Presentation on theme: "Basic concepts in nursing science Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University."— Presentation transcript:
Basic concepts in nursing science Li Xiaohan School of Nursing China Medical University
Introduction Introduction Human being Human being Environment Health Nursing
Definition of nursing science Introduction Four basic concepts that affect and determine the nursing practice
Human being Environment Health Nursing
Human being 1.The human being is a uniform wholeThe human being is a uniform whole 2.Basic needs of human beingBasic needs of human being 3.Growth and development of human beingGrowth and development of human being 4.Self-concept of human beingSelf-concept of human being
(1) Concept of a whole 1. The human being is a uniform whole (2) The uniform whole of human being (3) The human being is an open system (4) The scope of human being in nursing
Physiological Psychological Social Spiritual Cultural The uniform whole of human being
The human being is a open system Closed system Open system
Individual The scope of human being in nursing Family Community Society
Basic goal of human being Balance among subsystems of organism To maintain the balance of organism Balance between organism and its environment (internal and external environment)
2. Basic needs of human being （ 1 ） Definition of basic needs （ 2 ） Types of basic needs （ 3 ） Characteristics of basic needs （ 4 ） Factors that affect meeting needs （ 5 ） The theory related to basic needs
(1) Definition of basic needs Need Basic needs of human being
(2) Types of basic needs Physiological needs Social needs Affective needs Cognitive needs Spiritual needs
(3) Characteristics of basic needs 1 ） Approximately same basic needs 2 ） The importance of each need for each person is different 3 ） All the basic needs are interconnected and interactive
(4) Factors that affect meeting needs Physiological factors Emotional factors Knowledge and intellect factors Social factors
(4) Factors that affect meeting needs Environmental factors Individual factors Cultural factors
(5) The theory related to basic needs —Maslow’s hierarchy theory of Basic needs for Human Being
Maslow’s theory (a) Basic content (b) Basis for need’s hierarchy (c) General rules (d) Significance to nursing
Basic content Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belongingness needs Self-esteem needs Needs for self-actualization
Basis for need’s hierarchy Importance of needs Sequence of need’s appearance
Significance to nursing a) To identify client’s unmet needs b) To realize and understand client’s words and behaviors c) To predict client’s unspoken needs
d) To collect client’s data comprehensively e) To put client’s nursing problems in adequate order Significance to nursing
3. Growth and development of human being (1) Definition of growth and development (2) Content of growth and development (3) Basic principles of growth and development (4) Factors that affect growth and development
Definition of growth and development Growth Development Maturation
Growth: a increase on amount in physiological aspect
Development: A changing process in physical and psychological aspect along with age’s increase and interaction between individual and its environment. Definition of development
Characteristics of development : in order predicted persistent as a result of learning and a symbol of maturation holistic (physiological, psychological, social )
Narrow definition the process of the growth in physiological aspect and the potential in developmental aspect were exerted fully
Generalized definition a individual has not only obtained full development in physiological aspect, but also put up many mature behaviors.
Content of growth and development Physiological Cognitive Social Affective Spiritual Moral
Basic principles of growth and development 1) Persistent, in sequence, regular, predicted. 2) Common development process 3) Passing each developmental stage in unique manner and speed.
5) Development in infant phase will affect the following basic attitude, temperament, life style and behaviors. 4) Character and definite developmental tasks in each developmental stage 6) Development is obtained by gradual maturation and constant learning.
Factors that affect growth and development Heredity Environment
4. Self-concept of human being (1) Definition of self-concept (2) Generation of self-concept (3) Components of self-concept (4) Importance of self-concept
Definition of self-concept a person’s attitude towards to himself (herself )
Generation of self-concept the combination of other’s opinion to a person and a person’s self- detection and self-cognition.
Body image Components of self-concept Role performance Personal identity Self-esteem
Importance of positive self-concept (a) Affecting one’s thoughts and behaviors (b) Affecting one’s choices (c) Affecting other’s attitude to oneself (d) Affecting one’s ability of meeting an emergency when one is in the face of various changes
Environment 1.Definition of environmentDefinition of environment 2.Classification of environmentClassification of environment 3.Relationship among environment, human being and health
Definition of environment Roy’s definition of environment Henderson’s definition of environment
Roy’s definition of environment the summation of all factors that surround and affect the behaviors and development of individual or collectivity.
Henderson’s definition of environment a general name of all external factors that affect the life and development of organism.
Classification of environment 1. Internal environment 2. External environment
Humanistic-social environment (a) the number of population (b) cultural education (c) interpersonal relationship (d) scientific management (e) medical care services system
Definition Therapeutic environment Function Requirement
Definition It is an environment that created by professionals aimed to fit the recovery of clients’ physiological and psychological health
Functions (a) To influence clients’ feeling (b) To influence the course and degree of disease’s recovery.
