funding, and advertized to potential bidders. After the letting (when bids are received), the bids are reviewed and awarded. Details of the letting and award process are included in the specifications. Upon award, the proposal is transferred to SiteManager, for use by Construction. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

35 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Timeline review: Just as with plans, there are early estimates (LRE), phase estimates (including the annual Work Program reviews), authorization estimate, and the final bid package or “official” estimate. The authorization estimate can be considered a good “ball park” estimate for authorization and advertisement. The more refined official estimate is used for review and award purposes. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

36 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Once the contract is awarded, the construction activities begin. Note that the terms “Monthly Estimate” and “Final Estimate” are used by the Construction Office, for monthly and final payment of the construction operations. General Information Timeline Pre-Design Design Letting & Bid Review Award Construction I

37 I Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Basis of Estimates
This completes the General Information section of Part 1. Continuing on with the online BOE… Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates General Information BOE Online Chapters Chapter 1: Updates & Registration Chapter 2: Units of Measure Chapter 5: Contact Lists Chapter 6: Pay Item Requests Chapter 7: Plan Notes Chapter 8: Forms Chapter 9: Trnsport & Webgate Chapter 10: Formatting Items I

38 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
All BOE online files are provided in .pdf format, searchable with Acrobat Reader® or other similar programs. The reader is available from Adobe® at The files are located on the FDOT Specifications and Estimates web page. Select the BOE link from the top ribbon, or use the Basis of Estimates link within the blue bar on the left side of the page. BOE Online searchable .pdf files Reader is available from Files are located on the Specifications and Estimates web page at specificationsoffice/ I

39 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Note that this manual is NOT a contract document. All measurement and payment information must be included in the contract package. BOE Online NOT a contract document Refer to Chapter 10 for coordinating BOE content with the plans and specifications I

40 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Do not print the entire BOE. The BOE files add up to more than 500 pages, and many change on a monthly basis. Print only the pages or groups you need- signals, lighting, etc. BOE Online Complete file is large! I

41 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 1 provides update and registration information, as well as critical dates for proposed changes. The Monthly Updates generally involve minor detail changes or clarifications. The list of valid “open” Pay Items is also updated monthly. Chapter 1 Updated Monthly Estimates Bulletins Registration through Contact Database projectmanagementoffice/ contactdatabase.shtm I

42 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Major changes, such as new/replacement pay items, are normally included in an Estimates Bulletin. Bulletins will detail history, usage conditions, and implementation dates. When possible, major changes are scheduled for January or July letting implementation. Applicable specifications and/or standards are coordinated for implementation with the same letting date. Chapter 1 Updated Monthly Estimates Bulletins Registration through Contact Database projectmanagementoffice/ contactdatabase.shtm I

43 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Contact Database is supported by the Production Support Office, previously known as the Project Management Office. It is used to contact customers of FDOT Design and Construction Offices, when major announcements are needed. BOE, PPM, CPAM, and other design manual/handbook users are encouraged to register for these announcements. BOE announcements are normally sent 2-5 times annually. (It is not used for frequent “junk mail”.) Chapter 1 Updated Monthly Estimates Bulletins Registration through Contact Database projectmanagementoffice/ contactdatabase.shtm I

44 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 2 includes a list of abbreviation used by FDOT, within our estimating systems. Common conversion factors are provided for general reference. Chapter 2: Units of Measure Abbreviations Conversion Factors I

45 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 3 has been requested by several users, although many prefer to use the .pdf text search. Chapter 4 is currently blank. Chapter 3: Alphabetical List Chapter 4: Blank for future use I

46 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 5 includes several contact lists. For most of your pay item needs, the Project Manger, District Estimates (or Final Plans) Office should be your primary contact. If you are considering a new product, method, or non- standard design, the pay item coordinators are available to help with specs, standards, and pay items. When technical expertise is needed, the responsible offices are contacted. Chapter 5: Contact Lists Directory of Coordinators Central Office Pay Item coordinators Responsible Offices Listing, by pay item range, of the responsible office and contact person(s) I

47 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
While the District Coordinators and technical experts are quite helpful, Designers are asked to please follow district processes by working through Project Managers and/or District coordinators, before contacting the responsible office representatives, especially for project specific issues. Chapter 5: Contact Lists Project Specific Issues Designer coordinates with Project Manager. Project Manger works with District or Responsible Office, as needed , with Designer and Project Manager’s contact information, works well to expedite responses. Carefully select the “cc: group” Project Number, Letting & Production Dates I

48 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
works well when the appropriate persons are included. Forward the history when requesting assistance from the responsible office; the technical expert may need to request additional details from the designer. Chapter 5: Contact Lists Project Specific Issues Designer coordinates with Project Manager. Project Manger works with District or Responsible Office, as needed , with Designer and Project Manager’s contact information, works well to expedite responses. Carefully select the “cc: group” Project Number, Letting & Production Dates I

49 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Ensure that all correspondence includes a project number. A letting and/or production date is helpful. For best service, submit questions and requests in a timely manner, in accordance with the PPM submittal schedule. Allow others sufficient response time, before submittal dates. More on requesting pay items in a few moments… Chapter 5: Contact Lists Project Specific Issues Designer coordinates with Project Manager. Project Manger works with District or Responsible Office, as needed , with Designer and Project Manager’s contact information, works well to expedite responses. Carefully select the “cc: group” Project Number, Letting & Production Dates I

50 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 6 details processes for Requesting Pay Items. Please refer to the online file for complete information. Over the past year, we have simplified the process for requesting pay items; please review the text or ask for assistance when considering a new pay item. Looking at Opening Pay Items and Creating New Pay Items… Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Pay Item request instructions Inactive Items Pay Item reviews Coordination Team Management Team Developmental, Trial, and/or Special Pay Items Generic Pay Items I

51 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Items shown in the Basis of Estimates may be opened, subject to implementation dates or other notes shown. Most of the valid combinations are currently open. When existing pay items do not meet the needs for a project, several options are available. New items may included additional sizes, shapes, or other material properties. The project may call for “adjust”, rather than “Furnish & Install”. Items may be furnished by a local agency, to be installed by the contractor. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Additional Size, shape, etc. Other operations? General use, new specs? Project Specific/Limited use? Developmental/Experimental? I

52 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
New items are also created when new specifications are developed. These new items may be an expansion of an existing pay item structure, or they may completely replace pay item groups. Old Specs: old pay items; New specs: new pay items. Finally, “special” pay items are created when project specific needs are unique, developmental, or experimental. Talk with your District Estimates Office if you have “special” considerations. More info in a few moments… Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Additional Size, shape, etc. Other operations? General use, new specs? Project Specific/Limited use? Developmental/Experimental? I

53 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Frequent questions: “Is it close enough?” or “Should I use an existing pay item, with a plan note?” NO, don’t abuse a pay item because it… Skews Cost History Avoids development of a new item/ product/ specification Introduces potential claims due to non-standard use (or incomplete specs/details) Do not use a plan note to change the intent of an existing item or spec. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Additional Size, shape, etc. Other operations? General use, new specs? Project Specific/Limited use? Developmental/Experimental? I

54 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Pay Item Request Form is not required. When requesting a new item, either by form or , please include the proposed pay item description, unit of measure, and pay item structure (size, shape, or other needed variables). For new items, it is also helpful to include BOE details, specs, or plan details, as needed to complete the BOE information. (Don’t copy the online BOE; I have a copy…) Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Pay Item request instructions Inactive Items Pay Item reviews Coordination Team Management Team Developmental, Trial, and/or Special Pay Items Generic Pay Items I

55 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Remember to Include your contact information- name, phone, and address. Hint: Furnish only and Install only are questioned. Please explain when these items are requested. District Estimators will forward your request. A response will be sent “reply to all” as soon as the item is available. Most requests are completed within 30 minutes. (If I am at my desk, items can be opened in +/- 3 minutes. Afternoon requests are normally processed the following morning.) Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Pay Item request instructions Inactive Items Pay Item reviews Coordination Team Management Team Developmental, Trial, and/or Special Pay Items Generic Pay Items I

56 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Notes concerning pay item structure (variables): Variables should be used when needed to distinguish operation, size, shape, or any other characteristic that significantly affects the installed cost. Characteristics that do not affect cost may be detailed in the plans or specs, or left as an option to the Contractor. More details on the pay item structure are available in Chapter 10. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Pay Item request instructions Inactive Items Pay Item reviews Coordination Team Management Team Developmental, Trial, and/or Special Pay Items Generic Pay Items I

57 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
As specifications and/or standards are updated, the Responsible Office(s) are asked to review the list of valid pay items. Items are considered to be inactive when they are not used for a 2 year period. If no future use is proposed, the Responsible Office may recommend removing the item(s) from the BOE. If items are deemed obsolete, due to specification or design standard changes, they are blocked, as needed. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Pay Item request instructions Inactive Items Pay Item reviews Coordination Team Management Team Developmental, Trial, and/or Special Pay Items Generic Pay Items I

58 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Continuing on with the Coordination Team “C-Team” and Management Team “M- Team”… Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Pay Item request instructions Inactive Items Pay Item reviews Coordination Team Management Team Developmental, Trial, and/or Special Pay Items Generic Pay Items I

59 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Both Teams are composed of members from Design, Construction, Traffic Ops, and Maintenance. The C-Team works to coordinate the implementation of Pay Items, Specifications, Standards, and other issues. The M-Team works to resolve issues between offices, whether resulting from project, specification, policy, legislation, or other administrative issues. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Coordination Team Representatives from Design, Construction, Maintenance, and other offices Coordinate the implementation of Pay Items, Specifications, Standards, and other issues Management Team Managers from same offices Work to resolve issues between offices, policy issues, etc. I

60 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Depending on the issue, either the responsible office, C-Team, or M-Team will coordinate with the District Office(s) prior to implementing major changes. Following direction from the M- Team, the specifications, standards, pay items, manuals, and/or handbooks are updated. The C-Team coordinates the implementation, preparing Bulletin(s) as necessary. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Coordination Team Representatives from Design, Construction, Maintenance, and other offices Coordinate the implementation of Pay Items, Specifications, Standards, and other issues Management Team Managers from same offices Work to resolve issues between offices, policy issues, etc. I

61 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Developmental, Trial, and/or “Special” pay items are considered for various limited use situations: Specifications are subject to change, often due to new or experimental conditions Unique or uncommon project conditions New product evaluation All of these situations should be monitored by the Responsible Office, so that results can be carefully recorded and evaluated. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Pay Item request instructions Inactive Items Pay Item reviews Coordination Team Management Team Developmental, Trial, and/or Special Pay Items Generic Pay Items I

62 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Generic Pay Items are new. “They are intended to support one-time usage pay items or specialty situations where a standard pay item is not available, and for which it is not practical to create a new pay item.” While they are a wonderful new tool, there are rules that apply, to avoid abuse. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Opening pay items Creating new pay items Pay Item request instructions Inactive Items Pay Item reviews Coordination Team Management Team Developmental, Trial, and/or Special Pay Items Generic Pay Items I

63 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The following rules apply in the usage of all generic pay items, including duplicate Lump sum projects. Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items Generic Pay Items- Rules do not use if there is an existing item do not use to avoid an item do not use to circumvent a review or approval process do not use as a “work around” for something that has been rejected or denied. do not use to “sole source” a product do not use to avoid requesting an item Must be supported by Tech spec and/or plan detail Must be loaded in the appropriate category I

64 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 7 addresses Plan Notes. While this chapter previously contained a list of commonly used plan notes, these notes are no longer duplicated from the PPM. This chapter is now used to address when some plan notes are needed, and how to ensure that the note compliments the standards, specs, and or pay items. Chapter 7: Plan Notes General Information Coordination between plans, specs, and pay items “T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or Plan Details I

65 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Plan Notes should NOT be used to change, duplicate, or override the specifications or standards. When changes to the specifications or standards are needed, coordinate with the responsible office for instructions on how to complete the change. Approvals may be needed for “non-standard” design or construction requirements. Chapter 7: Plan Notes General Information Coordination between plans, specs, and pay items “T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or Plan Details I

66 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Specifications generally include: Description Materials Construction or Installation requirements Method of Measurement Basis of Payment When all or part of a specification is not available, a plan note or detail may be used to complete the information. Chapter 7: Plan Notes General Information Coordination between plans, specs, and pay items “T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or Plan Details I

67 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
It is the Designer’s responsibility to ensure that the plans, specifications, and pay items are complete for each item of work included in the plans. Chapter 7: Plan Notes General Information Coordination between plans, specs, and pay items “T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or Plan Details I

68 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
When specifications are known to be incomplete for a given pay item, a “T” flag is included on some reports to remind the designer that additional information (specs and/or details) is needed in the contract documents. Remember: to be complete, the description, material requirements, construction or installation instructions, method of measurement, and basis of payment is needed. Chapter 7: Plan Notes General Information Coordination between plans, specs, and pay items “T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or Plan Details I

69 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Plan notes or detail drawings are often helpful to “describe” the work to be completed. Does the plan note include material requirements? Does the plan note include installation methods or performance requirements? Does the plan note include measurement instructions? Is it field measured or plan quantity? Does the plan note require a complete installation? If not complete, a Tech Spec may be required. Chapter 7: Plan Notes General Information Coordination between plans, specs, and pay items “T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or Plan Details I

70 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
In other terms, a plan note is used with the Tech Spec to provide complete information for an item of work. Other flags include D Plan Details required P Permit required M Monitored item G Generic Item A Approvals needed Chapter 7: Plan Notes General Information Coordination between plans, specs, and pay items “T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or Plan Details I

71 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
There are two types of forms used to calculate and document pay items and quantities. Chapter 8: Forms CADD (Tabulation forms included in the plans) COMP (Computation Book forms) I

72 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The CADD forms are included in the plans. Most items are tabulated by location, with quantity totals by pay item for the entire category of work. The CADD forms are maintained by the State CADD Office. Chapter 8: Forms CADD (Tabulation forms included in the plans) COMP (Computation Book forms) I

73 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The COMP forms are included in the Computation Book. Most items are calculated by location, with quantity totals by pay item for the entire category of work. COMP forms are maintained by the State Construction Office. Chapter 8: Forms CADD (Tabulation forms included in the plans) COMP (Computation Book forms) I

74 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 9 provides an overview of the Webgate and Designer Interface. These FDOT programs were designed to work with the AASHTO Trnsport software. Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer Interface RACF Password required Designer Interface Trnsport Reports Internet Reports I

75 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Webgate and Designer Interface web application require a RACF or “FDOT mainframe” userID and password. These accounts are only available to consultants whose firms have current contracts with the Department. UserIDs and passwords should be requested through your FDOT Project Manager. Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer Interface RACF Password required Designer Interface Trnsport Reports Internet Reports I

76 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Designer Interface is a FDOT web interface to the Trnsport PES module. This interface allows the Designer to enter pay items and quantities, by category, for projects assigned to their consulting firm. Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer Interface RACF Password required Designer Interface Trnsport Reports Internet Reports I

77 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Several reports are available for Designers. The two most commonly used reports are the Project Edit Report and Proposal Summary of Quantities. The Project Edit Report should be used after any changes are made to the pay items or quantities, or after any “idle” or “shelved” period. The Project Edit Report will help to identify missing structures category information, obsolete items, and possible “T” flag items. Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer Interface RACF Password required Designer Interface Trnsport Reports Internet Reports I

78 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Proposal Summary of Quantities report is used to include the items and quantities in the plans. Note that the proposal is normally created during the later project phases. The Project Edit Report should always be run & verified, for each project within the proposal, prior to running the Proposal Summary of Quantities. This will help to avoid many pay item and Trnsport errors. Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer Interface RACF Password required Designer Interface Trnsport Reports Internet Reports I

79 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Project Edit Report is also used to verify structures header information for each structure. Critical information includes: Bridge Number Length Width Superstructure Type Substructure Type This information is used for FHWA reporting. Refer to Chapter 9 for additional information. Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer Interface RACF Password required Designer Interface Trnsport Reports Internet Reports I

80 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
For users who do not have a RACF password, several common reports are available on the Specifications and Estimates web page. specificationsoffice/Estimates/ HistoricalCostInformation/ HistoricalCost.shtm If additional pay item information is needed, please contact the District Estimates staff, or the State Specifications and Estimates Office- Estimates System Support section. Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer Interface RACF Password required Designer Interface Trnsport Reports Internet Reports I

81 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 10 details the how the BOE information is organized for each pay item group. There are 10 digits available for a pay item number, including the leading zero for most items: The first group of digits corresponds to the applicable specification section. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

82 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The remaining digits are used to describe the operation and other variables needed to distinguish the pay item. Maintenance Items, valid only on maintenance contracts, are shown in some editions of the BOE. They are easily identified with a leading “E” in the first group of digits. The remaining pay item structure and formatting guidelines are the same for all pay items. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

83 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Pay Item Description should be clear and concise. When entered into the Trnsport system, the pay item description, along with all variable characteristics, will be entered. Some text may be abbreviated to fit within the available fields. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

84 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
A sample pay item is shown. Note that the top area has the pay item details, while the bottom area has the pay item structure. I

85 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
A sample pay item is shown. Note that the top area has the pay item details, while the bottom area has the pay item structure. Details Structure I

86 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The pay item description shown at the top of each item group. While some pay item groups will list the primary word first, as in “Pipe, Optional”, more descriptions are now shown as we commonly speak them, as in “Optional Pipe”. Either description may be used in the specs and plans. Variables, as shown in the pay item structure, should be included with the pay item description whenever necessary to clearly identify a specific pay item: PIPE CULVERT, OPTIONAL MATERIAL, ROUND, 12” SD Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

87 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The unit, accuracy, and plan quantity information must agree with the available specifications and/or standards. When creating a new item, the unit of measure should consider the application or installation methods, as well as possible quantity adjustments in the field. Accuracy requirements should consider both the product and field conditions. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

88 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The response to “Plan Quantity?” is either a “yes” or “no”. The available specifications or standards must indicate a “Plan Quantity” measurement for this field to be “yes”. For new items, the responsible office will consider field measurement and possible adjustments before recommending whether to use Plan Quantity. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

89 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
For Designers, ensure that the plan quantity is accurately shown in the plans. Subject to 9-3 of the specifications, adjustments to plan quantity will be made if the difference between actual and plan quantity exceeds 5% or an amount of $5000. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

90 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Important Dates field is used to inform users of implementation (or obsolete) dates. When available, replacement items will be referenced in this field. Notes for obsolete items will normally remain in the BOE for 1 year after implementation, to assist designers with replacement items. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

91 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Detail section of each pay item is intended to provide a brief summary of the correct usage, as well as measurement details. As necessary, a “do not use when…” statement will be included to clarify correct usage. The details are obtained from the responsible office, valid specifications, and helpful designers. Comments and suggestions are welcome through or online BOE web page. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

92 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
When related pay items are recommended or required, they are shown in this field. Carefully consider each pay item and the product or work included for payment. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

93 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Items are documented in either the plans: CADD tabulation sheets; or computation book: COMP forms. In general, pay items with complex geometries are calculated and documented in the computation book, and identified by location. Pay items with easily defined geometries or locations are shown in the plans on a tabulation sheet. When a CADD form is available, tabulation in the plans is generally preferred. See the PPM and Design Standards Instructions for more information. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

94 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
References may include PPM guidelines, standards, or specifications. When available, these references should be considered before choosing the pay item(s). If the specification or standard does not apply, do not use the pay item without further guidance. Depending on project conditions, either a modified spec or standard is needed, or a “special” pay item may be recommended. Contact the District Estimates staff for assistance. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Stand. Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

95 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Required: Refer to Chapter 7 for additional information. When is a Plan Note/Detail sufficient? Only when the remaining specification information is complete: description, materials, construction, measurement, and payment. Then is a Tech Spec required? Whenever the above information is incomplete in the contract documents. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

96 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Most specifications are written for “furnish and install” operations. When other operations are called for, ensure that the appropriate instructions are available. Furnish only: Due to FHWA funding rules, the Department does not normally require additional items to be furnished without installation. Exceptions might include special items, to be funded by a local maintaining agency. Contact the District Estimates staff prior to using this operation. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

97 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Install only: Some “specialty items” are available on a state contract, purchased by the Department, and then installed by the Contractor. In this case, an Install only item may be used. When this occurs, the plans or specs must detail the item, pick-up/delivery instructions, as well as any incidentals that may need to be furnished by the Contractor. Another example: For some signals or utility items, a local agency may furnish the product to be installed by the contractor. This ensures that installed products remain compatible with existing systems. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

98 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Relocate: Ensure that the existing item is in good condition. Evaluate whether it is cost effective to relocated an old or obsolete item. Plans or specs should clearly identify the initial and final locations, as well as any incidental items that may need to be furnished by the Contractor for a complete installation. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

99 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Adjust / Modify: Detail minor work to be completed by the Contractor. Remove: Plans or specs should identify whether the contractor is to take ownership, stockpile, or deliver the item(s) to a FDOT maintenance yard. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

100 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Special or Custom Items: When available, the special or custom description should only be used when there is a significant deviation from the specifications or standards. Complete specs, details, or design calculations may be required. Minor changes to the spec or standard requirements may often be noted in the plans, using the standard pay item(s). Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

101 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Is an item standard or special? If the proposed change does not significantly affect the design calculations, cost, or lifespan of the item, it is likely a minor change; use the standard pay item. If the proposed change significantly affects the design calculations, cost or lifespan, it is likely that a special or custom pay item should be used. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

102 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Mast Arm Example Slightly shorter arm required: load calculations are not negatively impacted, may be field cut; use standard pay item. Additional sign or signal required: wind loads need to be evaluated by designer; extra length or diameter arms may increase material requirements, additional cost. Use the custom pay item. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

103 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Pay Item Structure shows the available pay item combinations, including operation, size, shape, etc. Variables are only used when they significantly affect the installed cost of an item. Ranges are used to group items with a similar installed cost. Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

104 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Too few items: Specs or plan details are used to distinguish between many items; this provides a mixed cost history on each item. Too Many items: detailed pay items, but limited cost history on each item. Details are needed in the specs or standards. Too Few Items Too Many items I

105 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Grouped by similar cost history (ranges): common features are shown in the standards; specific sizes or special details are shown in the specs or plans. Grouping by similar cost provides a balance between too many items (limited history on each item) and too few items (mixed history for varied characteristics). Too Few Items Grouped by similar cost history Too Many items I

106 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Items to remember: Installed cost= Materials + Equipment + Labor Unit price on small quantities is normally higher, due to equipment set-up or labor costs. Additional pricing information is available in Part 3 of the CBT. Price vs. Quantity District X District Y District Z $ Quantity I

107 Basis of Estimates- Part 1
A “Where to find it” table is included at the end of Chapter 10. Remember that the first group of pay item digits corresponds to the applicable specification section. 100s General, Earthwork 200s Base Courses 300s Pavement 400s Structures 500s Incidental Construction 600s Traffic Control Devices 700s Signing, Lighting, and Pavement Markings 900s Special Items Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items Pay Item Description Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity Important Dates Detail Related Items Documentation References, Specs, Standards Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec Pay Item Structure Where to Find It I

108 I Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates
This concludes this part. Part 2 is designed to help Designers select the appropriate item(s) for the work required. Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Part 2: Selecting Pay Items Part 3: Estimating and Review I

109 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Each section will review BOE details about specific items, to assist with item selection: Spec highlights Standards References Additional guidance This guidance highlights commonly used items. For complete details, refer to the Basis of Estimates, Specifications, and/or other references for each item. Selecting Pay Items 100s 200s 300s 400s 500s 600s 700s 800s 900s Utilities Generic Items I

110 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 100s deal with General Construction Operations, Clearing the Construction site, and Earthwork. As you can see, from the section titles, they begin with set-up of the construction site… Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

111 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
…continues with basic ground preparation,… Selecting Pay Items 100s 121 Flowable Fill 125 Excavation for Structures and Pipe 141 Settlement Plate Assembly 144 Geotechnical 145 Geotechnical Fabrics I

112 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
and includes some related operations. We’ll now take a look at each section, along with selected pay items. Remember that the first 3 digits of a pay item correspond to the associated specification section number. Selecting Pay Items 100s 160 Stabilizing 161 Predesigned Subbase 162 Prepared Soil Layer 173 Pressure Grouting 175 Cracking and Reseating Existing Concrete Pavement I

113 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Mobilization pay item is used on each project, loaded in the Roadway category. When no roadway plans are present, the item is loaded in the primary category, i.e. Signals category for a “signals only” project, or Landscape category for a “landscape only” project. This Lump Sum item is intended to cover the contractor’s expenses for “movement of personnel, equipment, supplies, and incidentals to the project site…” Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

114 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Maintenance of Traffic items are only intended for use while the contract is under construction. Most MOT items (cones, barricades, signs, etc.) should be removed at the end of the construction period. Designers should carefully consider the item, unit of measure, MOT phase, and contract duration when selecting and estimating MOT items. If the contract duration is changed MOT quantities (per day) may need to be recalculated. Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

115 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Separate payment for Temporary Work Structures is only permitted when the structure is required to support construction equipment, or to comply with permits. (Falsework and scaffording are not included.) Think of this item as “building a work bridge before building the bridge” Coordinate with the State Structures Design Office, prior to using this item. Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

116 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Erosion and Sediment Control specifications are transitioning from prescribed materials and methods to contractor selected operations. Refer to the latest specifications for guidance on the correct pay item(s). Note that the Contractor will be required to install erosion control devices in accordance with the State of Florida Erosion and Sediment Control manual. It is located online at cationsoffice/Implemented/urlins pecs/files/flerosionsedimentman ual.pdf Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

117 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
We’ll now take a look at a few of the items within Section 104. Sediment Barriers, LF This item includes synthetic bales, staked silt fence, and other similar materials. Use caution when updating old plans that calculated the number of synthetic bales. The linear feet of barriers will need to be recalculated, as necessary. Keep in mind that Inlet Protection, per each, may replace some of the bales or barriers. Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

118 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Floating Turbidity Barrier, LF Staked Turbidity Barrier, LF Note that the staked turbidity barrier differs from the staked silt fence. While the silt fence is an open weave fabric, allowing water to flow through, the turbidity barrier is made of nylon reinforced PVC Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

119 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The field office is included on a project only when required by the Construction Office. Note that this is a field office, provided by the Contractor, but used by the FDOT Engineer and staff. Refer to the CPAM for additional guidelines. The size of the office should be shown in the plans and pay item number. The specifications detail the office requirements, as well as calculation of days. Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

120 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Most projects will include the lump sum Clearing and Grubbing pay item. The secondary units, per acre, are used for estimating purposes. Additional minor pavement removal, debris removal, and incidental work may be included under this item, according to the specifications. While the limits and scope of work are shown in the plans, do not tabulate the number of acres in the plans. Removal of Existing Structure, item , is used when widening or replacing bridges. This is also a lump sum item, with secondary area units. Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment I

121 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Chapter 3 of the PPM addresses earthwork: when to use excavation and embankment items when to use each item how to calculate the volume (ground measure or truck measure) and when no additional payment is provided. Note that payment for some items is based on the volume of the material added or removed, while other items use a truck measurement, with adjustments based on the fill material. Refer to the specifications for detailed calculations. Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment 121 Flowable Fill 125 Excavation for Structures and Pipe I

122 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Flowable fill is used for “beddings, encasements, closure for tanks, pipes, and general backfill for trenches.” The material is placed using concrete construction equipment- chute, pumping, or other methods approved by the engineer. For most items of work, flowable fill is incidental to other items of work: pipe bedding, backfill, and other encasements. Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment 121 Flowable Fill 125 Excavation for Structures and Pipe I

123 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
For many items of work, payment for excavation is included in the item being installed. No direct payment is provided; payment is included in the contract price for concrete or the applicable structure. Selecting Pay Items 100s 101 Mobilization 102 Maintenance of Traffic 103 Temporary Work Struct. 104 Erosion/Sediment Control 109 Engineer’s Field Office 110 Clearing and Grubbing 120 Excavation and Embankment 121 Flowable Fill 125 Excavation for Structures and Pipe I

124 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 100s deal with General Construction Operations, Clearing the Construction site, and Earthwork. When unusual geotechnical situations are present, coordinate with the District or State Geotechnical Engineer. They will be able to assist with recommended design solutions, specifications, and pay items. Selected items are described in the Structure Design Guidelines (SDG), as identified in the Instructions for Design Standards. Selecting Pay Items 100s 141 Settlement Plate Assembly 144 Geotechnical 145 Geotechnical Fabrics I

125 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Settlement Plate Assembly is used when directed by the District or State Geotechnical Engineer. Complete technical specifications will be required, based on project conditions. Selecting Pay Items 100s 141 Settlement Plate Assembly 144 Geotechnical 145 Geotechnical Fabrics I

126 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 144 pay items and specifications should only be used with guidance from the District or State Geotechnical Engineer. Complete Technical Specifications will be necessary. Selecting Pay Items 100s 141 Settlement Plate Assembly 144 Geotechnical 145 Geotechnical Fabrics I

127 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Selected geotechnical fabrics are shown on index 501. All other applications should be used as directed by the District or State Geotechnical Engineer. Note: No separate payment is made for fabrics used to wrap pipes or line trenches, such as French drain. Refer to the applicable drainage specifications for these applications. Selecting Pay Items 100s 141 Settlement Plate Assembly 144 Geotechnical 145 Geotechnical Fabrics I

128 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking at the last group of 100s… Stabilization, subbase, and reseating existing concrete pavement are used in accordance with the pavement design manuals. Selecting Pay Items 100s 160 Stabilizing 161 Predesigned Subbase 162 Prepared Soil Layer 173 Pressure Grouting 175 Cracking and Reseating Existing Concrete Pavement I

129 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Type B Stabilization “serves as a working platform to permit the efficient construction of the base material” – per the Flexible Pavement Design Manual. Consult this manual for appropriate use of the pay item. Selecting Pay Items 100s 160 Stabilizing 161 Predesigned Subbase 162 Prepared Soil Layer 173 Pressure Grouting 175 Cracking and Reseating Existing Concrete Pavement I

130 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 161- Predesigned Subbase is used only for shoulder and non-traffic areas. Selecting Pay Items 100s 160 Stabilizing 161 Predesigned Subbase 162 Prepared Soil Layer 173 Pressure Grouting 175 Cracking and Reseating Existing Concrete Pavement I

131 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are three commonly used applications for a prepared soil layer: The finish soil layer is used for areas to be seeded, mulched, and/or planted: i.e. grass or sod. An organic soil layer or blanket material is used only when required by a permit. These items are generally NOT used for Landscape Operations; landscape bed preparation is included in the lump sum payment for installing plants. Detail all soil requirements in the landscape plans and/or specifications. Selecting Pay Items 100s 160 Stabilizing 161 Predesigned Subbase 162 Prepared Soil Layer 173 Pressure Grouting 175 Cracking and Reseating Existing Concrete Pavement I

132 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 173 is to be used for subsurface applications only. Due to the technical nature of this work, coordinate the use of this item with the State Geotechnical Engineer in the Structures Design Office. Selecting Pay Items 100s 160 Stabilizing 161 Predesigned Subbase 162 Prepared Soil Layer 173 Pressure Grouting 175 Cracking and Reseating Existing Concrete Pavement I

133 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The use of the 175 pay items should be coordinated with the District or State Pavement Design Engineer. In the past, these items were used to reseat concrete pavement before placing asphalt surface. A review of the subsurface conditions may be recommended before selecting this item of work. Selecting Pay Items 100s 160 Stabilizing 161 Predesigned Subbase 162 Prepared Soil Layer 173 Pressure Grouting 175 Cracking and Reseating Existing Concrete Pavement I

134 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 200s deal with Base Courses. Most base course designs use Optional Base. When needed, reworked limerock, asphalt treated permeable base, or Cement treated permeable base may be used. Refer to the specifications and/or Pavement Design Handbook for additional information. Selecting Pay Items 200s 204 Graded Aggregate Base 210 Reworking Limerock Base 285 Optional Base 286 Turnout Construction 287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base 288 Cement Treated Permeable Base I

135 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
While Section 204 exists in the specifications, payment for work under this section is included under Optional Base. Selecting Pay Items 200s 204 Graded Aggregate Base 210 Reworking Limerock Base 285 Optional Base 286 Turnout Construction 287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base 288 Cement Treated Permeable Base I

136 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Reworking limerock base is included only when directed by the District Construction or Pavement Design Engineer. Note that two pay items work together: the first is for the work/labor described by the specifications; the second pay item is for the new material provided by the contractor. Selecting Pay Items 200s 204 Graded Aggregate Base 210 Reworking Limerock Base 285 Optional Base 286 Turnout Construction 287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base 288 Cement Treated Permeable Base I

137 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Optional Base is a plan quantity item, paid per square yard. Note that the thickness required varies with the base material selected by the Contractor. The required thickness is shown on Index 514 of the Design Standards. Base options may be limited, according to guidance in the Plans Preparation Manual. Selecting Pay Items 200s 204 Graded Aggregate Base 210 Reworking Limerock Base 285 Optional Base 286 Turnout Construction 287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base 288 Cement Treated Permeable Base I

138 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Turnout construction items are for constructing the base portion of the turnout area on widening or resurfacing projects, as shown on index 516. The asphalt pavement and friction course are paid separately. Selecting Pay Items 200s 204 Graded Aggregate Base 210 Reworking Limerock Base 285 Optional Base 286 Turnout Construction 287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base 288 Cement Treated Permeable Base I

139 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Asphalt and Cement Treated Permeable Base are constructed in accordance with Index 287. Note that payment for new construction may be different for rehabilitation work. Additional subdrainage items may be necessary, based on project conditions. Selecting Pay Items 200s 204 Graded Aggregate Base 210 Reworking Limerock Base 285 Optional Base 286 Turnout Construction 287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base 288 Cement Treated Permeable Base I

