5Human being The human being is a uniform whole Basic needs of human beingGrowth and development of human beingSelf-concept of human being
61. The human being is a uniform whole (1) Concept of a whole(2) The uniform whole of human being (3) The human being is an open system(4) The scope of human being in nursing
7The uniform whole of human being PhysiologicalPsychologicalSocialSpiritualCultural
8The human being is a open system Closed systemOpen system
9Individual Family Community Society The scope of human being in nursingIndividualFamilyCommunitySociety
10To maintain the balance of organism Basic goal of human beingTo maintain the balance of organismBalance among subsystems of organismBalance between organism and its environment (internal and external environment)
112. Basic needs of human being （1）Definition of basic needs（2）Types of basic needs（3）Characteristics of basic needs（4）Factors that affect meeting needs（5）The theory related to basic needs
12Basic needs of human being (1) Definition of basic needsNeedBasic needs of human being
13(2) Types of basic needs Physiological needs Social needs Affective needsCognitive needsSpiritual needs
14(3) Characteristics of basic needs 1）Approximately same basic needs2）The importance of each need for each person is different3）All the basic needs are interconnected and interactive
15(4) Factors that affect meeting needs Physiological factorsEmotional factorsKnowledge and intellect factorsSocial factors
16(4) Factors that affect meeting needs Environmental factorsIndividual factorsCultural factors
17(5) The theory related to basic needs —Maslow’s hierarchy theoryof Basic needs for HumanBeing
18Maslow’s theory (a) Basic content (b) Basis for need’s hierarchy (c) General rules(d) Significance to nursing
19Basic content Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belongingness needsSelf-esteem needsNeeds for self-actualization
20Sequence of need’s appearance Basis for need’s hierarchyImportance of needsSequence of need’s appearance
21Significance to nursing a) To identify client’s unmet needsb) To realize and understand client’s wordsand behaviorsc) To predict client’s unspoken needs
22Significance to nursing d) To collect client’s data comprehensivelye) To put client’s nursing problems inadequate order
233. Growth and development of human being (1) Definition of growth and development(2) Content of growth and development(3) Basic principles of growth and development(4) Factors that affect growth and development
29Narrow definitionthe process of the growth in physiological aspect and the potential in developmental aspect were exerted fully
30Generalized definition a individual has not only obtained full development in physiological aspect, but also put up many mature behaviors.
31Content of growth and development PhysiologicalCognitiveSocialAffectiveSpiritualMoral
32growth and development Basic principles ofgrowth and development1) Persistent, in sequence, regular, predicted.2) Common development process3) Passing each developmental stage inunique manner and speed.
334) Character and definite developmental tasks in each developmental stage 5) Development in infant phase will affect the following basic attitude, temperament, life style and behaviors.6) Development is obtained by gradual maturation and constant learning.
34growth and development Factors that affectgrowth and developmentHeredityEnvironment
354. Self-concept of human being (1) Definition of self-concept(2) Generation of self-concept(3) Components of self-concept(4) Importance of self-concept
36Definition of self-concept a person’s attitude towards to himself (herself )
37Generation of self-concept the combination of other’s opinion to a person and a person’s self-detection and self-cognition.
38Components of self-concept Body imageRole performancePersonal identitySelf-esteem
39Importance of positive self-concept(a) Affecting one’s thoughts and behaviors(b) Affecting one’s choices(c) Affecting other’s attitude to oneself(d) Affecting one’s ability of meeting an emergency when one is in the face of various changes
40Environment 1.Definition of environment 2.Classification of environment3.Relationship among environment, human being and health
41Definition of environment Roy’s definition ofenvironmentHenderson’s definition of environment
42Roy’s definition of environment the summation of all factors that surround and affect the behaviors and development of individual or collectivity.
43Henderson’s definition of environment a general name of all external factors that affect the life and development of organism.
44Classification of environment 1. Internal environment2. External environment
49DefinitionIt is an environment that created by professionals aimed to fit the recovery of clients’ physiological and psychological health
50Functions To influence clients’ feeling (b) To influence the course anddegree of disease’s recovery.
