Presentation on theme: "How the Arts Develop the Brain and Contribute to Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1How the Arts Develop the Brain and Contribute to Learning GET SMARTWITH ARTHow the Arts Develop the Brainand Contribute to Learningfor ALL Young ChildrenSandy Putnam-Franklin & Su TheriaultInstitute for Community InclusionUniversity of Massachusetts, Boston
3What is arts education? Movement and Dance Music Theatre Arts Visual ArtsResearch Reinvisioned for the 21st Century
4Early Arts Education Exploration Experimentation Engagement of the sensesDiscussion
5Guiding Principles for Arts Education The goal of arts education for young children is to develop and sustain their natural curiosity, expressiveness, and creativity.Arts education begins with a foundation that emphasizes exploration, experimentation, engagement of the senses, and discussion as paths to understanding.Massachusetts Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences (2003)
6Best Practices for Arts Experiences with Young Children Provide developmentally appropriate materials, equipment, activities.Provide opportunities to explore a variety of materials, media, tools.Extend children’s learning with verbal stimulation
7Universal Design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.- Ron Mace, Architect
8Universal Design considers the needs of the broadest possible range of users.
9Benefits of Universal Design Increases access for allEncourages students to participate and try new ideasIncreases retention of all studentsRespects individual learning styles
10Accommodations Support one student Require extra planning time Highlight differences
11Either Accommodations or UD Both Accommodations and UD+SuUD and accommodations are not an either/or situation. Don’t stop making accommodations for children with special needs! Do proactively plan for the widest range of needs. By planning ahead in the five elements of Universal Design for Learning, you can meet the needs of the broadest range of children and minimize the need for accommodations.Think about the accommodations you currently make for students on a regular basis.How might these accommodations benefit other students?
12What does Universal Design for Learning mean in early childhood? Creating environments, curriculum, and assessmentstrategies that accommodate the widest variety ofyoung children’s learning styles and needs. It alsoinvolves including families in the process.
13Key Elements of Universal Design in Early Childhood Education EnvironmentCurriculum & InstructionAssessmentFamily involvement
14The Arts Contribute to the Development of the Whole Child Brain developmentGross motor developmentFine motor developmentVisual memory developmentSocial-emotional developmentCognitive development
15Brain Development Neural Plasticity The brain’s greatest capacity for change occurs during theearly yearsIntegrationThere needs to be goodcommunication (integration)between both sides of the brain
16Neural Plasticity Use It or Lose It The human brain at birth14 Years Old6 Years Old
17Multiple Means of Engagement: Practice and Repetition
18Integration of the Left/Right Hemispheres of the Brain
19Sensory Perceptual Development A process in which the child develops the skilland ability to take in, interpret, and respond toinformation from the environment.
21Physical activities have cognitive value. Physical education and recessGross motor activitiesSensory motor experiencesCombine movement and music; smell; hearing; taste; sight; kinesthesia (movement).
22Movement and dance affect body and brain development. Position in spaceDirectionalityStrengthBody control/coordinationBalanceFlexibilityFunctional movement patternsPersonal spaceExpression
23Provide variety in movement. Movemet and DanceLocomotorrolling, crawling, creeping, walking, running, jumping, hopping, galloping, sliding, climbingNon-locomotorbending, twisting, turning, stretching, shaking, curling, swinging, rocking, swaying, reachingElements of movement: sequencesexpressionpropsResponse to rhythmsclassicaljazzswingdiscotribalEthnicContrasts of movement:hard/softstrong/lightfast/slowstiff/floppy
24Windows of Opportunity for Motor Development Basic gross-motor skills: prenatal to age 5Fine motor skills: birth to age 9
25Vestibular Stimulation Move in, move up, move all aroundKeep the brain and body soundThe more you moveThe more you’ll proveThat spinning and turningAre good for learning!- From Learning With the Body in Mind by Eric Jensen
26Visual Arts Art is way of thinking and demonstrating the product of thinking.Visual learning = improvement in reading,creativity, math scores.Drawing complements the writing andthinking process.Drawing forces us to visualize and planour actions.Early exposure to visual images are criticalto stimulate the brain.Visual tools can help students think.
27The Link Between Drawing and Writing Both:Are ways of using pictorial and written symbols to represent ideas and feelingsInvolve psychomotor skillsDepend on similar cognitive abilitiesInvolve expressive artsAre developmental
28Fine Motor SkillsGraspStrengthControlDexterityHand dominance
29Language and Literacy Development “As early as age three or four years, childrencan recite poetry, memorize, invent, andperform finger plays, and begin rhymingwords. These are some of the fundamentaltools for developing language skills.”- Goals 2000 Task Force Report
30Expose young children to art resources. Display reproductions of artRead children’s books about artists in various fieldsVisits to art museums, galleries and local studiosGuest artists visits to classroomsChildren’s books that help them develop appreciation of art concepts and art work
31Engage young children in talking about art. IdeasProcessMaterialsKnowledge/concepts/vocabularyReflectionPlanning
32Children with language-related delays and children who are second-language learners especially benefit from having their experiences and understandings communicated through art, a nonverbal form of expression that is readily available to them.- Sounda, Guha & Qiu, 2007
33The Effects of Music on Brain Development and Learning “Music… excites inherent brain patterns andpromotes their use in complex reasoningtasks.”- Black, 1997
34Research suggests that music… Facilitates readingFacilitates awareness anddiscrimination of soundsEnhances visual-motor skillsRegulates stressEnhances memory systems- Eric Jensen, Arts With the Brain in Mind
35Dramatic Arts Children… benefit from play-based instruction in which they invent dramatic play scenarios. Sociodramatic playincreases oral language use and enables children to plan,negotiate, compose, and carry out the “script” of theirplay. These skills are related to the development ofreading comprehension.- Snow et.al. (1998) Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children
36Social/emotional Development Self conceptConfidenceExpression of feelingsCommunication of ideasRelationshipsRespectUnderstanding of othersCommunity
37Provide ALL young learners… Enough time to express themselvesSafety to experimentRespect for their work and their effortsInterest so the child wants to continueSupport for a wide range of expression
38Provide ALL young learners variety in… Formats: large/small, vertical/flatSurfaces: papers, textures, wood, clothMedia: tempera paint, finger paint, water color,markers, chalk (wet/dry), photography,sculpture, construction, fabric, paper, woodLocations: areas of the room; indoor/outdoorSocial groupings: solo, partners, small group,large group
39The Ultimate Test: 4 Key Questions Are ALL children able to experiment freely with art and explore what happens?Will each child’s work look different from the others?Is the goal of the activity the children’s enjoyment rather than a product to please adults?Will the child’s effort lead to something that is satisfying to the child at his or her level of development?
40Research on the Arts and Learning Online Resources Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social DevelopmentReport on Learning, Arts, and the Brain: