Presentation on theme: "Assessment For Learning Tools"— Presentation transcript:
1Assessment For Learning Tools Made by Mike Gershon –AfL is successful when embedded in teaching and learning.This toolkit aims to help by presenting different facets, activities and tools for teachers to use in order to achieve this.I hope you find it useful!SourcesPaul Black et al, Assessment for Learning, (Open University Press, Maidenhead, 2003)Paul Black et al, “Working inside the black box”, (nferNelson, London, 2002)Paul Black and Dylan William, Inside the Black Box, (nferNelson, London, 1998)Assessment Reform Group, Testing, Motivation and Learning, (The Assessment Reform Group, Cambridge, 2002)Assessment Reform Group, Assessment for Learning, (The Assessment Reform Group, Cambridge, 1999)My headOther people’s heads
2AfL ToolsStudents write Questions Students ask Questions Comment-only marking Mid-unit assessment ‘Might’Wait-time Open vs closed Exemplar Work Student Marking Making aims clearLesson Target Setting Teacher Review Student Review Traffic Lights 2 stars and a wishSelf-assessment Targets One-Sentence Summary Articulate then Answer Scene-Setting Tell your neighbourIdea Thoughts Bouncing Wait and recap Incorrect Discussion Muddiest PointDevising Questions Learning Journal Redrafting Key features Invert the QuestionImprovement Guidance Comment Follow-up Group feedback Peer Marking ThumbsTeach Collaboration Traffic-Light Revision Generate and Answer Student Mark-Scheme Group AnswersX and Y All you know Corrections Laminated Criteria Conveying ProgressThink through Talking Discuss Words Communication Thoughtful Dialogue Feedback SandwichWhat is good? Self-evaluation What is a ‘good’ question? Graphic Organisers KWLTalk Partners Post-It Response Partners Hands Down Question StemsRegulating Learning A B C D Why is it best? Show and Tell Active StudentsLong and Short Term Minute Paper Enquiry Question Smiley Faces Squares
3Students write Questions Back to AFL ToolsStudents write QuestionsFor example –About what they would like to know on a new topicTo ask the teacher or other students in order to assess their learningTo demonstrate their learning/misconceptions/areas they would like to further exploreThe classroom could have a question boxwhere students drop questions at theend of a lesson.Or, a plenary could involve students writingquestions that the class then work ontogether, or forms the basis of the next lesson.
4Students ask Questions Back to AFL ToolsStudents ask QuestionsCreate opportunities for students toask questions. This could be of theirpeers, of the teacher or as a meansto develop discussion.A ‘question box’ for written questionsoffers a different means ofcommunication for studentsAllow time for students to askquestions about pieces of work. Thishelps open up assessment andeliminate ambiguity
5Comment-only marking Comment-only marking provides students Back to AFL ToolsComment-only markingComment-only marking provides studentswith a focus for progression instead of areward or punishment for their ego (as agrade does).Comments could be made in books, in atable at the front of books, in a learningdiary or journal. The latter are helpful forteacher and student to track theprogression of comments and seeimprovement.Comments should make it clear how thestudent can improve.Plan activities and work with feedback inmind – let the design assist the process.
6Mid-unit assessment Having an assessment at the end of a Back to AFL ToolsMid-unit assessmentHaving an assessment at the end of aunit may not provide time for you togo over areas students havestruggled with, or in which there aregeneral misconceptions.Timing assessment during a unit (i.e.lesson 5 of 7) allows time to review,reflect and revisit.It also gives the teacher anopportunity to focus explicitly onareas of weak understandingsupported by evidence.
7What might the Great Depression look like today? Back to AFL Tools‘Might’When questioning, insert the word‘might’ to give students greateropportunity to think and explorepossible answers.e.g.What is meaning of democracy?What might the meaning ofdemocracy be?The first infers a single answer knownby the teacher whereas the second isinherently more open.What might the Great Depression look like today?
8Wait-time Wait time allows students time to think Back to AFL ToolsWait-timeWait time allows students time to thinkand therefore to produce answers. Also,not everyone in the class thinks at thesame speed or in the same way – waitingallows students to build their thoughtsand explore what has been asked.2 types of wait time –Teacher speaks and then waits before taking student responses.Student response ends and then teacher waits before responding. This gives the student space to elaborate or continue – or for another student to respond.
9Open vs closed Closed questions can be useful Back to AFL ToolsOpen vs closedClosed questions can be usefulhowever are not great at facilitatingthe use of abstract thinking skills,encouraging talking or eliciting muchunderstanding. Open questions aremore likely to do this and thusimprove learning.e.g.Did you go out last night?What did you after school yesterday?
