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Basic concepts in nursing science Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic concepts in nursing science Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic concepts in nursing science Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University

2 Introduction Introduction Human being Human being Environment Health Nursing

3 Definition of nursing science Introduction Four basic concepts that affect and determine the nursing practice

4 Human being Environment Health Nursing

5 Human being 1.The human being is a uniform wholeThe human being is a uniform whole 2.Basic needs of human beingBasic needs of human being 3.Growth and development of human beingGrowth and development of human being 4.Self-concept of human beingSelf-concept of human being

6 (1) Concept of a whole 1. The human being is a uniform whole (2) The uniform whole of human being (3) The human being is an open system (4) The scope of human being in nursing

7 Physiological Psychological Social Spiritual Cultural The uniform whole of human being

8 The human being is a open system Closed system Open system

9 Individual The scope of human being in nursing Family Community Society

10 Basic goal of human being Balance among subsystems of organism To maintain the balance of organism Balance between organism and its environment (internal and external environment)

11 2. Basic needs of human being ( 1 ) Definition of basic needs ( 2 ) Types of basic needs ( 3 ) Characteristics of basic needs ( 4 ) Factors that affect meeting needs ( 5 ) The theory related to basic needs

12 (1) Definition of basic needs Need Basic needs of human being

13 (2) Types of basic needs Physiological needs Social needs Affective needs Cognitive needs Spiritual needs

14 (3) Characteristics of basic needs 1 ) Approximately same basic needs 2 ) The importance of each need for each person is different 3 ) All the basic needs are interconnected and interactive

15 (4) Factors that affect meeting needs Physiological factors Emotional factors Knowledge and intellect factors Social factors

16 (4) Factors that affect meeting needs Environmental factors Individual factors Cultural factors

17 (5) The theory related to basic needs —Maslow’s hierarchy theory of Basic needs for Human Being

18 Maslow’s theory (a) Basic content (b) Basis for need’s hierarchy (c) General rules (d) Significance to nursing

19 Basic content Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belongingness needs Self-esteem needs Needs for self-actualization

20 Basis for need’s hierarchy Importance of needs Sequence of need’s appearance

21 Significance to nursing a) To identify client’s unmet needs b) To realize and understand client’s words and behaviors c) To predict client’s unspoken needs

22 d) To collect client’s data comprehensively e) To put client’s nursing problems in adequate order Significance to nursing

23 3. Growth and development of human being (1) Definition of growth and development (2) Content of growth and development (3) Basic principles of growth and development (4) Factors that affect growth and development

24 Definition of growth and development Growth Development Maturation

25 Growth: a increase on amount in physiological aspect

26 Development: A changing process in physical and psychological aspect along with age’s increase and interaction between individual and its environment. Definition of development

27 Characteristics of development : in order predicted persistent as a result of learning and a symbol of maturation holistic (physiological, psychological, social )

28 Maturation: Narrow definition Generalized definition

29 Narrow definition the process of the growth in physiological aspect and the potential in developmental aspect were exerted fully

30 Generalized definition a individual has not only obtained full development in physiological aspect, but also put up many mature behaviors.

31 Content of growth and development Physiological Cognitive Social Affective Spiritual Moral

32 Basic principles of growth and development 1) Persistent, in sequence, regular, predicted. 2) Common development process 3) Passing each developmental stage in unique manner and speed.

33 5) Development in infant phase will affect the following basic attitude, temperament, life style and behaviors. 4) Character and definite developmental tasks in each developmental stage 6) Development is obtained by gradual maturation and constant learning.

34 Factors that affect growth and development Heredity Environment

35 4. Self-concept of human being (1) Definition of self-concept (2) Generation of self-concept (3) Components of self-concept (4) Importance of self-concept

36 Definition of self-concept a person’s attitude towards to himself (herself )

37 Generation of self-concept the combination of other’s opinion to a person and a person’s self- detection and self-cognition.

38 Body image Components of self-concept Role performance Personal identity Self-esteem

39 Importance of positive self-concept (a) Affecting one’s thoughts and behaviors (b) Affecting one’s choices (c) Affecting other’s attitude to oneself (d) Affecting one’s ability of meeting an emergency when one is in the face of various changes

40 Environment 1.Definition of environmentDefinition of environment 2.Classification of environmentClassification of environment 3.Relationship among environment, human being and health

41 Definition of environment Roy’s definition of environment Henderson’s definition of environment

42 Roy’s definition of environment the summation of all factors that surround and affect the behaviors and development of individual or collectivity.

43 Henderson’s definition of environment a general name of all external factors that affect the life and development of organism.

44 Classification of environment 1. Internal environment 2. External environment

45 Natural environment External environment Humanistic-social environment Therapeutic environment

46 Physical environment Natural environment Biological environment

47 Humanistic-social environment (a) the number of population (b) cultural education (c) interpersonal relationship (d) scientific management (e) medical care services system

48 Definition Therapeutic environment Function Requirement

49 Definition It is an environment that created by professionals aimed to fit the recovery of clients’ physiological and psychological health

50 Functions (a) To influence clients’ feeling (b) To influence the course and degree of disease’s recovery.

51 Requirement (a) safety a) to prevent the accident’s occurrence b) to avoid the spread of microorganism (b) comfort a) good physical environment b) good services and attitude

52 Relationship among environment, human being and health (1) Human being and its environment are interdependent and interacted (2) Human being’s health is closely linked with the environment

53 Health 1.Concept of healthConcept of health 2.Concept of diseaseConcept of disease 3.The relationship between health and illnessThe relationship between health and illness

54 Concept of health (1) Definition of healthDefinition of health (2) Model of healthModel of health (3) Factors that affect healthFactors that affect health

55 Definition of health 1) Absence of disease 2) Feel comfort 3) Well-balanced functional activities 4) Well-balanced physiological and psychological activities 5) WHO’s definition of health

56 WHO——The World Health Organization WHO’s definition of health “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” (holistic view of health)

57 Model of health ——Health-illness continuum model (1) Definition (2) Characteristics (3) Nurses’ responsibilities

58 Health and illness or disease can be viewed as the opposite ends of a health continuum. From a high level of health a person’s condition can move through good health, normal health, poor health, and extremely poor health, eventually to death. Definition of health-illness continuum model

59 People move back and forth within this continuum day by day. There is no distinct boundary across which people move from health to illness or from illness back to health. How people perceive themselves and how others see them in terms of health and illness will also affect their placement on the continuum.

