9 Nevertheless, until recently, women lagged behind men in the labour market both quantitatively and qualitatively:
10 So far as quantity is concerned, Working women were much less in number compared to men. The rate of female working force was much lower than the corresponding male one. So far as quality is concerned, female position in the economy was mainly: Marginal, Secondary, Dependent, Often offered for free, at best badly paid….
21 (a) Average marriage age increases for both men and women. The difference in age between a man and a woman is nowadays smaller than in the past. (b) Birth rate in developed countries is small. In Europe correspond to a family less than two children. (c) Families are nuclear (not extended). (d) There are many well accepted family models apart from the classical one. (e) Divorces have increased substantially; children of non married couples have also increased. FAMILY
22 Children outside marriage 19606,682 19709,524 198013,593 198915,152 199013,731 200014,381 200515,300 Divorces 19605,953 19707,811 198019,004 199029,435 200029,902 200529,364 196035,897 197036,376 198026,448 199031,513 200038,388 200536,148 Marriagesι 196070,124 197062,991 198038,289 199033,998 200037,179 Children inside marriage Indicativelyi n Denmark
23 (ε) Οι διακριτοί ρόλοι της γυναίκας αλλάζουν αλλά με αργούς ρυθμούς. Οι κλασικοί ρόλοι της γυναίκας στην οικογένεια εξακολουθούν να αποτελούν πραγματικότητα. Οι γυναίκες που εργάζονται εξακολουθούν να διατηρούν το ρόλο της μητέρας, της συζύγου και της κόρης.
24 The new model for a modern woman is to have a career and a family. Women try hard to reconcile family and professional life, since they have caring duties in respect to children and parents.
25 Career Family The pendulum of female working roles
26 Summarising for the family The family affects the decisions of women concerning work. Traditionally the family may encourage and empower women in their working life but also creates a burden of duties that limits women’s professional development. Modern family styles are adjusted to the new female responsibilities in the labour market; however a perfect reconciliation between family and professional life has not reached yet.
27EDUCATION (a) illiteracy rate in developed countries tends to zero. However illiterate women are more than men. (a) illiteracy rate in developed countries tends to zero. However illiterate women are more than men. (b) In the past in the secondary level of education the number of male pupils exceeded the relevant number of females. This is no longer the case. (b) In the past in the secondary level of education the number of male pupils exceeded the relevant number of females. This is no longer the case. (c) The rate of pupils that continue their studies after school in tertiary education increases all over the world. The number of girls entering universities rises in a spectacular way. In some countries female university students is higher than male. (d) Postgraduate students increse in numbers year after year. The number of male postgraduate students and the number of male PhD students is higher than the relevant female numbers.
28 (e) There are still significant gender differences in modules preferences and performances Male pupils/students prefer and have better performances in : Maths, Maths, Science, Science, Technology and information technology Technology and information technology Female pupils/students prefer and have better performances in : Languages, Languages, History History Humanities. Humanities.
30 Summarising in respect to education: Education helps women to develop professionally. Some other educational choices could serve better gender equality.
31 MASS MEDIA The role of Mass Media in respect to gender equality is dubious.
32 “Serious” mass media deal more with men. “Light” mass media deal more with women.
33 In the media women is promoted mainly as a consumer, much less as a producer or investor.
34 The female body is heavily promoted. Young women are promoted more while aged women are mostly absent.
35 LEGISLATION Indicatively: Almost all countries have adopted the International Act for elimination of discrimination against women (1979). 26 countries have not signed yet. So far as the rate of acceptance is concerned, this act is second in order. Legislation concerning women’s rights has been adjusted to the modern female profile.
36 NORMS AND STEREOTYPES These are against women and almost everywhere affect negatively the modern female profile.
37 Stereotypes lead to gender discrimination against women from the side of employers, employees and clients.
38 In a summary Women are prepared for the labour market heavily Η γυναίκα προετοιμάζεται για την αγορά εργασίας μέσα από Την οικογένεια (+ και -) Την εκπαίδευση (+) Τα ΜΜΕ και άλλους φορείς κοινωνικοποίησης (+ και -) Τους νόμους (+) Τις νοοτροπίες και τα στερεότυπα (-)