Requirement (a) safety a) to prevent the accident’s occurrence b) to avoid the spread of microorganism (b) comfort a) good physical environment b) good services and attitude
Relationship among environment, human being and health (1) Human being and its environment are interdependent and interacted (2) Human being’s health is closely linked with the environment
Health 1.Concept of healthConcept of health 2.Concept of diseaseConcept of disease 3.The relationship between health and illnessThe relationship between health and illness
Concept of health (1) Definition of healthDefinition of health (2) Model of healthModel of health (3) Factors that affect healthFactors that affect health
Definition of health 1) Absence of disease 2) Feel comfort 3) Well-balanced functional activities 4) Well-balanced physiological and psychological activities 5) WHO’s definition of health
WHO——The World Health Organization WHO’s definition of health “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” (holistic view of health)
Model of health ——Health-illness continuum model (1) Definition (2) Characteristics (3) Nurses’ responsibilities
Health and illness or disease can be viewed as the opposite ends of a health continuum. From a high level of health a person’s condition can move through good health, normal health, poor health, and extremely poor health, eventually to death. Definition of health-illness continuum model
People move back and forth within this continuum day by day. There is no distinct boundary across which people move from health to illness or from illness back to health. How people perceive themselves and how others see them in terms of health and illness will also affect their placement on the continuum.
Characteristics of health-illness continuum model (a) At any time any person’ health status holds a place on certain point between two ends of health-illness continuum
(b) any point on the health- illness continuum is a synthetical representation of various (all) aspects of individual in physiology, psychology, and society.
Nurses’ responsibilities (a) to help the clients to identify their place (location) on the health- illness continuum (b) to assist the clients to adopt some measures (take actions) in order to reach a well state of health.
Factors that affect health (2) Environmental factors (3) Life style (4) Psychological factors (1) Biological factors
1) Natural environment: 2) Social environment: Environmental factors
Concept of disease (1) Definition of diseaseDefinition of disease (2) Effect of diseaseEffect of disease (3) Measures of preventing diseaseMeasures of preventing disease
Definition of disease 1) Ancient view of disease 2) Modern view of disease
Ghosts and gods attach to the body Ancient view of disease Unbalance between negative and positive
Modern view of disease (a) A state that is treated by physician and falls short of the needs of human being (b) Be discomfort, suffering and pain (c) A loss and change of social behaviors, especially the loss and change of labor force
(d) An abnormity of function, structure and shape of organism (e) The destroy of homeostasis of organism (f) A reaction of the organism to harmful factors
Effect of disease 1) The effect on individual 2) The effect on family 3) The effect on society
1 ） Positive effect 2 ） Negative effect The effect on individual
The effect on family 1) Economic burden is increased 2) Family member’s psychological stress is increased 3) The emotion change of family member
The effect on society 1) Social productivity is decreased 2) Medical resources are consumed or wasted 3) To infect others and threaten other’s health
Measures of preventing disease 1) Primary prevention (etiological prevention) 2) Secondary prevention (pre-clinical prevention) “Three early” : To discover early To diagnose early To treat early 3) Tertiary prevention (clinical prevention)
The relationship between health and illness 1 ） No distinct boundary ； A relative relationship 2 ） Be dynamic changing 3 ） Be mutual transform under definite condition 4 ） Be exist at the same time on one individual
Nursing 1. Concept of nursing Concept of nursing 2. Evolvement process of the concept of nursingEvolvement process of the concept of nursing 3. The relationship between nursing and healthThe relationship between nursing and health
(1) Definition of nursing Concept of nursing (2) The content of concept of nursing (3) The connotation of concept of nursing
(a) Nightingale’s definition of nursing (b) Henderson’s definition of nursing (c) American Nurse Association’s definition of nursing (d) International Council of nurses’ definition of nursing Definition of nursing
(1) The nursing science is an independent applying science that synthesizing natural and social sciences. The content of concept of nursing
(2) Nursing is a profession that helps human being and serves for health of human being
(3) Nursing can assist individual to meet the basic needs of human being and enforce the ability of self-care.
(4) The tasks of nursing are: To promote health To prevent disease To help ill-person to healing To assist the dying patient to pass away with quietude, peace, and dignity.
(5) The client is a holistic human being, including suffering person and healthy person.
(6) The working place is not only in the hospital, but also in family, community and whole society. (7) Nursing is not only a science, but also an art
(8) The nursing science attaches importance to human being’s living environment and the interrelation between human being and its environment.
(9) The nursing science is a gradually perfect and developing science.
(1) Caring: lasting topic (2) Humanism: humanistic perspective (a) Respect individual (b) Pay attention to the human nature (c) Treat equally without discrimination (3) The helping relationship The content of concept of nursing
Evolvement process of the concept of nursing (1) Developmental stages of nursing model (2) The meaning and significance of holistic nursing
Stage 1: disease-centered stage Stage 2: patient-centered stage Stage 3: health-centered stage Developmental stages of nursing model
The meaning of holistic nursing The meaning and significance of holistic nursing Significance of holistic nursing
(a) Definition of holistic nursing (b) Connotation of holistic nursing The meaning of holistic nursing
Connotation of holistic nursing (a) To meet client’s holistic needs (physiological, psychological, social, spiritual, cultural)
(b) To serve for the whole life course of human being (c) To serve for individual to family, community and society
(1) To enrich and change the direction and content of nursing research Significance of holistic nursing (2) To widen the service areas of nursing and changes the traditional image of nurses
(3) To contribute to establish a new type relationship between physician and nurse, and relationship between nurse and patient
(4) To propose a new type view of nursing administration and leadership (5) To change the curriculum design of nursing education
The relationship between nursing and health WHO(1978) : “……to help patient to resume to health, help healthy person to promote health.”
ICN: right and obligation of nurses are: (a) To maintain life (b) To lighten suffering (c) To promote health
Tasks of nursing: To promote health To prevent disease To assist healing To ease suffering