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1 Gender, Education and Labor Market PERSA FOKIALI UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN PROGRAMME FOR MULTIGRADE EDUCATION SUMMER SCHOOL.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Gender, Education and Labor Market PERSA FOKIALI UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN PROGRAMME FOR MULTIGRADE EDUCATION SUMMER SCHOOL."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Gender, Education and Labor Market PERSA FOKIALI UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN PROGRAMME FOR MULTIGRADE EDUCATION SUMMER SCHOOL

2 2 CONTENTS 1. GENERAL 2. FACTORS AFFECTING WOMEN’S EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL CHOICES 3. FEMALE PRESENCE IN THE LABOUR MARKET 4. CONCLUSIONS

3 3 1.INTRODUCTION SOME GENERAL ISSUES

4 4 In the past ……

5 5 Female presence in the society –even in the labour market, was not negligible …..

6 6 During the centuries, either directly or indirectly, women have supported the economy at a local, national and international level.

7 7

8 8

9 9 Nevertheless, until recently, women lagged behind men in the labour market both quantitatively and qualitatively:

10 10 So far as quantity is concerned, Working women were much less in number compared to men. The rate of female working force was much lower than the corresponding male one. So far as quality is concerned, female position in the economy was mainly: Marginal, Secondary, Dependent, Often offered for free, at best badly paid….

11 11 Nowadays ……

12 12 Women increase their share in the labour market …

13 13 So far as numbers are concerned, year after year More and more women work however: The number of working women still remains lower that that of men.

14 14 So far as quality is concerned In spite of improvements Female presence is still worse than male in many aspects …..

15 15 2. WOMEN TOWADS THE LABOUR MARKET FACTORS AFFECTING FEMALE ENTRANCE IN THE LABOUR MARKET

16 16 Women’s wn;s Η πορεία της γυναίκας προς την αγορά εργασίας είναι μια πορεία (α) ανοδική, αλλά και (β) ανηφορική

17 17 Simulation: Female itinerary to the labour market seems like an itinerary on a bicycle

18 18 Front wheel Factors of socialization Rear wheel: Culture

19 19 3. Mass media etc. 2. Education 1. Family Front wheel: Factors of socialization

20 20 4. Institutions, legislation 5. Norms Stereotypes Rear wheel: cultural environment

21 21 (a) Average marriage age increases for both men and women. The difference in age between a man and a woman is nowadays smaller than in the past. (b) Birth rate in developed countries is small. In Europe correspond to a family less than two children. (c) Families are nuclear (not extended). (d) There are many well accepted family models apart from the classical one. (e) Divorces have increased substantially; children of non married couples have also increased. FAMILY

22 22 Children outside marriage 19606, , , , , , ,300 Divorces 19605, , , , , , , , , , , ,148 Marriagesι , , , , ,179 Children inside marriage Indicativelyi n Denmark

23 23 (ε) Οι διακριτοί ρόλοι της γυναίκας αλλάζουν αλλά με αργούς ρυθμούς. Οι κλασικοί ρόλοι της γυναίκας στην οικογένεια εξακολουθούν να αποτελούν πραγματικότητα. Οι γυναίκες που εργάζονται εξακολουθούν να διατηρούν το ρόλο της μητέρας, της συζύγου και της κόρης.

24 24 The new model for a modern woman is to have a career and a family. Women try hard to reconcile family and professional life, since they have caring duties in respect to children and parents.

25 25 Career Family The pendulum of female working roles

26 26 Summarising for the family The family affects the decisions of women concerning work. Traditionally the family may encourage and empower women in their working life but also creates a burden of duties that limits women’s professional development. Modern family styles are adjusted to the new female responsibilities in the labour market; however a perfect reconciliation between family and professional life has not reached yet.

27 27EDUCATION (a) illiteracy rate in developed countries tends to zero. However illiterate women are more than men. (a) illiteracy rate in developed countries tends to zero. However illiterate women are more than men. (b) In the past in the secondary level of education the number of male pupils exceeded the relevant number of females. This is no longer the case. (b) In the past in the secondary level of education the number of male pupils exceeded the relevant number of females. This is no longer the case. (c) The rate of pupils that continue their studies after school in tertiary education increases all over the world. The number of girls entering universities rises in a spectacular way. In some countries female university students is higher than male. (d) Postgraduate students increse in numbers year after year. The number of male postgraduate students and the number of male PhD students is higher than the relevant female numbers.

28 28 (e) There are still significant gender differences in modules preferences and performances Male pupils/students prefer and have better performances in : Maths, Maths, Science, Science, Technology and information technology Technology and information technology Female pupils/students prefer and have better performances in : Languages, Languages, History History Humanities. Humanities.

29 29

30 30 Summarising in respect to education: Education helps women to develop professionally. Some other educational choices could serve better gender equality.

31 31 MASS MEDIA The role of Mass Media in respect to gender equality is dubious.

32 32 “Serious” mass media deal more with men. “Light” mass media deal more with women.

33 33 In the media women is promoted mainly as a consumer, much less as a producer or investor.

34 34 The female body is heavily promoted. Young women are promoted more while aged women are mostly absent.

35 35 LEGISLATION Indicatively: Almost all countries have adopted the International Act for elimination of discrimination against women (1979). 26 countries have not signed yet. So far as the rate of acceptance is concerned, this act is second in order. Legislation concerning women’s rights has been adjusted to the modern female profile.

36 36 NORMS AND STEREOTYPES These are against women and almost everywhere affect negatively the modern female profile.

37 37 Stereotypes lead to gender discrimination against women from the side of employers, employees and clients.

38 38 In a summary Women are prepared for the labour market heavily Η γυναίκα προετοιμάζεται για την αγορά εργασίας μέσα από Την οικογένεια (+ και -) Την εκπαίδευση (+) Τα ΜΜΕ και άλλους φορείς κοινωνικοποίησης (+ και -) Τους νόμους (+) Τις νοοτροπίες και τα στερεότυπα (-)


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