10Exemplar Work When setting students a piece of Back to AFL ToolsExemplar WorkWhen setting students a piece ofwork, show them examples that makeit clear what it is they are being askedto do – and what they need to do inorder to meet the assessment criteria.Students could mark exemplar workusing the assessment criteria. Thiswill help model what is being askedfor and how it relates to the processof assessment.
11Student Marking By taking part in the process of Back to AFL ToolsStudent MarkingBy taking part in the process ofassessment, students gain a deeperunderstanding of topics, the processof assessment and what they aredoing in their own work. This helps tomake them more aware of ‘whatlearning is’ and thus see their ownlearning in this way.Students could self- or peer- markhomework or assessments.This could be done in pairs orindividually with a student-made or‘official’ mark-scheme.
12Back to AFL ToolsMaking aims clearPut lesson objectives on the board at the beginning of the lesson.Talk to students about why they are studying what they are studying.Contextualise short-term aims in long-term aims (e.g. analysing Shakespeare will contribute to a wider knowledge of the cultural canon and stronger analytical skills among other long term aims)Check with students that they are clear about the aims of the lesson/unit/subjectProduce aims in conjunction with students
13Lesson Target Setting Make the lesson more purposeful for Back to AFL ToolsLesson Target SettingMake the lesson more purposeful forstudents by setting targets at thebeginning about what you and theclass are going to do.These can be referred to through thelesson and/or revisited in the plenary.Students could have to show howthey have met targets in the plenaryand/or set targets for next lesson.
14Teacher Review The teacher leads the review of the Back to AFL ToolsTeacher ReviewThe teacher leads the review of thelesson or unit using questioning toelicit understanding from students.Focus could also fall upon theeffectiveness of the lesson atfacilitating learning – i.e. can studentsthink of ways that it could be alteredto improve their learning?The teacher could model review byevaluating the lesson in relation totheir own objectives.
15Student Review Students review their own learning Back to AFL ToolsStudent ReviewStudents review their own learningeither in groups or individually. Thiscould be done as a plenary, amini-plenary or as an activity to helpplanning for future revision or theremainder of the unit.
16Traffic Lights Use traffic lights as a visual means of Back to AFL ToolsTraffic LightsUse traffic lights as a visual means ofshowing understanding.e.g.Students have red, amber and green cards which they show on their desks or in the air. (red = don’t understand, green = totally get it etc.)Students self-assess using traffic lights. The teacher could then record these visually in their mark book.Peer assess presentations etc. with traffic lights
17Self-assessment Targets Back to AFL ToolsSelf-assessment TargetsStudents give themselves targetsbased on their self-assessment.These learning goals could berecorded somewhere and revisited(i.e. inside cover of workbook)They could be compared to teachertargets and the two brought toconsensus if different.
182 stars and a wish For peer assessment, ask students to Back to AFL Tools2 stars and a wishFor peer assessment, ask students togive two stars and a wish.Two stars = 2 things that are goodabout the piece of workA wish = something they can improveto make it even better
19Articulate then Answer Back to AFL ToolsArticulate then AnswerGive students the opportunity toarticulate their thinking beforeanswering –30 seconds silent thinking before any answersBrainstorm in pairs first for 2-3 minutesWrite some thoughts down before answeringDiscuss with your neighbour first
20Do Americans think they fight wars, or Back to AFL ToolsScene-SettingSet the scene for the lesson by usinga big, open question or problem-solving task that requires abstractthinking skills. Anticipate responsesand follow-up so as to work thesethrough.E.g. A lesson on the Vietnam Warcould begin with the question –Do Americans think they fight wars, orwin them?
21Tell your neighbour Students ‘tell their neighbour’ as a Back to AFL ToolsTell your neighbourStudents ‘tell their neighbour’ as ameans of articulating their thoughts.Ask a question, give thinking timeand then ask students to tell theirneighbour their thoughts.Tell students what the new topic is and then ask them to tell their neighbour everything they know about it.
22Idea Thoughts When you have received an answer Back to AFL ToolsIdea ThoughtsWhen you have received an answerto a question, open up the thinkingbehind it by asking what others thinkabout the idea.e.g. “What do others think about _________’s idea?”
23Bouncing Bounce answers around the room to Back to AFL ToolsBouncingBounce answers around the room tobuild on understanding and havestudents develop stronger reasoningout of misconceptions.E.g.“Jimmy, what do you think ofSandra’s answer?”“Sandra, how could you developCarl’s answer to include more detail?”“Carl, how might you combine allwe’ve heard into a single answer?”