60 Characteristics of health-illness continuum model (a) At any time any person’ health status holds a place on certain point between two ends of health-illness continuum

61 (b) any point on the health- illness continuum is a synthetical representation of various (all) aspects of individual in physiology, psychology, and society.

62 Nurses’ responsibilities (a) to help the clients to identify their place (location) on the health- illness continuum (b) to assist the clients to adopt some measures (take actions) in order to reach a well state of health.

63 Factors that affect health (2) Environmental factors (3) Life style (4) Psychological factors (1) Biological factors

64 1 ) Pathogenic microorganism 2 ) Biologic-heredity factor 3 ) Other factors Biological factors

65 1) Natural environment: 2) Social environment: Environmental factors

66 Concept of disease (1) Definition of diseaseDefinition of disease (2) Effect of diseaseEffect of disease (3) Measures of preventing diseaseMeasures of preventing disease

67 Definition of disease 1) Ancient view of disease 2) Modern view of disease

68 Ghosts and gods attach to the body Ancient view of disease Unbalance between negative and positive

69 Modern view of disease (a) A state that is treated by physician and falls short of the needs of human being (b) Be discomfort, suffering and pain (c) A loss and change of social behaviors, especially the loss and change of labor force

70 (d) An abnormity of function, structure and shape of organism (e) The destroy of homeostasis of organism (f) A reaction of the organism to harmful factors

71 Effect of disease 1) The effect on individual 2) The effect on family 3) The effect on society

72 1 ) Positive effect 2 ) Negative effect The effect on individual

73 The effect on family 1) Economic burden is increased 2) Family member’s psychological stress is increased 3) The emotion change of family member

74 The effect on society 1) Social productivity is decreased 2) Medical resources are consumed or wasted 3) To infect others and threaten other’s health

75 Measures of preventing disease 1) Primary prevention (etiological prevention) 2) Secondary prevention (pre-clinical prevention) “Three early” : To discover early To diagnose early To treat early 3) Tertiary prevention (clinical prevention)

76 The relationship between health and illness 1 ) No distinct boundary ; A relative relationship 2 ) Be dynamic changing 3 ) Be mutual transform under definite condition 4 ) Be exist at the same time on one individual

77 Nursing 1. Concept of nursing Concept of nursing 2. Evolvement process of the concept of nursingEvolvement process of the concept of nursing 3. The relationship between nursing and healthThe relationship between nursing and health

78 (1) Definition of nursing Concept of nursing (2) The content of concept of nursing (3) The connotation of concept of nursing

79 (a) Nightingale’s definition of nursing (b) Henderson’s definition of nursing (c) American Nurse Association’s definition of nursing (d) International Council of nurses’ definition of nursing Definition of nursing

80 (1) The nursing science is an independent applying science that synthesizing natural and social sciences. The content of concept of nursing

81 (2) Nursing is a profession that helps human being and serves for health of human being

82 (3) Nursing can assist individual to meet the basic needs of human being and enforce the ability of self-care.

83 (4) The tasks of nursing are:  To promote health  To prevent disease  To help ill-person to healing  To assist the dying patient to pass away with quietude, peace, and dignity.

84 (5) The client is a holistic human being, including suffering person and healthy person.

85 (6) The working place is not only in the hospital, but also in family, community and whole society. (7) Nursing is not only a science, but also an art

86 (8) The nursing science attaches importance to human being’s living environment and the interrelation between human being and its environment.

87 (9) The nursing science is a gradually perfect and developing science.

88 (1) Caring: lasting topic (2) Humanism: humanistic perspective (a) Respect individual (b) Pay attention to the human nature (c) Treat equally without discrimination (3) The helping relationship The content of concept of nursing

89 Evolvement process of the concept of nursing (1) Developmental stages of nursing model (2) The meaning and significance of holistic nursing

90 Stage 1: disease-centered stage Stage 2: patient-centered stage Stage 3: health-centered stage Developmental stages of nursing model

91 The meaning of holistic nursing The meaning and significance of holistic nursing Significance of holistic nursing

92 (a) Definition of holistic nursing (b) Connotation of holistic nursing The meaning of holistic nursing

93 Connotation of holistic nursing (a) To meet client’s holistic needs (physiological, psychological, social, spiritual, cultural)

94 (b) To serve for the whole life course of human being (c) To serve for individual to family, community and society

95 (1) To enrich and change the direction and content of nursing research Significance of holistic nursing (2) To widen the service areas of nursing and changes the traditional image of nurses

96 (3) To contribute to establish a new type relationship between physician and nurse, and relationship between nurse and patient

97 (4) To propose a new type view of nursing administration and leadership (5) To change the curriculum design of nursing education

98 The relationship between nursing and health WHO(1978) : “……to help patient to resume to health, help healthy person to promote health.”

99 ICN: right and obligation of nurses are: (a) To maintain life (b) To lighten suffering (c) To promote health

100 Tasks of nursing:  To promote health  To prevent disease  To assist healing  To ease suffering

101


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