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© ET-Trends LLC 1 Ken Gilleo – ET-Trends – Nathan Kerrick, Cookson Electronics IBM MicroDrive: 351 MB MEMS & GMR Technology IMAPS 200 Denver
© ET-Trends LLC 2 OUTLINE Hard Disk Drive overview GR and GMR technology Processing of hi-density heads The role of temporary adhesives HDD assembly
© ET-Trends LLC 3 The HDD (Hard Drive Disk) Magnetic Disk Slider Flex Courtesy of 3M Co Mag. Head Assembly Positioner Assembly
© ET-Trends LLC 4 The HDD Head is key to Ultra-High Density
© ET-Trends LLC 5 HDD Technology Density increases surpass Moores Law. MR and GMR are true breakthroughs. Density records: –30 million bits/in 2 December 1999 (commercial) –56 Gbits/in 2 on April 2000 (lab) Density limits have not been reached. The technology is in the complex head.
© ET-Trends LLC 6 MR Head Technology Contact MR Sensing Layer (changes resistivity) Insulator Spacer Soft Adjacent Layer Shield bias MR Effect: changes in electrical resistance by certain magnetically-soft when a magnetic field is turned on and off. Magneto-Resistive Measure as read signal
© ET-Trends LLC 7 GMR Head Technology Shield Contact Sensing Layer Conducting Layer Exchange Layer Pinned Layer (magnetically oriented) Shield GMR is a quantum effect and relies on electron spin states; >2X more sensitive than GR Giant Magneto-Resistive bias
© ET-Trends LLC 8 Write Head COIL Write Current SLIDER Coil WRITE HEAD Magnetic medium Writing Current Magnetic coil creates field thatwrites by orienting disk domain medium ON
© ET-Trends LLC 9 Merged Read/Write Head N SS NN SS NN SS N WRITE READ Shield 1 Rotating Disk Shield 2 Inductive Writing Element MR or GMR Sensor READWRITE
© ET-Trends LLC 10 Building MR/GMR Head Elements Semiconductor wafer fab Wafer thinning Wafer sawing Element planing/polishing Head assembly
© ET-Trends LLC 11 First, some adhesive basics. Mixing Casting Adhesive film Wafer-applied adhesive for die attach
© ET-Trends LLC 12 Long-chained typically organic macromolecules made up of small repeating segments of monomers. Properties such as strength, flexibility, melting point and electrical characteristics can be ENGINEERED into the polymer. - Engineered molecules - Highly compatible -Tailored properties
© ET-Trends LLC 13 A polymer that is cross-linked so that melting does not occur under heating. SOLID A polymer that is capable of softening to a flowable "liquid" when heated and hardened again when cooled. SOLIDLIQUID (flowable)
© ET-Trends LLC 14 Polymer Types
© ET-Trends LLC 15 Thermoplastic as a temporary adhesive Independent chain motion allows melting; debonding.
© ET-Trends LLC 16 Thermoplastics can be dissolved or debonded without dissolving; swelling Thermoplastics can be dissolved or debonded without dissolving; swelling Solvent Molecules
© ET-Trends LLC 17 Thermoplastic Adhesive FORMS Film –sheets –rolls Preform –any shape from disk to complex Paste –for needle dispense –spin coat for wafer-level
© ET-Trends LLC 18 Resin & Filler Choices Fillers –Silver - Electrical & thermal conductivity –AlN, BeO - Thermal, but good dielectric –Unfilled - Insulating Resin bond ranges (thermoplastics): –Low : 100 o C –High :400 o C –Typical: o C For Most HDD Processes Sometimes used to control static.
© ET-Trends LLC 19 Thermoset Adhesives Thermoplastic DispenseOven Cure DRY Heat & PressurePlace Part Place Preform Place No Pressure Needed Dispense or Print Place PartDry/Fuse No Pressure Needed Coat Wafer: spin, print Place PartHeat & Pressure Paste to Substrate Paste to Substrate Paste to Wafer Paste to Wafer FILM Paste to Substrate Not Temporary
© ET-Trends LLC 20 Application Processes Liquid (paste) –Coat on wafer; spin, stencil, print; dry –Needle dispense on substrate or holder Film –Laminate to wafer, then run processes Preform (cut to wafer of row shape) –Bond to wafer –Bond to substrate
© ET-Trends LLC 21 Bonding Thermoplastics Glassy State Process Window Decomposition T max T min TgTg Temperature
© ET-Trends LLC 22 Thermoplastic Properties FILLERS TgTg Rework Die Shear Thermal Modulus Bond Temp CCC min. 25C WmCPSI none K Ag, AlN none K Ag, AlN none K Ag, AlN none K Ag, AlN none K None K None K Each row is a different polymer Which ones for HDD?
© ET-Trends LLC 23 SUBSTRATECONDITIONINGINITIAL BONDFINAL BOND Ceramic150 o C, 1000 hrs.2500 PSI4800 PSI Au-plated Ceramic 150 o C, 1000 hrs.3100PSI4900 PSI Al150 o C, 1000 hrs.4100 PSI4500 PSI Ceramic 85%RH, 85 o C, 1000 Hrs PSI1800 PSI Au-plated Ceramic 85%RH, 85 o C, 1000 Hrs PSI2600 PSI Al 85%RH, 85 o C, 1000 Hrs PSI3600 PSI Ceramic -65 o C to 150 o C, 500 cycles 2500 PSI4000 PSI Au-plated Ceramic -65 o C to 150 o C, 500 cycles 3100 PSI3700 PSI Al -65 o C to 150 o C, 500 cycles 4100 PSI4800 PSI Bond Strength of Die Attach Adhes. Bonding: 180C/ 10sec, 135g;.080" x.080" Ni/Au Kovar
© ET-Trends LLC 24 Removal Options Heat element area Peel off parts Immerse assembly in solvent Remove parts Rinse in solvent HEAT SOLVENT Preferred for HDD work
© ET-Trends LLC 25 Wafer Lapping (thinning & polishing) Attach wafer to lava stone with temporary adhesive. HDD Wafer
© ET-Trends LLC 26 Wafer Lapping Process Wafer Rotation Holder Lava Rock Temporary Adhesive Grinding Media
© ET-Trends LLC 27 Slicing 1. Heat Bond Wafer 2. Slice into Rows 3. Debond with Solvent Temporary adhesive (sawing into rows) ROW of Heads before singulating Rows formed after slicing
© ET-Trends LLC 28 Adhesive Paste Lapping & Edge Polishing 1. Dispense Adhesive 2. Mount Rows 3. Bond by heating Automatic Dispenser - Speedline
© ET-Trends LLC 29 Temporary Adhesive Row Bonding Step Rotate 90 o with cut, or rough side facing up. (part of lapping & polishing)
© ET-Trends LLC 30 Debond in solvent Rows are planarized/leveled/lapped
© ET-Trends LLC 31 Finished rows are sliced into head elements Use temporary adhesive
© ET-Trends LLC 32 HDD Assembly
© ET-Trends LLC 33 Conclusions HDD Beats Moores Law and IC industry The breakthrough was GMR MEMS is playing a role Density limits have not been reached Photonics is being added Expect continuous density increases 73 GB IBM
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