51Requirement (a) safety (b) comfort a) to prevent the accident’s occurrenceb) to avoid the spread of microorganism(b) comforta) good physical environmentb) good services and attitude
52Relationship among environment, human being and health (1) Human being and its environmentare interdependent and interacted(2) Human being’s health is closelylinked with the environment
53Health Concept of health Concept of disease The relationship between health and illness
54Concept of health (1) Definition of health (2) Model of health (3) Factors that affect health
55Definition of health 1) Absence of disease 2) Feel comfort 3) Well-balanced functional activities4) Well-balanced physiological and psychological activities5) WHO’s definition of health
56WHO’s definition of health WHO——The World Health Organization“a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” (holistic view of health)
57Model of health (1) Definition (2) Characteristics ——Health-illness continuum model(1) Definition(2) Characteristics(3) Nurses’ responsibilities
58Definition of health-illness continuum model Health and illness or disease can be viewed as the opposite ends of a health continuum. From a high level of health a person’s condition can move through good health, normal health, poor health, and extremely poor health, eventually to death.
59People move back and forth within this continuum day by day People move back and forth within this continuum day by day. There is no distinct boundary across which people move from health to illness or from illness back to health. How people perceive themselves and how others see them in terms of health and illness will also affect their placement on the continuum.
60Characteristics of health-illness continuum model (a) At any time any person’ health status holds a place on certain point between two ends of health-illness continuum
61(b) any point on the health-illness continuum is a synthetical representation of various (all) aspects of individual in physiology, psychology, and society.
62Nurses’ responsibilities (a) to help the clients to identify their place (location) on the health-illness continuum(b) to assist the clients to adopt some measures (take actions) in order to reach a well state of health.
63Factors that affect health (1) Biological factors(2) Environmental factors(3) Life style(4) Psychological factors
65Environmental factors 1) Natural environment:2) Social environment:
66Concept of disease Definition of disease Effect of disease (3) Measures of preventing disease
67Definition of disease 1) Ancient view of disease 2) Modern view of disease
68Ancient view of disease Ghosts and gods attach to the bodyUnbalance between negative and positive
69Modern view of disease(a) A state that is treated by physician and falls short of the needs of human being(b) Be discomfort, suffering and pain(c) A loss and change of social behaviors, especially the loss and change of labor force
70(e) The destroy of homeostasis of organism (d) An abnormity of function, structureand shape of organism(e) The destroy of homeostasis of organism(f) A reaction of the organism to harmfulfactors
71Effect of disease 1) The effect on individual 2) The effect on family 3) The effect on society
72The effect on individual 1）Positive effect2）Negative effect
73The effect on family 1) Economic burden is increased 2) Family member’s psychological stressis increased3) The emotion change of family member
74The effect on society 1) Social productivity is decreased 2) Medical resources are consumed or wasted3) To infect others and threaten other’shealth
76The relationship between health and illness 1）No distinct boundary；A relative relationship2）Be dynamic changing3）Be mutual transform under definite condition4）Be exist at the same time on one individual
77Nursing 1. Concept of nursing 2. Evolvement process of the concept of nursing3. The relationship between nursing and health
78Concept of nursing (1) Definition of nursing (2) The content of concept ofnursing(3) The connotation of conceptof nursing
79Definition of nursing (b) Henderson’s definition of nursing (a) Nightingale’s definition of nursing(b) Henderson’s definition of nursing(c) American Nurse Association’s definitionof nursing(d) International Council of nurses’ definition
80independent applying science that synthesizing natural The content of conceptof nursing(1) The nursing science is anindependent applying sciencethat synthesizing naturaland social sciences.
81(2) Nursing is a profession that helps human being and servesfor health of human being
82(3) Nursing can assist individual to meet the basic needs ofhuman being and enforce theability of self-care.
83(4) The tasks of nursing are: To promote healthTo prevent diseaseTo help ill-person to healingTo assist the dying patient to passaway with quietude, peace, anddignity.
84human being, including suffering person and healthy person. (5) The client is a holistichuman being, includingsuffering person andhealthy person.
85(6) The working place is not only in the hospital, butalso in family, communityand whole society.Nursing is not only ascience, but also an art
86(8) The nursing science attaches importance to human being’sliving environment and theinterrelation between humanbeing and its environment.
87(9) The nursing science is a gradually perfect anddeveloping science.
88The content of concept of nursing (1) Caring: lasting topic (2) Humanism: humanistic perspective(a) Respect individual(b) Pay attention to the human nature(c) Treat equally without discrimination(3) The helping relationship
89Evolvement process of the concept of nursing Developmental stages of nursingmodel(2) The meaning and significance ofholistic nursing