140 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The first part of the 300s deal with Bituminous Treatment Surface Courses (Asphalt). The specifications include several sections with no pay items; these sections include material and construction requirements. Payment for these items is included in the asphalt material quantities. Selecting Pay Items 300s 315 Stress Absorbing Membrane 327 Milling 334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 337 Friction Course 339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement 341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer I

141 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The remaining sections within the 300s are for concrete pavement and approach slabs. Selecting Pay Items 300s 346, 347 Concrete Requirements 350 Cement Concrete Pavement 352 Grinding Concrete Pavement 353 Concrete Pavement Slab Replacement 370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints (for concrete pavement) I

142 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking at the individual sections within the 300s: Section 315 is infrequently used; designers should contact the State Pavement Design Office when considering this item. Selecting Pay Items 300s 315 Stress Absorbing Membrane 327 Milling 334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 337 Friction Course 339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement 341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer I

143 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Milling is frequently used to remove existing asphalt pavement. Milling can also be used to improve ridability and cross slope of the finished pavement. The amount of material milled- the depth, must be shown in the plans. The contractor takes ownership of the milled material, and may transport it to the asphalt plant for future recycling. Selecting Pay Items 300s 315 Stress Absorbing Membrane 327 Milling 334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 337 Friction Course 339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement 341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer I

144 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Superpave is the primary material used for most asphalt roadways. The superpave pay items are selected based on the traffic level. These levels vary from A (low traffic level- quiet rural roads) to E (high traffic level- busy interstate). Levels C and D are used most frequently. While the quantity measurement of the superpave is made per ton, a pay adjustment will be applied, based on the quality of the asphalt. Details for measurement and payment are included in the specification. Selecting Pay Items 300s 315 Stress Absorbing Membrane 327 Milling 334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 337 Friction Course 339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement 341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer I

145 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The friction course items are measured and paid similar to the superpave. Quantity measurement is made per ton and a pay adjustment will be applied, based on the quality of the friction courses. Selecting Pay Items 300s 315 Stress Absorbing Membrane 327 Milling 334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 337 Friction Course 339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement 341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer I

146 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Two items of note for Asphalt: First: several binder options are available for both the Superpave and Friction Course options. Selection of the binder should be in accordance with the flexible pavement manual, or as directed by the District Pavement Design Office. Second, “Warranty” options are available for some asphalt/ resurfacing contracts. These options balance material and performance requirements over extended periods of time. Refer to the various types of innovative contracts for additional details. These options should only be included when directed by the District Design or Construction Office. Selecting Pay Items 300s 315 Stress Absorbing Membrane 327 Milling 334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 337 Friction Course 339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement 341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer I

147 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Miscellaneous Asphalt is used “where vehicular traffic does not travel, such as under guardrail, bicycle paths, median pavement, sidewalks, etc.” Estimated quantities, per the specification, are based on 100 lbs/square yard, per inch of thickness. Selecting Pay Items 300s 315 Stress Absorbing Membrane 327 Milling 334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 337 Friction Course 339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement 341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer I

148 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
According to the Flexible Pavement Design Manual, an asphalt rubber membrane interlayer, ARMI, “should normally be used over cracked and reseated concrete pavement. An ARMI may also be useful as a moisture barrier if subgrade moisture is entering the pavement system through capillary action and causing a rippling of the asphalt surface.” Selecting Pay Items 300s 315 Stress Absorbing Membrane 327 Milling 334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete 337 Friction Course 339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement 341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane Interlayer I

149 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 346 and 347 detail the concrete requirements for various classes of structural and non-structural concrete. No direct payment is made under these sections. The concrete material is paid according to the application: bridge structures, sidewalk, inlets, etc. Selecting Pay Items 300s 346, 347 Concrete Requirements 350 Cement Concrete Pavement 352 Grinding Concrete Pavement 353 Concrete Pavement Slab Replacement 370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints (for concrete pavement) I

150 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 350 is for cement concrete pavement only. The pay items associated with this section should not be used for concrete structures, approach slabs, or other miscellaneous work. Selecting Pay Items 300s 346, 347 Concrete Requirements 350 Cement Concrete Pavement 352 Grinding Concrete Pavement 353 Concrete Pavement Slab Replacement 370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints (for concrete pavement) I

151 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 352 is applicable only for grinding concrete pavement. It is not applicable for bridge decks or approach slabs. Grinding is now required for all new concrete pavement, in addition to specified existing concrete pavement. Payment will be made for all areas to be ground. Selecting Pay Items 300s 346, 347 Concrete Requirements 350 Cement Concrete Pavement 352 Grinding Concrete Pavement 353 Concrete Pavement Slab Replacement 370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints (for concrete pavement) I

152 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 353 is used to replace complete slabs of concrete pavement. Joint construction is included in the payment for the slab. These items are not applicable for non-pavement areas such as bus pads, approach slabs, etc. Selecting Pay Items 300s 346, 347 Concrete Requirements 350 Cement Concrete Pavement 352 Grinding Concrete Pavement 353 Concrete Pavement Slab Replacement 370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints (for concrete pavement) I

153 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 370 is applicable only where concrete pavement meets a bridge approach slab. For expansion joints on a bridge, refer to the applicable items in Section 458. Selecting Pay Items 300s 346, 347 Concrete Requirements 350 Cement Concrete Pavement 352 Grinding Concrete Pavement 353 Concrete Pavement Slab Replacement 370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints (for concrete pavement) I

154 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are a number of sections associated with the Structures group. The sections address concrete placement, reinforcement, … Selecting Pay Items 400s 400 Concrete Structures 407 Three Sided Precast Culvert 410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert Cracks in Structures 415 Reinforcing Steel 416 Anchors and Dowels I

155 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
drainage structures, … Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

156 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
precast and prestressed construction, … Selecting Pay Items 400s 450 Precast Prestressed Concrete Construction 451 Prestressed Soil Anchors 452 Precast Segmental Bridge Construction I

157 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
foundations, … Selecting Pay Items 400s 453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment 455 Structures Foundations 457 Integral Pile Jackets 458 Bridge Deck Joints 459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene Sheeting on Concrete Piles I

158 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
movable bridges, and timber. Selecting Pay Items 400s 460 Str Steel & Misc Metals 461 Multirotational Bearings 462 Post-Tensioning 465 Movable Bridge 470 Timber Structures 471 Fender System I

159 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking at the individual sections… Section 400 addresses the construction of concrete structures. Culverts, endwalls, superstructures, substructures, and approach slabs are paid per cubic yard of concrete, according to the class of concrete specified in the plans, design standards, or specifications. For other concrete items, the designer should verify pay items and units of measure with the specifications or design standards. Selecting Pay Items 400s 400 Concrete Structures 407 Three Sided Precast Culvert 410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert Cracks in Structures 415 Reinforcing Steel 416 Anchors and Dowels I

160 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 407 and 410 address 3 and 4 sided precast culverts. The 3-sided precast culvert is paid per length. Variables included with the pay item account for the span and height. (Do not adjust the length to account for multiple barrels.) The 4 sided precast box culvert is paid by concrete and steel quantities. The precast box culvert may be used in lieu of cast-in-place culverts, subject to the specification requirements. Selecting Pay Items 400s 400 Concrete Structures 407 Three Sided Precast Culvert 410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert Cracks in Structures 415 Reinforcing Steel 416 Anchors and Dowels I

161 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 411 through 413 address the methods and materials for repairing various cracks in existing structures. For precast, prestressed items, payment for sealer is included in the precast item. For cast-in-place surfaces to be sealed, payment is made per gallon of sealer. Note that Class 5 coatings are paid under section 400 items. Selecting Pay Items 400s 400 Concrete Structures 407 Three Sided Precast Culvert 410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert Cracks in Structures 415 Reinforcing Steel 416 Anchors and Dowels I

162 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Reinforcing steel is paid per pound for most structures. Example: superstructure, substructure, bulkhead, approach slabs, box culverts When reinforcement is included, per standard or specification, no separate payment is made. Example: endwalls, traffic separators,slabs around pull boxes, light pole foundations Read the applicable specs and standards. Selecting Pay Items 400s 400 Concrete Structures 407 Three Sided Precast Culvert 410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert Cracks in Structures 415 Reinforcing Steel 416 Anchors and Dowels I

163 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 416 addresses anchors and dowels used for structural applications, including traffic railing barrier applications. There is no separate payment for the work described in this section. All work is incidental to the applicable structural item(s). Selecting Pay Items 400s 400 Concrete Structures 407 Three Sided Precast Culvert 410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert Cracks in Structures 415 Reinforcing Steel 416 Anchors and Dowels I

164 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are many types of inlets, manholes, and junction boxes. Refer to the Design Standards for the correct type for each location. When minor changes to a standard are needed, detail the change in the plans and use the pay item that corresponds to the standard. The “Special” pay item should only be used when the design standards are not applicable. Complete designs, including reinforcement details, are required in the plans. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

165 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 430 details the materials and installation requirements for drainage pipe and end sections. Drainage pipe is paid according to plan quantity. For JPA utility applications, refer to the utility items in the 1000s group. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

166 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pipe liner is used to rehabilitate an existing pipe. Normally, pipe liner is installed from one drainage structure to another, along an entire length of pipe. Designers should coordinate with the State Drainage Office prior to using any partial length or sectional liners, as a full length liner or pipe replacement may be more cost effective. In addition to showing the pipe length and location in the plans, the contract documents must include the allowable materials and/or material requirements. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

167 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Plate pipe and pipe arch culverts are installed similarly to optional pipe of Section 430. Measurement and payment are also by plan quantity. If coatings are required, a note should be included in the plans. Bituminous coating materials are specified in Section Other coating materials may require a tech spec. Payment for coatings are included in the culvert. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

168 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Trench drain is installed in accordance with Index 206, for use in gutters and driveways. Payment is made per plan quantity, and includes pipe, concrete backfilling, outlet pipe, and grate. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

169 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Unlike many other drainage items, Underdrain is measured in place for payment. The pipe, fittings, aggregate, filter fabric, and incidentals are included in the linear foot payment. Additional details are included in the design standards, index 286. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

170 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
French drain is installed in accordance with the Drainage Manual. Note that all French drain should be paid with the 443 pay items, rather than the component materials for pipe, filter fabric, and rock. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

171 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Drainage wells for roadway drainage applications are used infrequently; project specific technical specifications will be required. For Roadway or Landscaping- irrigation operations, refer to the 730 items. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

172 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 449 details requirements for precast concrete drainage products. Payment is incidental to the various items of work, under other sections. Selecting Pay Items 400s 425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction Boxes 430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers 431 Pipe Liner 435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts 436 Trench Drains 440 Underdrains 443 French Drains 444 Deep Drainage Wells 449 Precast Concrete Drainage Products I

173 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Precast items described in sections 450, 451, and 451 should be coordinated with the design standards. Note that pay item guidance is provided in the instructions for design standards, according to the applicable index. Selecting Pay Items 400s 450 Precast Prestressed Concrete Construction 451 Prestressed Soil Anchors 452 Precast Segmental Bridge Construction I

174 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Separate payment for soil anchors is only for permanent applications. Payment for anchors used with temporary walls is included in the price of the temporary wall. Selecting Pay Items 400s 450 Precast Prestressed Concrete Construction 451 Prestressed Soil Anchors 452 Precast Segmental Bridge Construction I

