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The European Union: 493 million people – 27 countries Member states of the European Union Candidate countries.

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Presentation on theme: "The European Union: 493 million people – 27 countries Member states of the European Union Candidate countries."— Presentation transcript:

1 The European Union: 493 million people – 27 countries Member states of the European Union Candidate countries

2 Founding fathers New ideas for lasting peace and prosperity… Konrad Adenauer Robert Schuman Winston Churchill Alcide De Gasperi Jean Monnet

3 The EU symbols The European flag The European anthem Europe Day, 9 May The motto: United in diversity

4 23 official languages

5 Eight enlargements

6 The big enlargement: healing the division of Europe Fall of Berlin Wall – end of Communism EU economic help begins: Phare programme Criteria set for a country to join the EU: democracy and rule of law functioning market economy ability to implement EU laws Formal negotiations on enlargement begin Copenhagen summit agrees enlargement 10 new EU members: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia Bulgaria and Romania join the EU Candidates Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey © Reuders

7 The treaties – basis for democratic cooperation built on law 1952 The European Steel and Coal Community 1958 The treaties of Rome: The European Economic Community The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) 1987 The European Single Act: the Single Market 1993 Treaty of European Union – Maastricht 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam 2003 Treaty of Nice 2007 Treaty of Lisbon (signed)

8 The Lisbon treaty - taking Europe into the 21st century The Treaty will make the European Union: More efficient Simpler processes, full-time president for the Council, etc. More democratic Stronger role for the European Parliament and national parliaments, "Citizens initiative", Charter of Fundamental Rights, etc. More transparentClarifies who does what, greater public access to documents and meetings, etc. More united on High Representative for Foreign Policy, etc. the world stage More secureNew possibilities to fight climate change and terrorism, secure energy supplies, etc. Signed in December 2007 – enter into force when ratified by all 27 EU countries.

9 A transparent Union at your service The website of the European Union One and a half million documents available to the public Europe Direct contact centre Answers your questions: Europe Direct relays Over 400 EU Info Points across the EU European Union Documents Access to internal documents upon request The European Ombudsman Deals with complaints over EU administration Nikoforos Diamandouros, the EU ombudsman

10 EU population in the world Population in millions, EUChinaJapanRussiaUnited States

11 The area of the EU compared to the rest of the world Surface area, km² EUChina Japan RussiaUnited States

12 How rich is the EU compared to the rest of the world? EU ChinaJapanRussiaUnited States EU ChinaJapan Russia United States Size of economy: Gross Domestic Product in billion of euros, 2006 Wealth per person: Gross Domestic Product per person in Purchasing Power Standard, 2007

13 How big are the EU countries? Surface area km² France Spain Sweden Germany Poland Finland Italy United Kingdom Romania Greece Bulgaria Hungary Portugal Austria Czech Republic Ireland Lithuania Latvia Slovakia Estonia Denmark Netherlands Belgium Slovenia Cyprus Luxemburg Malta

14 How many people live in the EU? Population in millions, million France Spain Sweden Poland Finland Italy United Kingdom Romania Greece Bulgaria Hungary Portugal Austria Czech Republic Ireland Lithuania Latvia Slovakia Estonia Denmark Netherlands Belgium Slovenia Cyprus Luxemburg Malta Germany

15 GDP per inhabitant: the spread of wealth GDP per inhabitants in Purchasing Power Standards, 2007 Index where the average of the 27 EU-countries is Luxembourg Ireland Netherlands Austria Denmark Belgium Sweden United Kingdom Finland Germany France Italy Spain EU-27CyprusGreece Slovenia Czech Republic Malta Portugal Estonia HungarySlovakia Lithuania Latvia Poland RomaniaBulgaria

16 How is the EUs money spent? Total EU budget 2008: billion euro = 1.03% of Gross National Income Citizens, freedom, security and justice 1% Other, administration 6% Sustainable growth: new jobs, cohesion, research 45% The EU as a global player: including development aid 6% Natural resources: agriculture, environment 43%

17 Climate change – a global challenge To stop global warming, EU leaders decided in 2007 to: reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020 (30% if other developed countries do likewise) improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 raise the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020 (wind, solar, hydro power, biomass)

18 Energy sources in a changing world Types of fuel used for making energy in the 27 EU countries, 2005 Import dependency: share of fuel imported from outside the EU-countries, 2005 Oil 37% Gas 35% Nuclear 14% Coal 18% Renewables 7% 39% 82% 57% 100% 50% OilCoalGasNuclear (uranium) Renewables All types of fuel 0%

19 Jobs and growth Challenges: Demography: Europeans live longer, have fewer children Globalisation: European economy faces competition from other parts of the world Climate change: Emission of greenhouse gases must come down Solutions: European leaders have therefore agreed on a joint strategy for: More research and innovation A more dynamic business environment Investing in people A greener economy

20 Research - investing in the knowledge society Spending on research and development in percentage of Gross Domestic Product, % 3.0% 1.3% 2.6% 3.3% EUEU objective for 2010 China Japan United States

21 Solidarity in practice: the EU cohesion policy : 347 billion euro invested for infrastructure, business, environment and training of workers for less well-off regions or citizens Regional fund Social fund Cohesion fund Convergence objective: regions with GDP per capita under 75% of the EU average. 81.5% of the funds are spent on this objective. Regional competitiveness and employment objective.