24Wait and recap Wait for students to draw out most of Back to AFL ToolsWait and recapWait for students to draw out most ofthe key words you are asking for andthen reframe the question – asking fora synthesis which recaps the wholediscussion by joining all these wordsinto a single coherent answer,paragraph etc.
25Incorrect Discussion Use incorrect answers as a discussion point. Back to AFL ToolsIncorrect DiscussionUse incorrect answers as adiscussion point.Rather then dismissing somethingbecause it is wrong, or saying ‘that’sinteresting’ etc. Use themisconception in reasoning to drawthe process out into the open.This leads to improving onmisconceived reasoning and anatmosphere in which it is OK to beWrong.I’m glad that’s the wrong answer… let’s discuss it
26Devising Questions Devise questions that – Back to AFL ToolsDevising QuestionsDevise questions that –Challenge common misconceptionsCreate conflict that requires discussionExplore ambiguity and encourage discussion and clarification
27Learning Journal Create a learning journal in which Back to AFL ToolsLearning JournalCreate a learning journal in whichstudents can reflect on and reviewtheir learning. It could include plenaryactivities, a target setting chart, aimsand goals etc.
28Redrafting Use lesson time to redraft work. Back to AFL ToolsRedraftingUse lesson time to redraft work.This allows students time to focus onthe feedback for improvement theyhave been given.It also reinforces the value of thefeedback and allows them to workat it in a supportive environment.
29Key features When designing written tasks to go Back to AFL ToolsKey featuresWhen designing written tasks to goalongside oral work, intend for themto develop and show understandingof the key features of what studentshave learned.
30Improvement Guidance When making comments on pupils’ Back to AFL ToolsImprovement GuidanceWhen making comments on pupils’work, treat them like guidanceshowing how the pupil can improve.Develop this by asking students towrite in the same way when peerassessing work.Discuss the notion of guidance andhow it differs from other types ofbehaviour (i.e. prescription,admonishment etc.)
31Comment Follow-up Give students opportunities to follow up comments - Back to AFL ToolsComment Follow-upGive students opportunities to followup comments -Create time in the lesson to talk to individual students.Have a written dialogue in the students’ book.Use a comment tracker or targets sheet to formalise the dialogue in a workbook
32Group feedback Group feedback to a teacher Back to AFL ToolsGroup feedbackGroup feedback to a teacherconcerning peer-assessment of workcan help make the teacher aware oflearning needs in a manageable way.If a group feeds back then it drawsmore attention and presentsinformation that has already beenordered and sorted (meaning lessrepetition for the teacher).
33Peer Marking Students mark each others’ work Back to AFL ToolsPeer MarkingStudents mark each others’ workaccording to assessment criteria.Encourages reflection and thought aboutthe learning as well as allowing studentsto see model work and reason pastmisconceptions.Opportunities to do this throughoutindividual lessons and schemes ofwork.
34Thumbs Check class understanding of what Back to AFL ToolsThumbsCheck class understanding of whatyou are teaching by asking themto show their thumbs.Thumbs up = I get itThumbs half way = sort ofThumbs down = I don’t get it
35Teach Collaboration Peer assessment requires students to Back to AFL ToolsTeach CollaborationPeer assessment requires students toact collaboratively. Indeed, AfL is acollaborative enterprise. Therefore,explicitly teach skills of collaboration.This process can be assisted bydiscussing collaboration with pupilsand making it visible as a part of theclassroom.
36Traffic-Light Revision Back to AFL ToolsTraffic-Light RevisionWhen revising a topic or subject, workthrough the different areas withstudents and ask them to traffic lightaccording to their grasp of each.Subsequently, students should beable to target their revision morecarefully and engage in it actively,rather than simply reviewingeverything they have done or readingpassively over their entire notes.
37Generate and Answer When preparing for exams, students Back to AFL ToolsGenerate and AnswerWhen preparing for exams, studentsgenerate their own questions andthen practice answering them.This makes learners think explicitlyabout the underlying structures ofassessment, as well as the materialwhich they are being asked tomanipulate. Form as well as function!
38Student Mark-Scheme Ask students to produce their own Back to AFL ToolsStudent Mark-SchemeAsk students to produce their ownmark-schemes working individually orin groups. They can then peer- orself-assess work in accordancewith these schemes.Talk about the purpose of a mark-scheme with students – judgement,communication, standardisation etc.
39Group Answers Students work in small groups to Back to AFL ToolsGroup AnswersStudents work in small groups toagree on answers – when tests arereturned or in other situations.The process of agreeing shouldinclude reasoning over the validity ofthe consensus answer, as well asreasoned negation of misconceptionsor wrong answers.
