Presentation on theme: "Microbial Fuel Cell Methodology & Technology Logan et al., 2006 EST; 2006. 10. 27 Changwon Kim."— Presentation transcript:
Microbial Fuel Cell Methodology & Technology Logan et al., 2006 EST; Changwon Kim
AnodeCathode BacteriumMembrane CO Glucose H+H+ H+H+ e-e- MED nd MED DX e-e- e-e- H+H+ O2O2 H2OH2O e-e- MFC Structure Load, Resistor Current Parameters; Temp. pH, e- acceptor, substrate, electrode – material, surface area, reactor size, mediator, bacteria, CEM (CEM, PEM; Nafion, Ultrex) Reference electrode Chemical mediator (neutral red) or Mediator-less Oxidzer : O 2, ferricyanide, Mn(IV), NO 3 Graphite granules ( Rabaey & Verstraete, 2005) Graphite granules, wire mesh
Fundamentals of voltage generation in MFC Reaction evaluation by Gibbs free energy ΔGr = ΔGr o + RT ln (Π) Overall cell electromotive force (E emf ) = potential difference between cathode & anode = maximum attainable cell voltage W(J) = E emf Q = - ΔGr Q = nF RT E emf = - ΔGr / nF = E emf o ln (Π) nF Π = [Activity of product] / [Activity of reactant] Q = No of electrons exchanged in the reaction n = No of electrons per reaction mol, Coulomb (C) F = Faradays const.
Standard electrode potential, at 298 oK, 1 bar, 1 M = reported relative to normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) Maximum attainable cell voltage can be calculated by, E emf = E cat – E an Ex) acetate oxidized at anode & oxygen used as e-acceptor at cathode 2 HCO H + + 8e - CH3COO H 2 O O 2 +4H + +4e - 2H 2 O standard potential = 0 at standard conditions. Ean = Ean0 – RT/8F ln ([CH3COO-]/[HCO3-]2[H+]9) Ecat = Ecat0 – RT/4F ln (1/pO2[H+]4) Eemf = Ecat - Ean
Electric current (I, [ampere (A)]) is the flow of electric charge, (Q, [coulomb] and equal to a flow of one coulomb of charge per second.ampereelectric chargecoulomb I = Q/t Ohm's law predicts the current in an (ideal) resistor to be applied voltage divided by resistance (R, [ohms (Ω])Ohm's lawresistorvoltageresistance I = V/R V is the potential difference [volts]potential differencevolts Current density [amperes/m 2 ] is defined as a vector whose magnitude is the electric current per cross-sectional area.vector Electric (electrostatic) potential [volts] is the potential energy per unit of charge associated with a static (time- invariant) electric field.potential energychargeelectric field
Identifying factors that decreasing cell voltage Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) = measured after some time in absence of current, lower than E emf due to overpotential. Measured Cell Voltage (E cell ) E cell = E emf – (Ση a + / Ση c / + IR Ω ) = OCV – IR int Ση a + / Ση c / = overpotential of (anode + cathode) = activation loss + bacterial metabolic loss + conc. loss IR Ω = Ohmic loss = (current) (Ohmic resistance) IR int = internal loss, max. MFC output when IR int = IR ext
MFC performance should be evaluated based on Overpotential & Ohmic losses (polarization) or OCV & Internal losses. Ohmic losses : resistance to flow of (e - thru electrode & interconnection + ion thru CEM & electrolytes) - Reduced by minimizing electrode spacing, using low resistivity membrane, checking all contacts, and increasing solution conductivity. Overpotential = losses in (activation + bacterial + conc.)
Activation losses : occur during transfer of e- from or to mediator and e-acceptor reacting at electrode surface. - Strong increase at low currents, steadily increase when current density increase. - Reduced by increasing electrode surface area, improving electrode catalysts, increasing temp, enrichment biofim. Bacterial metabolic losses : - To maximize MFC voltage, keep anode potential low. But if its too low, e- transport is inhibited. Concentration (mass transport) losses : - Conc. losses occur when species mass transport rate to or from electrode limits current production.