175 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 452 pay item is intended to cover the set-up costs for a segmental casting yard. It is required for all Segmental Bridge projects. Coordinate with the District Structures Design Office, as needed, with this item. Selecting Pay Items 400s 450 Precast Prestressed Concrete Construction 451 Prestressed Soil Anchors 452 Precast Segmental Bridge Construction I

176 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Per the specification, “this Section applies to precast segmental structures with multiple shear joints in webs and joints with suitable shear keys in precast substructure segments.” There is no separate payment for the work completed under this section; it is included under the precast item(s). Selecting Pay Items 400s 453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment 455 Structures Foundations 457 Integral Pile Jackets 458 Bridge Deck Joints 459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene Sheeting on Concrete Piles I

177 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 455 is an extensive section dealing with piling, drilled shafts, spread footings, and auger cast piles. Note that foundations for some lighting and mast arm structures are required to meet the foundation requirements of Section 455. However, no separate payment is made for the foundation; payment is incidental to the item being installed. Selecting Pay Items 400s 453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment 455 Structures Foundations 457 Integral Pile Jackets 458 Bridge Deck Joints 459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene Sheeting on Concrete Piles I

178 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
CSL tubes: While Crosshole Song Logging tubes are placed in all drilled shafts, the CLS testing pay item is only used for non-redundant bridges structures, for drilled shafts identified in the plans. The CSL testing pay item is NOT used for miscellaneous structures such as mast arms or high mast lighting. Refer to the BOE or specification for details on additional testing, when defects are suspected. Selecting Pay Items 400s 453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment 455 Structures Foundations 457 Integral Pile Jackets 458 Bridge Deck Joints 459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene Sheeting on Concrete Piles I

179 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Integral pile jackets are used to protect piles in extreme environments. Due to the variable conditions, coordination with the State Materials Office is recommended during early plans development. The pay items are normally used for rehabilitation projects. Corrosion experts in the State Materials Office will assist with the appropriate pay item number(s). Selecting Pay Items 400s 453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment 455 Structures Foundations 457 Integral Pile Jackets 458 Bridge Deck Joints 459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene Sheeting on Concrete Piles I

180 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are several types of bridge joints described in the 458 specification, including poured- with and without backer rod, and strip seals. Additional types of products are available, but will require Technical Special Provisions for both the material and installation requirements. All items should be used in accordance with the design standards. Selecting Pay Items 400s 453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment 455 Structures Foundations 457 Integral Pile Jackets 458 Bridge Deck Joints 459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene Sheeting on Concrete Piles I

181 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Guidance on the use of this item is included in the Soils and Foundations Handbook. Note that the area for payment of polyethylene sheeting is based on the area of the pile wrapped, not the quantity of material applied (area x layers). Selecting Pay Items 400s 453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment 455 Structures Foundations 457 Integral Pile Jackets 458 Bridge Deck Joints 459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene Sheeting on Concrete Piles I

182 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 500s include a wide range of incidental construction. Sections include filter fabric, … Selecting Pay Items 500s 502 Shear Connectors 504 Steel Grid Floors 506 Bridge Drainage System 510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges 514 Plastic Filter Fabric I

183 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
barriers, sidewalk, curbs, … Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

184 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
sound barriers, guardrail, retaining walls, fencing, … Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

185 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
conduit installation, painting, coatings,… Selecting Pay Items 500s 555 Directional Bore 556 Jack & Bore 557 Vibratory Plowing 560 Painting Structural Steel 561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab 562 Galvanized Surfaces 563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems I

186 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
turf, and landscape. Selecting Pay Items 500s 570 Performance Turf 571 Plastic Erosion Mat 580 Landscape Installation I

187 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking now at the individual sections within the 500s… Section 502 details the requirements for shear connectors. No separate payment is made for the 502 work; payment is incidental to Section 460 structural steel. Selecting Pay Items 500s 502 Shear Connectors 504 Steel Grid Floors 506 Bridge Drainage System 510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges 514 Plastic Filter Fabric I

188 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Steel grid floors are used for roadway and sidewalk floors on the movable spans of bridges. Payment for the steel grid floors is made per square foot of the plan quantity area, and includes paint, filling (as called for in the plans), and welding. Selecting Pay Items 500s 502 Shear Connectors 504 Steel Grid Floors 506 Bridge Drainage System 510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges 514 Plastic Filter Fabric I

189 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Bridge drainage systems are paid per length of pipes and number of drains. All material requirements must be included in the plans or specifications. The bridge drainage system is currently paid per drain, as well as the length of drainage piping. As necessary, coordinate with the District or State Drainage Office for drainage requirements. Selecting Pay Items 500s 502 Shear Connectors 504 Steel Grid Floors 506 Bridge Drainage System 510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges 514 Plastic Filter Fabric I

190 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Note that Section 510 is applicable only to fixed bridges. Movable bridges should refer to Section 465. The Navigation Light system must be completely detailed in the plans. Remember to include material requirements, as well as installation and/or performance requirements. Payment is by lump sum. Selecting Pay Items 500s 502 Shear Connectors 504 Steel Grid Floors 506 Bridge Drainage System 510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges 514 Plastic Filter Fabric I

191 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Plastic filter fabric has several different applications: drainage, stabilization, and riprap. Refer to the applicable standards and specifications to determine if separate payment is made for this item. Selecting Pay Items 500s 502 Shear Connectors 504 Steel Grid Floors 506 Bridge Drainage System 510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges 514 Plastic Filter Fabric I

192 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
All payment quantities in this section are based on the plan quantity, and include the concrete, reinforcing steel, joints, and finishing. Refer to the Design Standards for valid types of each item. Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

193 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Barrier walls described in Section 521 and the Design Standards are paid according to the plan quantity measurement. Removal of barrier walls from bridges should be included in the Removal of Existing Structures pay item. Removal of barrier walls from the roadway may be included under clearing and grubbing, or paid separately for removal, per length. Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

194 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sidewalks are normally installed with 4” or 6” thickness, according to the standards. The 6” sidewalk is used where driveways cross the sidewalk path. Payment for new sidewalk includes the installation of detectable warnings at curb ramps, in accordance with Section 527. Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

195 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pay Items for Bus Bay/Boarding Pad and Bus Shelter Pad are also available within the Sidewalk section. Note that the Bus Bay pay item is only used for the roadway portion of a bus pad. The Bus Shelter Pad pay item is only used when a shelter area is to be included. (Graphic request: bay, pad, and shelter, with or without bus) For both items, remember to include concrete requirements, reinforcement, joint, and other details in the contract documents. Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

196 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 523 details patterned / textured pavement for both concrete and asphalt applications. Designers should refer to the latest PPM guidance prior to including this item of work on a project. Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

197 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Ditch and slope pavement are detailed in Section 524. The work includes payment for earthwork, filter fabric, and skimmers, according to the specs and standards. Per the specification, “The square yard quantity includes any ditch blocks with ditch or slope pavement on top.” When concrete core ditch blocks are used without ditch or slope pavement, separate payment is made for the concrete. “The cubic yard pay item includes any ditch block within a grass or earth ditch, without other pavement on top.” Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

198 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 525 details Asphalt Curb. Not that payment for this section is for permanent asphalt curb applications only. Payment for temporary asphalt separator is included under Maintenance of Traffic. Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

199 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Architectural pavers are used for both roadway and sidewalk applications. Refer to the PPM for guidance on acceptable applications for pavers. Payment is made per area, with no deduction for manholes or utility structures within the normal area. Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

200 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Detectable warnings are the “bumps” used to warn persons of the curb ahead. They must meet ADA requirements. When installed on new concrete or asphalt surfaces, the detectable warning is included in the cost of the sidewalk or pedestrian walkway. Separate payment for the detectable warnings is made only when installed on existing surfaces. Note: existing is defined as in-place prior to the contract. Selecting Pay Items 500s 520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator 521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets 522 Sidewalk 523 Patterned/Textured Pavement 524 Ditch & Slope Pavement 525 Asphalt Curb 526 Architectural Pavers 527 Detectable Warnings I

201 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Riprap materials are used to protect slopes from erosion. The Drainage Manual provides guidance on material selection, based on location and water flow velocity. Measurement and payment of riprap materials varies from cubic yard measurement for sand-cement, to Ton measurement for rubble or stone. Per the specifications, the weight may be determined by railroad weight, truck weight, or barge displacement. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

202 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 534 sound barriers are paid by plan quantity, per square foot. Measurement, per the specification, is from the top to bottom of the panel, along the length shown in the plans. The cost of the foundation is included in the payment. Anti-graffiti or other coatings are paid separately. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

203 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Guardrail is normally paid as a length or “run”, with separate payment for the end anchorage assembly. Refer to the design standards for limits of payment. Posts, blocks, rubrail, nested panels, and pipe rail are included in the payment length. Do not double the length for double face guardrail. Payment is based on the centerline length. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

204 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When the guardrail removal pay item is used, detail whether the materials should be stockpiled, delivered to a maintenance yard, or disposed of by the contractor. Do not use the removal item for guardrail that is to be reset within the same project or contract. Refer to Section 538 for resetting. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

205 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Resetting guardrail includes the removal and placement of guardrail. The contractor will provide new offset blocks and hardware. Panels or posts damaged by the contractor will be replaced at no additional cost. Non-salvagable or additional new panels needed will be paid per length, according to the specification. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

206 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The specifications and standards for High Tension Cable Barrier are currently under development. Contact the monitor in the State Roadway Design Office for the latest guidance. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

207 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Formerly called Impact Attenuators, Crash Cushions are commonly used at the approach of guardrail or concrete barrier walls. Index 430 of the Design standards provides guidance on the products available for various applications An Optional pay item is available, subject to the limits shown on Index 430. While the designer may select a specific brand, “the reasons for restricting to a specific brand must be documented in the project design file.” Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

208 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Refer to the PPM, Vol 1, Chapter 4, for complete information on the selection of crash cushions. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

209 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Rumble Strips section includes both raised and ground-in types. Raised strip sets may be either thermoplastic or asphalt, installed on the roadway or paved shoulder. Payment is made per set. Ground-in strips are installed along the shoulder. Plan quantity payment is made per mile, excluding any bridge lengths. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

210 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Retaining wall systems include a variety of proprietary products listed on the Qualified Products List (QPL). Payment for these wall systems is based on the plan quantity of the wall, as described in the specifications. Retaining wall systems are often detailed with separate component plans. The pay items should be loaded with the roadway pay items, even when attached to a structure. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

211 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Most fencing is either Type A “wire fabric farm fence”, Type B “chain link”, or Type R “bridge fencing”. Special Type fencing should only be used for wood or plastic “decorative” fencing. Detail material requirements in the plans or specs. Feature options include barbed wire, full or partial enclosure, or vinyl coating. Special features need to be detailed in the specifications or plans. Material requirements may be needed in the plans or specifications. Selecting Pay Items 500s 530 Riprap 534 Sound Barriers 536 Guardrail 538 Resetting Guardrail 540 High Tension Cable Barrier 544 Crash Cushions 546 Rumble Strips 548 Retaining Wall Systems 550 Fencing I

212 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Directional Bore, Jack & Bore, and Vibratory Plowing are methods used to install cable and/or conduit. Payment for Installation includes the outer conduit materials or “sleeve”, as detailed in the plans. The inner “content” is paid separately, under the appropriate items for cable and/or conduit. Selecting Pay Items 500s 555 Directional Bore 556 Jack & Bore 557 Vibratory Plowing 560 Painting Structural Steel 561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab 562 Galvanized Surfaces 563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems I

