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Rahe, Mahan and Arthur oHTlYabQE8 oHTlYabQE8.

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Presentation on theme: "Rahe, Mahan and Arthur oHTlYabQE8 oHTlYabQE8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rahe, Mahan and Arthur oHTlYabQE8 oHTlYabQE8

2 Today… This morning This morning Aims and context of Rahe et al study Aims and context of Rahe et al study This afternoon This afternoon Procedures of Rahe et al study Procedures of Rahe et al study Timed essay on Rahe procedures(if time) Timed essay on Rahe procedures(if time)

3 Questions What effect can stress have on our body? What effect can stress have on our body? Can stress make you ill? Can stress make you ill? What did Selye find about stress? What did Selye find about stress?

4 Context Psychosomatic: Psychosomatic: A link between psychological state and physical health A link between psychological state and physical health Relationship between stress and illness Relationship between stress and illness Immune system Immune system Cardiovascular system (heart and blood) Cardiovascular system (heart and blood)

5 Context Thinking back to PY1, what did Selye find in his research in his research on rats? Thinking back to PY1, what did Selye find in his research in his research on rats? Stress and illness Stress and illness Holmes and Hawkins Holmes and Hawkins Not poverty itself which causes TB, but the emotional effects of poverty Not poverty itself which causes TB, but the emotional effects of poverty

6 Context Hawkins (1957) Hawkins (1957) Compared TB patients to controls. Matched for age, race etc. Compared TB patients to controls. Matched for age, race etc. Increase in disturbing occurrences in the TB patients. Increase in disturbing occurrences in the TB patients. Is there a link between stressful events and illness? Is there a link between stressful events and illness?

7 Context Issues with methodology Issues with methodology Research may lack…? Research may lack…? Dr Richard Rahe There are biases inherent in using hospital samples and drawing conclusions from retrospective studies... few attempts have been made to put the life stress and subsequent illness hypotheses in non hospital populations.

8 Context Another issue Another issue All previous studies measure stress in different ways. All previous studies measure stress in different ways. Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) 43 critical life events based on 5000 case studies 43 critical life events based on 5000 case studies All about life changes, both positive and negative All about life changes, both positive and negative Life change units (LCU) calculated by asking 400 people to rate them in terms of stress Life change units (LCU) calculated by asking 400 people to rate them in terms of stress

9 Context Could we expose individuals to certain stressors, and measure their rate of illness? If not, why? Could we expose individuals to certain stressors, and measure their rate of illness? If not, why? Retrospective studies: issues Retrospective studies: issues Recall from past Recall from past Investigator effects Investigator effects Sample bias Sample bias

10 Aims To overcome the methodological issues of retrospective studies by carrying out a prospective study with more control. To overcome the methodological issues of retrospective studies by carrying out a prospective study with more control. A normal population would be used (sailors) A normal population would be used (sailors) Investigate the relationship between stressful life events and future illness. Investigate the relationship between stressful life events and future illness.

11 Procedures Read the procedure on pg 81 Read the procedure on pg 81 Fill in the blank information on the sheet Fill in the blank information on the sheet

12 Findings What was the relationship between Total Life Change Units (TLCU) and illness? What was the relationship between Total Life Change Units (TLCU) and illness? What was the correlation co-efficient for the TCLUs six months before the cruise and illness while on board? What was the correlation co-efficient for the TCLUs six months before the cruise and illness while on board? Relationship stronger for cruiser 1 and 3, and for married men Relationship stronger for cruiser 1 and 3, and for married men

13 Findings Decile groups Decile groups All participants ranked in terms of their TCLUs and put into one of ten bands, each containing 10% of the total. All participants ranked in terms of their TCLUs and put into one of ten bands, each containing 10% of the total.

14 Findings Decile groups show a general trend, but it was an uneven distribution. Decile groups show a general trend, but it was an uneven distribution. Groups banded into High and low illness Groups banded into High and low illness Plot this data into a bar chart Plot this data into a bar chart How clear is the relationship now? How clear is the relationship now? Look at scatter graph on pg 82. Summarise these results Look at scatter graph on pg 82. Summarise these results

15 Findings and conclusions More findings More findings Read pg 91. What last piece of evidence is there? Read pg 91. What last piece of evidence is there? Conclusions Conclusions What is the main conclusion? What is the main conclusion? Read through the rest of the Read through the rest of the conclusions and highlight

16 Evaluating the methodology Pg 84 has some good evaluation points. Pg 84 has some good evaluation points. Using the pointers on the handout, evaluate the study Using the pointers on the handout, evaluate the study One evaluation point each, pass on. One evaluation point each, pass on.

17 Alternative Evidence Rubin et al (1972) Rubin et al (1972) Predictive relationship between SRE scores and later illness in naval aviators in vietnam Predictive relationship between SRE scores and later illness in naval aviators in vietnam In other words, the higher the stress score, the more likely they were to be ill. In other words, the higher the stress score, the more likely they were to be ill. What did Vidal (2006) and Gupta and Gupta (2004) Find? What did Vidal (2006) and Gupta and Gupta (2004) Find?

18 Alternative Evidence Major life changes vs minor daily stress Major life changes vs minor daily stress What minor stresses (hassles) can you think of? What minor stresses (hassles) can you think of? See daily hassles sheet See daily hassles sheet DeLongis et al (1988) DeLongis et al (1988) +.59 correlation between daily hassles and next day illness +.59 correlation between daily hassles and next day illness Two interpretations of this... Two interpretations of this...

19 Alternative Evidence Rahe found a link between stress and illness Rahe found a link between stress and illness Descriptive rather than explanatory Descriptive rather than explanatory Kiecolt-Glaser et al (1984). Kiecolt-Glaser et al (1984). Blood tests taken before and during the exam period. Levels of natural killer cells significantly lower during the exam period. Blood tests taken before and during the exam period. Levels of natural killer cells significantly lower during the exam period. Suggests that short term predictable stressors reduce immune system functioning increasing illness. Suggests that short term predictable stressors reduce immune system functioning increasing illness.

20 Alternative Evidence Which piece of alterative evidence for Langer and Rodin could be used here? Which piece of alterative evidence for Langer and Rodin could be used here? Could stress be good? Could stress be good? Evans et al (1994) Evans et al (1994) sIgA levels increase for very short term stress sIgA levels increase for very short term stress Use three colours to highlight research that supports, contradicts, or develops Rahes research (some may be more than one colour). Use three colours to highlight research that supports, contradicts, or develops Rahes research (some may be more than one colour).


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