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Valence Electrons: ELECTRONS AVAILABLE FOR BONDING

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CA Standards Students know how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding. Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures. Students know how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding. Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures.

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Definition Valence electrons are electrons in the outmost shell (energy level). They are the electrons available for bonding.

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Group 1 (alkali metals) have 1 valence electron

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Group 2 (alkaline earth metals) have 2 valence electrons

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Group 13 elements have 3 valence electrons

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Group 14 elements have 4 valence electrons

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Group 15 elements have 5 valence electrons

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Group 16 elements have 6 valence electrons

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Group 17 (halogens) have 7 valence electrons

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Group 18 (Noble gases) have 8 valence electrons, except helium, which has only 2

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Transition metals (“d” block) have 1 or 2 valence electrons

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Lanthanides and actinides (“f” block) have 1 or 2 valence electrons Lanthanides and actinides (“f” block) have 1 or 2 valence electrons

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Dot Notations An atom’s valence electrons can be represented by Lewis dot notations. 1 valence e - X 2 valence e - X 3 valence e - X 4 valence e - X 5 valence e - X 6 valence e - X 7 valence e - X 8 valence e - X

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Dot Notations – Period 2 Lewis dot notations for the valence electrons of the elements of Period 2. lithium Liberyllium Beboron Bcarbon C nitrogen Noxygen Ofluorine Fneon Ne

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