40Think through Talking Talking allows students to articulate Back to AFL ToolsThink through TalkingTalking allows students to articulatetheir thoughts and thus to learn.Encourage thinking through talkingwith –Discussion activitiesStructured group/pair workModelling by teacher and students(small group work increases the‘surface area’ of talk in the classroomas opposed to whole classdiscussions)
41Invert the Question Instead of asking a question that Back to AFL ToolsInvert the QuestionInstead of asking a question thatrequires factual recall, invert it torequest explicit reasoning.e.g.‘Is France a democracy?’becomes‘What does it mean for a country to be a democracy?’
42X and Y Ask students why X is an example of Y e.g. Back to AFL ToolsX and YAsk students why X is an example of Ye.g.Why is an apple an example of a fruit?Why is a fox an example of a mammal?Questioning in this way avoids factualrecall and asks for the underlyingreasoning to be made explicit.
43All you know Students write down everything Back to AFL ToolsAll you knowStudents write down everythingthey know about ________ at thestart of the unit.The teacher can then teach the unitaccordingly, using existingknowledge and avoiding repetition.
44Corrections Reinforce the focus on redrafting and Back to AFL ToolsCorrectionsReinforce the focus on redrafting andcomment-only marking by insisting onseeing evidence of studentcorrections on their own work beforelooking at it (have to allow time forthis).
45Laminated Criteria Make laminated, student- Back to AFL ToolsLaminated CriteriaMake laminated, student-friendly assessment criteriacards.
46Progress Conveying Progress Find a means of using Back to AFL ToolsConveying ProgressFind a means of usingassessment to convey progress tostudents and thus make what theyare doing more meaningful.Link learning between unitsUse a learning journalRefer to past targets and highlight where the student is achieving thisHave a target chart where it is visible how the student has progressedLink assessment to student goal-settingProgress
47Discuss Words When engaged in discussion take key Back to AFL ToolsDiscuss WordsWhen engaged in discussion take keywords and look at them specifically.Discuss how they are being used –Is there any ambiguity?Is everyone using the word in thesame way?
48Communication Ask students to communicate thinking Back to AFL ToolsCommunicationAsk students to communicate thinkingthrough different mediums – not justwriting; drawing, drama, maps,sculpture etc.The medium is the message andtherefore circumscribes to someextent how communication can takeplace. Using alternative mediumsallows the teacher to ‘see’ students’understanding from different angles.
49Thoughtful Dialogue Dialogue between teacher and students Back to AFL ToolsThoughtful DialogueDialogue between teacher and studentsshould be thoughtful, reflective,focussed to evoke and exploreunderstanding, and conducted so that allpupils have an opportunity to expresstheir ideas.(Page 12, Inside the Black Box, Paul Black & Dylan William, nferNelson, 1998)Discuss the quality of dialogue withstudents and ask them to articulate whatits purpose is, why, and how (ifnecessary) it may be improved).
50Feedback Sandwich Feedback can be delivered in Back to AFL ToolsFeedback SandwichFeedback can be delivered indifferent ways, two feedback‘sandwiches’ are –Positive commentConstructive criticism with explanation of how to improveContextual statement – I liked….because….Now/Next time…Interactive statement e.g. a question based on the work
51What is good? Spend time ensuring that there is Back to AFL ToolsWhat is good?Spend time ensuring that there isconsensus between yourself and thepupils over what makes a piece ofwork ‘good’, and how they areexpected to achieve it. Use questionssuch as –‘Can you tell me what makes a pieceof work good?’‘How do you feel about comments?’‘Do you always know what you need to donext/think about?’‘Do you know when you have done a‘good’ piece of work?’
52Self-evaluation Self-evaluation involves learning how we Back to AFL ToolsSelf-evaluationSelf-evaluation involves learning how welearn, whereas self-assessment iswhat we learn. To train pupils in self-evaluation, use questions such as:Think about what has happened when thelearning has taken placeWhat really made you think? What did youfind difficult?What do you need more help with?What are you pleased about?What have you learnt new about X?How would you change the learningactivity to suit another class?The teacher can model answers to theseto show the pupils how to self-evaluate.
53What is a ‘good’ question? Back to AFL ToolsWhat is a ‘good’ question?Discuss with students what makes a‘good’ question. The process canexplicitly show them the differencebetween open and closed questions.They can then come up withquestions on a topic and decidewhich are best, and then move onto discuss and answer these.