AnodeCathode BacteriumMembrane CO Glucose H+H+ H+H+ e-e- MED nd MED DX e-e- e-e- H+H+ O2O2 H2OH2O e-e- Ohmnic polarization Activation polarization Bacterial metabolic loss Concentration polarization Load, Resistor
Instrumentation for measurement Voltagemeter Multimeter Data acquisition system Potentiostat : potential or current control voltametry test + Frequency response analyzer : electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement -> Ohmic & internal resistance measurment.
Calculations and Procedures for Reporting Data Electrode potential ([voltage, V]) Reference electrode; NHE (0 Vt), Ag/AgCl (0.197 V) Standard Calomel (0.242 V) dependant on electrode used, pH, conc. of electron typical anode potential = 0.4~ V as Ag/AgCl cathode potential = 0.10~0.0 V as Ag/AgCl Power (P, [watt, W]) Overall performance of MFC based on power output & coulomb efficiency. P = I ·E cell = E cell 2 /R ext E cell = measured cell V across a fixed external resistance R ext I = current calculated from Ohms law = E cell / R ext Maximum power is calculated from polarization curve.
Power density [W/m 2 ] Normalization of power output to projected electrode surface area. P an = E cell 2 /A an · R ext Reactor volume based. Ohmic resistance (R Ω ) using current interrupt technique Ohmic resistance is determined by operating MFC at a current at which no concentration losses occur. Electrical circuit open and steep initial potential rise (E R, Ohmic losses) and then followed by a slow potential increase to OCA (E A, electrode overpotentials). Ohmic losses (I R Ω ) is a function of produced current and Ohmic resistance.
Polarization curve ; periodical decrease of load & measure V with Potentiostat & variable resistor box A O C A : Activation loss O : Ohmics loss C : Conc. loss V Internal resistance (R int ) by increased R Ω Power curve ; calculated from polarization curve maximum power point (MPP) : O major mW drops due to increasing A & O short circuit condition mA
Treatment efficiencies BOD, COD, TOC, soluble & particulate, nutrient COD converted into: - electrical current via Coulomb efficiency - biomass via growth yield - reactions with e- acceptors, O2, NO 3, SO 3 Coulombic efficiency (ε c ) For batch : ε cb = [M ƒ I dt] / [F b V an ΔCOD] For continuous ε cc = [M I] / [F b q ΔCOD] Growth yield (Y) Net (observed) yield = x /COD MFC net yield = 0.07~0.22 g biomass COD/g substrate COD Sludge combustion cost in Europe = 600 /ton.
COD balance Ζ = 1- ε c - Y Loading rate Volumetric loading rate, MFC = 3 kg COD/m 3 -d High rate anaerobic digestion = 8~20 Activated sludge = 0.5~2 MFC loading to total anode surface area = 25~35 g COD/m 2 -d RBC = 10~20 Energy efficiency ε c = [ƒ E cell I dt] / ΔH M added ] = 2~50% MFC, 40% Methane ΔH = heat of combustion (J/mole) M added = amount (mol) of substrate added
Distinguishing methods of electron transfer Presence of mediators Activation losses due to - direct membrane shuttle - mobile suspended shuttle - nanowire distinguish by cyclic voltammetry; potentiostat Extent of redox mediation and midpoint potentials Presence of nanoweirs Electrically conductive bacterial appendage; Pili.
Outlook Critical issues ; above issues + scale up; Stacked cells? Success application on wastewater depends on; - conc. & biodegradability of organic, temp., toxic. Material cost : anode –graphite, catalyst for cathode. Removal of non-carbon based substrate; N, S, P. particulate. Applications Food processing wastewater, digester effluent. Sludge production decreased. Ex) 7500 kg COD/d ~ 950 kW /d power if 1 kW/m 3, then 350 m 3 reactor volume => 2.6 M if energy production value = 0.3 M/year (0.1 /kWh) Then 10 years pay-back period.