213 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 560 and 561 detail painting and coating requirements for structural steel. Section 560 addresses new steel. Payment for this work is included in the price per pound for the structural steel item. Section 561 addresses rehabilitation painting or coating of existing structural steel. Lump Sum payment includes all work detailed in the plans and specifications. Selecting Pay Items 500s 555 Directional Bore 556 Jack & Bore 557 Vibratory Plowing 560 Painting Structural Steel 561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab 562 Galvanized Surfaces 563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems I

214 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 562 addresses the repair of galvanized surfaces. Payment is included in the item being treated or repaired. Selecting Pay Items 500s 555 Directional Bore 556 Jack & Bore 557 Vibratory Plowing 560 Painting Structural Steel 561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab 562 Galvanized Surfaces 563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems I

215 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Anti-graffiti coating systems include both sacrificial and non- sacrificial materials. These items should be coordinated with the District Maintenance Office. Measurement is made per square foot, based on the plan quantity of the projected area; no allowance is made for surface texture. Selecting Pay Items 500s 555 Directional Bore 556 Jack & Bore 557 Vibratory Plowing 560 Painting Structural Steel 561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab 562 Galvanized Surfaces 563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems I

216 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Performance Turf includes both grassing and sodding. All mowing, watering, and other incidentals are included in the payment for turf. While the designer may call for sod in selected locations, the contractor should be given the turf option (seed, sod, or other methods) whenever possible. Selecting Pay Items 500s 570 Performance Turf 571 Plastic Erosion Mat 580 Landscape Installation I

217 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 571 details requirements for plastic erosion mats (turf reinforcement mat), as shown in the standards, and used with Performance Turf. Payment is made per area, with no allowance for overlaps. Do not use this pay item for other materials or special erosion “mats”. Refer to the specs or BOE for drainage & erosion transition mats. Selecting Pay Items 500s 570 Performance Turf 571 Plastic Erosion Mat 580 Landscape Installation I

218 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Landscape work is paid as two lump sum pay items: large plants and small plants. Large plants includes trees in 7 gallon containers, or larger, and most palms. Small plants includes all other plants, as well as incidental work. All work should be detailed in the plans, in accordance with the PPM. Selecting Pay Items 500s 570 Performance Turf 571 Plastic Erosion Mat 580 Landscape Installation I

219 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 600s are for Traffic Control Devices. Sections within the 600s include grounding, conduit, pull boxes,… Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

220 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
… poles, signals, … Selecting Pay Items 600s 641 Prestressed Conc Poles 649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms, Monotube Assemblies 650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies 653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies 659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries 660 Inductive Loop Detectors 665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly I

221 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
… and controllers. Note that all of the Signals specifications, min specs, standards, and pay items are currently under review. Refer to the applicable office web pages for the latest updates and implementation schedules. Selecting Pay Items 600s 670 Traffic Controller Assembly 671 Traffic Controllers 676 Controller Cabinets 678 Controller Accessories 690 Removal of Existing Traffic Signal Equipment 699 Internally Illuminated Signs I

222 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking at the individual sections… When working with Traffic Control Devices, two important sources of information become applicable: The Minimum Specifications for Traffic Control Signal Devices (MTSCSD), otherwise known as “min specs”, provide performance and acceptance criteria. The Approved Product List (APL) lists products that are approved for use on Florida’s roadways. Note that inclusion on the APL does not imply that FDOT has developed construction specifications, or will use the product on state roads. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

223 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
APL items are approved for use local agencies. They have met MUTCD requirements, and are acceptable for use in Florida. Note: MUTCD is the Manual for Uniform Traffic Control Devices. (Pronounced M-U-T-C-D) Section 603 brings the min specs and APL into construction contracts. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

224 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 608 and 611 provide basic guidance for Guaranties and Acceptance. There is no separate payment for these requirements. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

225 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The grounding section includes general requirements for protection against faults, surge currents, and lightning transients. There is no separate payment; work is included in the item being grounded. Note that the requirements of this specification may be referenced by lighting, signing, or other non-signals applications. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

226 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 630 provides the requirements for conduit. Note that a locate wire may be required for fiber optic installations. For estimating quantities, if you have a 100’ trench with 4 conduits, the total length of conduit installed would be 400’. The contractor will adjust the unit bid price according to the length of trench and number of conduits. Similarly for underpavement and jacked conduit, the total length of all conduits is recorded; the contractor will adjust bid prices when multiple conduits are run together. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

227 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Signal cable within an intersection is paid on a “per intersection” basis. While no allowance is made for large or small intersections, the contractor will bid according to the size of the intersections shown in the plans. When signal cable is necessary outside of an intersection, such as for beacons or signs, the cable is paid per foot. When using fiber optic cable, carefully review the available specifications. Plan Details and/or Technical Specs may be necessary. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

228 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Span Wires with concrete poles are the standard for most of the state. Coastal areas, within limits defined in the PPM, generally use mast arms. The standard span wire assembly was updated with the PPM. Projects should be updated according to current guidance. Payment for the span wire assembly is made per intersection. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

229 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pull and Junction boxes are paid per each. The installation requirements are shown in the Design Standards. Note that the items installed must be included on the APL. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

230 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Electrical Power Service Assemblies are used in accordance with Design Standard Items may include conduit, wore, meter, disconnect, and other items shown in the design standards. Selecting Pay Items 600s 603 General Requirements 608 Guaranties 611 Acceptance 620 Signal Installation Grounding 630 Conduit 632 Signal And Interconnect Cable 634 Span Wire Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical Power I

231 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Prestressed Concrete Poles for signals applications are shown on index The poles installed must be listed on the QPL. Note that the type of pole is included in the pay item description, but plan details are necessary to indicate the pole length and mounting height. Selecting Pay Items 600s 641 Prestressed Conc Poles 649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms, Monotube Assemblies 650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies 653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies 659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries 660 Inductive Loop Detectors 663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies 665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly I

232 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Refer to the current PPM for guidance on mast arm installations. Generally, these will only be used in coastal areas. The pay item structure details the design wind speed and arm length. When using steel strain poles, plan details are needed for pole type and height. Monotube Assemblies are not included in the design standards; complete design details are required in the plans. Selecting Pay Items 600s 641 Prestressed Conc Poles 649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms, Monotube Assemblies 650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies 653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies 659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries 660 Inductive Loop Detectors 663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies 665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly I

233 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Traffic Signal assemblies include the signal with LED indicators, backplates, visors, and all incidentals to complete the signal assembly. Note that these assemblies are to be used for permanent installations only; temporary installations should use the appropriate Maintenance of Traffic items in Section 102. Selecting Pay Items 600s 641 Prestressed Conc Poles 649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms, Monotube Assemblies 650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies 653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies 659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries 660 Inductive Loop Detectors 663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies 665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly I

234 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pedestrian Signal Assemblies allow for various types. Note that the LED Countdown is the current standard. Selecting Pay Items 600s 641 Prestressed Conc Poles 649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms, Monotube Assemblies 650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies 653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies 659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries 660 Inductive Loop Detectors 663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies 665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly I

235 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 659 pay items are used only for retrofit applications. On new installations, all backplates, visors, and attachment hardware is included in the signal head assembly. Selecting Pay Items 600s 641 Prestressed Conc Poles 649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms, Monotube Assemblies 650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies 653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies 659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries 660 Inductive Loop Detectors 663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies 665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly I

236 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 660 currently describes various types of loop detectors. As additional types of vehicle detection are approved, the contents of this section may be incorporated with Section 663 for Vehicle Detector Assemblies. Refer to the latest specifications and design standards for detector requirements. Selecting Pay Items 600s 641 Prestressed Conc Poles 649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms, Monotube Assemblies 650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies 653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies 659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries 660 Inductive Loop Detectors 663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies 665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly I

237 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pedestrian Detectors include both standard and accessible types. Refer to the Traffic Engineering Manual for assistance with determining the appropriate type for project conditions. Selecting Pay Items 600s 641 Prestressed Conc Poles 649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms, Monotube Assemblies 650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies 653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies 659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries 660 Inductive Loop Detectors 663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies 665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly I

238 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 670 group of items includes controllers and cabinets. Coordinate with the District Traffic Engineering & Operations office to ensure that the proposed equipment is compatible with the local agency. Selecting Pay Items 600s 670 Traffic Controller Assembly 671 Traffic Controllers 676 Controller Cabinets 678 Controller Accessories I

239 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 690, Removal of Existing Traffic Signal Equipment: Per the specifications, “The Department retains ownership of the equipment removed unless otherwise state in the Contract Documents. As necessary, the plans should indicate the location for delivery of removed signal equipment. Selecting Pay Items 600s 690 Removal of Existing Traffic Signal Equipment 699 Internally Illuminated Signs I

240 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
While the 699 Internally Illuminated Signs are “signs”, they are normally included with the signals category, due to their connections with the signalized intersections. These signs should be tabulated and detailed in the Signalization plans and category. Selecting Pay Items 600s 690 Removal of Existing Traffic Signal Equipment 699 Internally Illuminated Signs I

241 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 700s are for Traffic Control: Signing & Pavement Markings, … Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

242 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 700s are for Traffic Control: Signing & Pavement Markings, Lighting, Monitoring, and ITS. Selecting Pay Items 700s 714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes 715 Highway Lighting Traffic Monitoring Site Architectural Work Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) I

243 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Highway Signing covers both roadside and overhead signs. For single and multi-post sign assemblies, refer to the standards for the appropriate sizes. Payment includes the sign(s) and post(s), furnished and installed. For lighted signs, payment includes electrical work. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

244 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
For overhead signs, the pay items separate the operation, span length, and sign size. As for all signs, foundations and electrical work are included in the sign assembly payment. Monotube assemblies require complete specifications, drawings, and details. Coordinate with the maintaining agency, as standard sign structures may be preferred. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

245 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Measurement and Payment of Stripes and Pavement Markings: Longitudinal Stripe (along direction of traffic) is paid per net mile (solid) or gross mile (skip). Transverse Stripe (across the direction of traffic) is paid per foot. Dotted, Guidelines, and Gap Extension lines are paid per foot. Refer to the BOE for complete measurement and payment details. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

246 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Refer to the PPM, vol 1, for guidance on selecting pavement marking materials. Did you know- the arrows, symbols and messages are paid separately? show pavement arrows? Arrows are paid as a complete marking, regardless of the number of “points” or directions on the marking. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

247 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Show bike lane arrow and “bicycle person” symbol. The cyclist is available as a preformed thermoplastic material, and should be 6’ tall, to meet current standards. Show bicycle with chevron message The new “bicycle with chevron” is one message. Show sun pass lane/message Each word is paid as a separate message- “SUN PASS ONLY” would be paid as 3 messages. Other symbols and messages are shown on the design standards. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

248 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Audible and Vibratory marking have specific applications, as directed “for rural construction projects, excluding limited access facilities.” Refer to the BOE or PPM for additional guidance. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

249 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Object Markers are used to mark obstructions within or adjacent to the roadway; delineators are used to indicate the alignment of the roadway. Both are to be used in accordance with the design standards and the MUTCD. No separate payment is made for object markers mounted on vehicular impact attenuators, according to Section 544. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

250 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Raised Retro-Reflective Pavement Markers (RPMs) are used to supplement pavement markings. Refer to the standards for correct usage. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

251 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Two Reactive component pavement marking is used on concrete surfaces, as described in the PPM, vol 1, Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