54Use graphic organisers to help pupils self-assess. Back to AFL ToolsUse graphic organisers to help pupils self-assess.All these are taken from(page 19)
55KWL At the beginning of a topic pupils create a Back to AFL ToolsKWLAt the beginning of a topic pupils create agrid with three columns –What They Know;What They Want To Know;What They Have Learnt.They begin by brainstorming and filling inthe first two columns and then return tothe third at the end of the unit (or referthroughout) .Variation – extra column ‘How Will I Learn’
56Talk Partners As a plenary or a starter referring to Back to AFL ToolsTalk PartnersAs a plenary or a starter referring tothe last lesson, pupils share with apartner:3 new things they have learntWhat they found easyWhat they found difficultSomething they would like to learn in the future
57Post-It Use post-it notes to evaluate learning. Back to AFL ToolsPost-ItUse post-it notes to evaluate learning.Groups, pairs or individuals cananswer:What have I learnt?What have I found easy?What have I found difficult?What do I want to know now?
58Response Partners Paired or partnership oral marking. Back to AFL ToolsResponse PartnersPaired or partnership oral marking.Pupils invite a partner or a group todiscuss or comment on their work.For it to be effective, students shouldbe aware of learning objectives andsuccess criteria. They should alsoappreciate the role of a responsepartner – to offer positive andconstructive feedback around thelearning goals.Students could be given promptquestions to ask the person who hasdone the work.
59Hands Down Tell pupils they should only raise their Back to AFL ToolsHands DownTell pupils they should only raise theirhand to ask a question, not to answer one.The teacher then chooses pupils toanswer, therefore gaining information onwhether everyone is learning.– fruit machineprogramme on here where you can inputnames, save it and play it to choose pupilsat random.Write names on lollipop sticks and pull outat random to answer.Write numbers on balls or counters thattally to register or seating position and re-use with every class.
60Good Question Stems Why does…? What if…? How would you…? Back to AFL ToolsGood Question StemsWhy does…?What if…?How would you…?Could you explain…?What might…?
61Regulating Learning Circulating through the room whilst Back to AFL ToolsRegulating LearningCirculating through the room whilststudents are engaged in an activitymeans the teacher can collectinformation on learning, employdifferent assessment strategies andintervene where appropriate.
62A B C D Laminate a set of cards so every Back to AFL ToolsA B C DLaminate a set of cards so everymember of the class has four, withA,B,C and D written on them. Askquestions with four answers andpupils can show you their answer.Encourage them not to look at otherpeople’s response so as to copy.
63Why is it best? For homework ask students to find Back to AFL ToolsWhy is it best?For homework ask students to findtheir best piece of work and then totell you why it is their best. Thisexplanation could refer to successcriteria, levels, targets etc.
64Show and Tell Use mini-whiteboards so that very Back to AFL ToolsShow and TellUse mini-whiteboards so that verystudent can write or draw theiranswer and show it to you (or theirpeers) immediately.
65Active Students Key to AfL is students being active, Back to AFL ToolsActive StudentsKey to AfL is students being active,engaged participants in their learning.Think of ways in which content can bemanipulated for these ends, ratherthan the other way round.If the content seems boring thenmake the approach fun or interesting.
66Long and Short Term To draw together progression with the Back to AFL ToolsLong and Short TermTo draw together progression with thebig picture, students could set bothlong and short term targets.The short term targets could bereviewed weekly or fortnightly and thelong term targets at the end of term.Having a long term target may givemore cogency to the pupil’s andteacher’s short term targets. It mayalso allow the pupil to focus on whatReally motivates them about asubject.
67Minute Paper Students identify the most significant Back to AFL ToolsMinute PaperStudents identify the most significant(useful, meaningful, unlikely) thingthey have learnt during the lesson orunit.
68Enquiry Question Use an enquiry question to stimulate Back to AFL ToolsEnquiry QuestionUse an enquiry question to stimulatehigh-level thinking in the lesson orunit.e.g.How democratic is the United Kingdom?Why is our school so ethnically diverse?What is enquiry-based learning -
69Back to AFL ToolsSmiley FacesStudents draw smiley faces to indicate how comfortable they are with the topic.Understand some parts but not allReady to move onDo not understand and need to look at it again
70Squares When a pupil has finished a piece of Back to AFL ToolsSquaresWhen a pupil has finished a piece ofwork they draw a square on the page.If they do not understand the workthey colour it red, if they are so-sothen yellow and if A-OK the green.
71Muddiest Point Students write down one or two Back to AFL ToolsMuddiest PointStudents write down one or twopoints on which they are least clear.This could be from the previouslesson, the rest of the unit, thepreceding activity etc. The teacherand class can then seek to remedythe muddiness.
72One-Sentence Summary Students write a sentence Back to AFL ToolsOne-Sentence SummaryStudents write a sentencesummarising their knowledge of atopic.The sentence could have to includewho, what when, why, how, whereetc.The sentences could then be peer-assessed, re-drafted and so on.