22 The euro – a single currency for Europeans EU countries using the euro EU countries not using the euro Can be used everywhere in the euro area Coins: one side with national symbols, one side common Notes: no national side

23 Beating inflation European Economic and Monetary Union: stable prices Average annual inflation in the 15 EU-countries that used the euro in 2008

24 The single market: freedom of choice Since 1993: 2.5 million new jobs prices of phone calls and airfares halved Four freedoms of movement: goods services people capital © Getty Images

25 Free to move Schengen: No police or customs checks at borders between most EU countries Controls strengthened at EU external borders More cooperation between police from different EU countries You can buy and bring back any goods for personal use when you travel between EU countries © Corbis

26 Going abroad to learn Over two million young people have studied or pursued personal development in other European countries with support from EU-programmes: Comenius: school education Erasmus: higher education Leonardo da Vinci: vocational training Grundtvig: adult education Youth in Action: voluntary work and non-formal education © Getty Images

27 Improving health and the environment Pollution knows no borders – joint action needed EU action has helped bring us: Cleaner bathing water Much less acid rain Lead-free petrol Free and safe disposal of old electronic equipment Strict rules on food safety from farm to fork More organic and quality farming More effective health warnings on cigarettes Registration and control of all chemicals (REACH) © Van Parys Media

28 An area of freedom, security and justice Charter of Fundamental Rights Joint fight against terrorism Police and law-enforcers from different countries cooperate Coordinated asylum and immigration policies Civil law cooperation © European Union Police Mission

29 The EU: an exporter of peace and prosperity World trade rules Common foreign and security policy Development assistance and humanitarian aid EU runs the peacekeeping operations and the rebuilding of society in war-torn countries like Bosnia-Herzegovina.

30 The EU – a major trading power Share of world trade in goods (2006) Share of world trade in services (2005) Others 50.5% EU 17.1% United States 16% Japan 6.6% China 9.6% Others 44.9% EU 26% United States 18.4% Japan 6.9% China 3.8%

31 The EU is the biggest provider of development aid in the world Official development assistance per citizen, EU Japan United States The EU provides 60% of all development aid

32 Three key players The European Parliament - voice of the people Hans-Gert Pöttering, President of the European Parliament The council of Ministers - voice of the Member States Javier Solana, Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union and High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy The European Commission - promoting the common interest José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission

33 Three pillars The European Union The Treaties European Community domain (most of common policies) Common foreign and security policy Police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters

34 European Parliament The EU institutions Court of Justice Court of Auditors Economic and Social Committee Committee of the Regions Council of Ministers (Council of the EU) European Commission European Investment BankEuropean Central Bank Agencies European Council (summit)

35 How EU laws are made Citizens, interests groups, experts: discuss, consult Commission: makes formal proposal Parliament and Council of Ministers: decide jointly Commission and Court of Justice: monitor implementation National or local authorities: implement

36 United Kingdom The European Parliament – voice of the people Italy Ireland 24 Hungary Greece 99 Germany France Finland 6 Estonia 14 Denmark 24Czech Republic 6Cyprus 18 Bulgaria 24Belgium 18 Austria Decides EU laws and budget together with Council of Ministers Democratic supervision of all the EUs work Total Sweden 54Spain 7Slovenia 14Slovakia 35 Romania 24 Portugal 54Poland 27 Netherlands 5Malta 6 Luxembourg 13 Lithuania 9Latvia Number of members elected in each country

37 The European political parties Number of seats in the European Parliament per political group (March 2008) European United Left - Nordic Green Left 41 Socialist Group 215 Greens/European Free Alliance 43 Independence/ Democracy 24 Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe 101 European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats 288 Union for Europe of the Nations 44 Non-attached members and temporarily empty seats 29 Total : 785

38 Council of Ministers – voice of the member states One minister from each EU country Presidency: rotates every six months Decides EU laws and budget together with Parliament Manages the Common Foreign and Security Policy

39 Council of Ministers – number of votes per country 345Total: 3Malta 4Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg and Slovenia 7Denmark, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovakia and Finland 10Austria, Bulgaria and Sweden 12 Belgium, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary and Portugal 13Netherlands 14 Romania 27Spain and Poland 29Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom Qualified majority needed for many decisions: 255 votes and a majority of member states

40 Summit at the European Council Summit of heads of state and government of all EU countries Held at least 3 times a year Sets the overall guidelines for EU policies

41 The European Commission – promoting the common interest 27 independent members, one from each EU country Proposes new legislation Executive organ Guardian of the treaties Represents the EU on the international stage

42 The Court of Justice – upholding the law 27 independent judges, one from each EU country Rules on how to interpret EU law Ensures EU laws are used in the same way in all EU countries

43 The European Court of Auditors: getting value for your money 27 independent members Checks that EU funds are used properly Can audit any person or organisation dealing with EU funds

44 Ensures price stability Controls money supply and decides interest rates Works independently from governments The European Central Bank: managing the euro Jean-Claude Trichet President of the Central Bank

45 The European Economic and Social Committee: voice of civil society 344 members Represents trade unions, employers, farmers, consumers etc Advises on new EU laws and policies Promotes the involvement of civil society in EU matters

46 The Committee of the Regions: voice of local government 344 members Represents cities, regions Advises on new EU laws and policies Promotes the involvement of local government in EU matters

47 Civil servants working for the EU Commission: about civil servants Other EU institutions: about employed Permanent civil servants Selected by open competitions Come from all EU countries Salaries decided by law EU administration costs 15 euro per EU citizen per year

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