252 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Painted traffic marking materials are used in both MOT and final surface applications. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

253 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Thermoplastic markings are used as “the Department’s primary material to be used for permanent markings on asphalt surfaces.” – PPM, vol 1, 7.2.8 Some Districts will apply thermoplastic during construction operations, in lieu of a final surface paint. The remaining Districts will apply thermoplastic under a maintenance contract, following the completion of construction contract. Coordinate with your District Design Office for current district policy. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

254 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Permanent Tape is an option for use on concrete surfaces. High performance tapes are required for longitudinal markings; standard tapes are limited to transverse lines, arrows, and messages. Selecting Pay Items 700s 700 Highway Signing 701 Audible and Vibratory Markings 705 Object Markers & Delineators 706 Reflective Pavement Markers 709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive Components 710 Painted Traffic Markings 711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and Markings 713 Permanent Tape Stripes and Markings I

255 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Motorist aid call boxes are still used along the Turnpike and selected major roadways. Note that the call box pad is included in the payment for the complete call box installation. When replacing/upgrading the pad, “modify”, don’t forget to detail the removal, storage, and reinstallation of the call box assembly. Damaged boxes must be replaced by the contractor, at no additional cost. Selecting Pay Items 700s 714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes 715 Highway Lighting Traffic Monitoring Site Architectural Work Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) I

256 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Most lighting installations are “furnish and install” for a complete installation. The foundation is included in the cost of the pole, even for high mast pole installations that require more extensive foundations. Conduit is paid as the length from point A to B, with no additional quantity for sweeps or vertical distances. Note- when multiple conduits are included in a trench, payment is based on the total length of conduit, not the length of the trench. For example: 4 conduits in a 100 foot trench = 400 total feet of conduit. Selecting Pay Items 700s 714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes 715 Highway Lighting Traffic Monitoring Site Architectural Work Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) I

257 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Coordinate the use of the Traffic Monitoring Site specifications and pay items with the responsible office. Technical specifications may be required. Selecting Pay Items 700s 714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes 715 Highway Lighting Traffic Monitoring Site Architectural Work Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) I

258 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Architectural pay item should only be used with “significant” architectural work. Coordinate the use of these items with the State Architect. New or Rehab work on a complete building is paid under Section 750. Component work only, i.e. water, HVAC, communications, or electrical, may be paid under the appropriate 751 items. Do not use the 751 items when complete work is paid under the 750 item. Selecting Pay Items 700s 714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes 715 Highway Lighting Traffic Monitoring Site Architectural Work Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) I

259 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When asbestos is known to exist, contact the Architectural Section for specific guidance. Special contracts exist for asbestos removal. Refer to Section 465 for Bridge Tender House. Coordinate with the Moveable Bridge Section of the State Structures Design Office. Selecting Pay Items 700s 714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes 715 Highway Lighting Traffic Monitoring Site Architectural Work Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) I

260 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
ITS, or Intelligent Transportation Systems incorporate several types of vehicle detection to help traffic move efficiently. Some ITS systems are incorporated into local signalization systems, and may be designed into the signalization plans. Design guidance is provided in the PPM, Vol. 1, Chapter 7. Revisions are currently underway to “merge” ITS and signalization specifications and pay items. Refer to the specifications and BOE for the latest information. Selecting Pay Items 700s 714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes 715 Highway Lighting Traffic Monitoring Site Architectural Work Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) I

261 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When possible, pay items for ITS components were specified for “complete assemblies”. For example, the Dynamic Message Sign (DMS) includes the sign, structure, foundation, electronics, and testing for a fully operational sign. Refer to the specifications for work and materials included with each pay item. Selecting Pay Items 700s 714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes 715 Highway Lighting Traffic Monitoring Site Architectural Work Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) I

262 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The mass transit items currently have very limited use. If your project involves mass transit, please coordinate with your District Estimates Office to further develop this group of items. Selecting Pay Items 800s I

263 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 900s are a special group of items. They may involve new or different contracting rules, specifications, or other situations. Selecting Pay Items 900s Developmental, Monitored, Limited use, or other Special Pay Items Lump Sum Contract Partnering Disputes Review Board Initial Contingency Amt Speed and Law Enforcement Officer I

264 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When a specification is under development, a pay item may be assigned using a 9xx-SSS-### format, where xx is the year, SSS is the proposed specification section number, and ### is a sequential number to define any additional description. It is not necessary to completely define an “abc- def” pay item structure while the specification is under development. For developmental, monitored or limited use items, a monitor from the responsible office (structures, drainage, etc.) will Selecting Pay Items 900s Developmental, Monitored, Limited use, or other Special Pay Items Lump Sum Contract Partnering Disputes Review Board Initial Contingency Amt Speed and Law Enforcement Officer I

265 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Lump Sum contracts are frequently used for small contracts with known quantities, where minimal adjustments are anticipated. A “duplicate” project is maintained with pay items and quantities for estimating and reporting purposes. Selecting Pay Items 900s Developmental, Monitored, Limited use, or other Special Pay Items Lump Sum Contract Partnering Disputes Review Board Initial Contingency Amt Speed and Law Enforcement Officer I

266 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When partnering is recommended by the construction office, a lump sum amount is included with the contract to provide for meeting rooms, facilitator fees, and travel expenses of the facilitator. When this item is used, District Specifications Office should coordinate with the Contracts Administration Office. Selecting Pay Items 900s Developmental, Monitored, Limited use, or other Special Pay Items Lump Sum Contract Partnering Disputes Review Board Initial Contingency Amt Speed and Law Enforcement Officer I

267 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are several specifications available for a Disputes Review Board, depending on project conditions. The construction office should determine whether a Regional or Statewide Disputes Review Board is recommended. The goal of the Disputes Review Board is to resolve project issues, before costly legal action becomes necessary. Selecting Pay Items 900s Developmental, Monitored, Limited use, or other Special Pay Items Lump Sum Contract Partnering Disputes Review Board Initial Contingency Amt Speed and Law Enforcement Officer I

268 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The initial contingency amount is determined by construction, in accordance with the CPAM. While this is a non-bid item, it allows the construction office to encumber funds for unforeseen work and supplemental agreements. Selecting Pay Items 900s Developmental, Monitored, Limited use, or other Special Pay Items Lump Sum Contract Partnering Disputes Review Board Initial Contingency Amt Speed and Law Enforcement Officer I

269 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Speed and Law Enforcement Officer is a non-bid pay item used where active law enforcement is necessary. The funds included with this pay item are used for contracts between the department and state or local law enforcement. This pay item is used at the discretion of the Engineer, and not for the Contractor’s operations. Refer to the Maintenance of Traffic pay item when a Traffic Control Officer is needed for controlling signalized intersections, traffic pacing, or other actions detailed in the design standards. Selecting Pay Items 900s Developmental, Monitored, Limited use, or other Special Pay Items Lump Sum Contract Partnering Disputes Review Board Initial Contingency Amt Speed and Law Enforcement Officer I

270 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pay Items within the range are for use on Utility JPA projects only. Common use utility items, such as pipe and fittings, are included in sections Other utility applications are: 1500s Sanitary Sewer 1600s Water Main 1700s Power Transmission 1800s Communications 1900s Fuel Transmission Selecting Pay Items 1000s 1000 Utility Work, LS 1050 Utility Pipe 1055 Utility Fittings 1060 Utility Structures 1080 Utility Fixtures 1135 Guys and Anchors 1501 Lift Station- Sanitary Sewer 1644 Fire Hydrant 1720 Transformer 1820 Telephone/Communications I

271 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
All of the utility items will require Technical Special Provisions and/or plan details to cover the description, materials, installation, measurement, and payment information. Note that historical costs for utility items vary widely, due to project-by-project requirements and specifications. Selecting Pay Items 1000s 1000 Utility Work, LS 1050 Utility Pipe 1055 Utility Fittings 1060 Utility Structures 1080 Utility Fixtures 1135 Guys and Anchors 1501 Lift Station- Sanitary Sewer 1644 Fire Hydrant 1720 Transformer 1820 Telephone/Communications I

272 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Generic Items are “intended to support one-time usage pay items or specialty situations where a standard pay item is not available, and for which it is not practical to create a new pay item.” While these pay items are readily available, there are no specifications, plan details, or cost history available. Complete rules for these items are included in Chapter 6. Here is a brief summary of the rules: Must not be used if there is an existing pay item. Must not be used to violate or circumvent standard pay items. Selecting Pay Items Generic Items 000-AAA-BBB BBB Structures BBB Roadway BBB Signing/Pavement Marking BBB Lighting BBB Signals/ITS BBB Landscaping I

273 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Must not be used to circumvent the approval process on developmental items. Must not be used as a work- around for a pay item that has been rejected for statewide usage by Central Office. Must not to be used for sole- sourcing of materials/ methods for items of work. Coordination with the responsible office (Roadway, Structures, Traffic Ops, etc.) is recommended, as similar requests from multiple districts may encourage development of specs, standards, and/or pay items. Selecting Pay Items Generic Items 000-AAA-BBB BBB Structures BBB Roadway BBB Signing/Pavement Marking BBB Lighting BBB Signals/ITS BBB Landscaping I

274 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Generic Pay Items are formatted as 000-AAA-BBB, where AAA is the Design Group/Trns•port Category (100 for Structures, 200 for Roadway, etc.), and BBB is the Sequential Number that can be re-used. For all generic pay items, the unit of measure is shown as “ZZ”. Within the supplemental description, the Estimator provides a brief description of the work and unit of measure. Selecting Pay Items Generic Items 000-AAA-BBB BBB Structures BBB Roadway BBB Signing/Pavement Marking BBB Lighting BBB Signals/ITS BBB Landscaping I

275 Basis of Estimates- Part 2
As an example, a Roadway “Widget” using a Generic Pay Item might be shown as: Roadway Design Group- Generic Pay Item 1 (Widget, each) Complete specs and/or details are required for each item. Load the generic pay item into the corresponding Trnsport category. Selecting Pay Items Generic Items 000-AAA-BBB BBB Structures BBB Roadway BBB Signing/Pavement Marking BBB Lighting BBB Signals/ITS BBB Landscaping I

276 I Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates
This concludes this part. If you would like to view additional material, please select the Part you would like to view. Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Part 2: Selecting Pay Items Part 3: Estimating and Review I

277 I Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates
Please select the Part you would like to view. Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Part 2: Selecting Pay Items Part 3: Estimating and Review I

278 I Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates
This concludes this part. If you would like to view additional material, please select the Part you would like to view. Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Part 2: Selecting Pay Items Part 3: Estimating and Review I

279 I Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates
Please select the Part you would like to view. Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Part 2: Selecting Pay Items Part 3: Estimating and Review I

280 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Part 3 of this CBT is intended for reviewers- both consultant and FDOT. It is organized into 3 sections- Updates, General Conditions, and Categories & Pay Items. This Part of the CBT is dependent upon users sharing experiences with others. Please send your comments to Thank you for your help. Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates General Conditions Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

281 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Updates: Includes major changes to the specifications, standards, pay items, and related handbooks or manuals. General Conditions: Includes general information for estimates reviews. Categories & Pay Items: Estimating and Review issues, by category Please select a section to proceed. Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates General Conditions Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

282 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Updates are normally implemented for either the January or July letting. Specifications, standards, and/or pay items will be coordinated for these letting dates. Do not implement changes before/after these scheduled dates, without approval of the responsible office, as some “pieces” of an issue may be tied to implementation dates. For example, an “old” specification may refer to an “old” standard and valid QPL items. The “new” specification and standard will be implemented together, with “new” qualified products to meet the new requirements. Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates Basis of Estimates Specifications Design Standards and Instructions Plans Preparation Manual Structures Manual Florida Greenbook Pavement Design Manual I

283 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
When beginning reviews for January or July letting projects, ensure that you have the latest updates. All estimators and reviewers should be registered for the Contact Database to receive updates from the Estimates, Roadway, and Structures Design offices. Several other offices also use the Contact Database to keep users informed of bulletins, revisions, and other important information. Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates Basis of Estimates Specifications Design Standards and Instructions Plans Preparation Manual Structures Manual Florida Greenbook Pavement Design Manual I

284 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
If a project letting date is changed, the plans, specifications, and pay items should be completely reviewed for compliance with the appropriate updates. Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates Basis of Estimates Specifications Design Standards and Instructions Plans Preparation Manual Structures Manual Florida Greenbook Pavement Design Manual I

285 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
General Conditions Estimating and review varies by project, depending on many factors. This section will help to address these factors, providing some guidance for consultant and FDOT estimators. Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates General Conditions Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

286 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The general conditions or factors affecting an estimate include Historical Cost, Project Conditions, Incidentals, Quantity, Operation, and Specifications. These factors are not in order of significance. They may vary from project-to-project, or even item-to-item. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

287 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Frequently used items have historical costs available. The estimator should consider the number of contracts, as well as the “normal” use of the pay item. Historical costs should not be used for “special” or unusual situations, or those with limited cost history. The Item Average Unit Cost report or the LRE Reference Price are good sources for historical costs. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

288 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Project Conditions affect prices in many ways. Location- Haul distances, near or far, may affect the price of asphalt and concrete products. Rural/Urban- Traffic conditions may affect production rates, as well as MOT and incidental costs. Night Work or Limited lane closures- Restrictions may affect the time or locations available for work, increasing labor costs. Seasons- While Florida does not experience significant snow or frozen ground, spring break and athletic events may impact some projects with increased MOT costs. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

289 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The Trnsport CES module, available only to FDOT Estimators, uses various project conditions within the regression models. These include county, season, work type, and rural/urban location. Engineering experience and knowledge of local traffic conditions may be the best tool for considering project conditions. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

290 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Most items of work call for the contractor to “furnish and install”, for a complete and accepted item of work. Normal incidentals, i.e. hardware or coatings, are detailed in the standards or specifications. When the designer calls for additional items of work to be included in an item of work, these incidentals generally increase bid prices. Significant changes should be addressed with separate or “special” payment. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

291 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Price decreases with increased quantity? In general, larger quantities yield better unit prices, as the equipment and set-up costs associated with an item are distributed over a larger quantity. Unit prices stabilize when materials and labor become the significant factors. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

292 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Installed cost= Materials + Equipment + Labor Unit price on small quantities is normally higher, due to equipment set-up or labor costs. Price vs. Quantity District X District Y District Z $ Quantity I

293 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The Trnsport CES module is an excellent tool for pricing items based on quantity. Regression models will provide price vs quantity graphs, as needed. These graphs are also helpful for identifying when price varies by district or market area. Unfortunately, the regression models only work when historical data is available. For infrequently used items with minimal history, other estimating tools must be used. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

294 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
While the normal operation of work is to “furnish and Install”, it is possible to have other operations: Install, relocate, Adjust, Modify, Remove, Dispose, Stockpile, or Place Out of Service. The contract documents should be carefully reviewed to ensure that these operations are clearly defined. Most of these operations will require a plan detail and/or Tech Spec. Don’t “break out” payment for separate operations or incidental work. For example, do not separate foundation work for lighting, signing, signals or ITS poles. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

295 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
EXAMPLE: bubble or other stand-out graphic? Items should be stockpiled only when the District Maintenance or maintaining agency requests the item. For example, electrical conductor has a salvage value. The contractor will factor this amount into the bid for removal of the conductor. FDOT is not in the “scrap metals business”. Do not stockpile conductor, unless specifically requested. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

296 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The Designer should ensure that EVERY ITEM OF WORK has complete information: Description, either in words or plan detail drawing Material Requirements, including maintenance or replacement requirements during construction Construction or Installation requirements Method of Measurement Basis of Payment Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

297 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Ensure that the plans (sheets, standards), specs (special provisions, supplemental specifications, Tech Specs), and pay items agree. Any conflicts could result in supplemental agreements. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

298 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Most design should be completed in accordance with the existing standards and specifications. Minor changes can be completed with approved modifications. If the existing specification does not apply, coordinate with the District Specifications staff. If the spec does not apply, then the pay item likely does not apply; coordinate with the District Estimates staff. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

299 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Why did they do that? Standard or Special? Incidental or Separate? LF or Each? There are many ways to design. While FDOT provides many standards, there are situations were non-standard is chosen. Understanding “why” a non- standard choice was made will improve the estimate or review process. It is the responsibility of the estimator & reviewer to determine which items will affect the contractor’s work and price. Part 3- Estimating and Review General Conditions Historical Cost Project Conditions Incidentals Quantity Operations Specs, Notes, details I

300 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Categories & Pay Items This section is set-up to review estimate and pay item issues, by category. Additional information may be available, by pay item section, in part 2 of the CBT. With each category or component plans, the reviewer should ensure that the items shown on the plans correspond with the tabulation sheets and summary of quantities. Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates General Conditions Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

301 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Select a Category, or enter to continue. Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates General Conditions Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

302 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The structures category header is of significant importance to the estimator, as this information is used for FHWA and FDOT reporting. At a minimum, the estimator should verify that the Project Edit Report structures header information is correct. Run this report with EVERY review submittal. If any of the Work Program fields are incorrect, notify the Project Manager and/or District Work Program Office to make corrections. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

303 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Verify that the length, width, and other category information is correct. For bridge widening, only the widened width is entered; do not include the existing or new total width. Bridge Graphic?: New/Replacement bridges- use the total length and outside- to-outside width Widened bridges- use the total length and only the widened width (usually 1 or 2 lanes added to outside) Bridge Repairs- use the total length and out-to-out width For variable width bridges, enter the average width, so that the length*width total will equal the total bridge area. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

304 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Graphic: Parallel (northbound/southbound) side- by-side bridges While parallel bridges are often designed together, it is important to load each bridge in a separate category, so that the bridge number, dimensions, quantities, and payments can be made correctly. Retaining Wall pay items are loaded in the roadway category, even when they are located at the bridge abutment. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

305 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
If there is minimal roadway or other work, it is possible to have only structures plans. When this occurs, Mobilization, MOT, initial contingency, and other incidental items may appear in the structures category. The bridge report will separate the “true bridge costs” from the miscellaneous or “incidental” bridge costs. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

306 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Roadway The roadway plans cover a wide range of activities. Some of the most common Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

307 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Miscellaneous Concrete, Items , , etc. Prior to July 2009, 5 CY of Misc Concrete was included on most projects, for use as directed by the Engineer. It was used primarily around pull & junction boxes, light poles, etc. After July 1, 2009, no separate payment is made for miscellaneous concrete. The work and materials are incidental to the item being installed- box, pole, etc. Watch for old plan notes referencing these pay items; they should be removed. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

308 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
524 Ditch and Slope Pavement Ditch Blocks: included in SY price for ditch pavement. Paid separately (CY) only when there is no ditch or slope pavement Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

309 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Signing & Pavement Marking Specifications for pavement markings continue to change as new materials become available. Some materials, such as Audible and Vibratory Pavement Markings, are intended only for outside longitudinal stripes. Other products may be limited to undivided rural roads. The Designer should follow PPM guidance for selection of pavement markings. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

310 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Signing & Pavement Marking Directional Arrows: Several years ago, separate pay items existed for single, double, and triple point arrows. When pay items were restructured, payment was changed to “arrows”, per each. The intent was for each arrow, regardless of the number of points. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

311 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Lighting Light Poles complete: Both standard highway and high mast lighting include everything from the luminaire to the foundation; they are complete. No separate payment is made for drilled shafts, excavation, or other incidentals. Light Poles, Special Design should only be used when the design standards do not apply. Decorative, historical, and unique designs are common uses for Special Design light poles. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

312 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Conduit: Conduit is paid as the length from point A to B, with no additional quantity for sweeps or vertical distances. Note- when multiple conduits are included in a trench, payment is based on the total length of conduit, not the length of the trench. For example: 4 conduits in a 100 foot trench = 400 total feet of conduit. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

313 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Signals Mast Arms: According to the PPM, Mast Arms are called for within 10 miles of the coastline. All other locations should have span wire assemblies. Refer to the PPM for details. Conduit: Conduit is paid as the length from point A to B, with no additional quantity for sweeps or vertical distances. Note- when multiple conduits are included in a trench, payment is based on the total length of conduit, not the length of the trench. For example: 4 conduits in a 100 foot trench = 400 total feet of conduit. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

314 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
ITS component requirements are changing. ITS and other local signalization systems are frequently merging, especially in urban areas. Watch for updates to the specifications, standards, and pay items. As necessary, signals and/or ITS pay items may be used in either component plans. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

315 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Most ITS Items are “all inclusive” for complete installations. Read the available specifications to verify which incidentals are included. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

316 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Landscaping design varies considerably between districts, as well as between projects. All landscape work should be detailed in the landscape plans, according to the PPM. There are two pay items for landscaping: small plants and incidentals, and large plants. Both items are lump sum, although individual plants and incidental items must be tabulated in the plans. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

317 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
No Landscape plans? The PPM allows some minor landscape work to be detailed in the roadway plans. See PPM vol 2, ch 26. When there are no landscape pay items, tree protection and other incidental work is included in the related roadway pay item(s). Ensure that the work is detailed completely. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items No Landscaping I

318 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Irrigation work may be included with either Landscape or Roadway plans. Ensure that the component plans and specifications provide complete details, including material requirements. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

319 Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Utility work varies by project and utility company. Details and/or Technical Specs are required for every item of work. Ensure that material and installation requirements are included. Due to the technical nature of these items, historical information is of limited value. “Ballpark” price ranges may assist the estimator, but project requirements should be the primary consideration. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

320 Demonstrate webgate reports.

321 I Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates
This concludes this part. If you would like to view additional material, please select the Part you would like to view. Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates Part 2: Selecting Pay Items Part 3: Estimating and Review I

322 I

323 Basis of Estimates- Index
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of Estimates General Information BOE Online Chapters Chapter 1: Updates & Registration Chapter 2: Units of Measure Chapter 5: Contact Lists Chapter 6: Pay Item Requests Chapter 7: Plan Notes Chapter 8: Forms Chapter 9: Trnsport & Webgate Chapter 10: Formatting Items Part 2- Selecting Pay Items 100s 200s 300s 400s 500s 600s 700s 800s 900s Utilities Part 3- Estimating and Review Updates January, this year July, this year January, next year July, next year General Conditions Categories & Pay Items Structures, Roadway, Signing & Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals, ITS, Landscaping, Utilities I

324 I Updates to this CBT History of revisions
June 2009: created 1st draft of CBT, with parts 1 and 2 based on previous BOE training. Part 3 in early development. I

325 I Updates to the CBT Pending questions
Should the presentation be separated into 3 files? How do we ask Districts for help with maintaining the presentation, especially part 3? Link to specs throughout, if more info is available. BOE Certification? Include in QC? Project Manager & Designer requirement I


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