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Education Expenditures The State of Education Series February 2013 A Global Report.

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Presentation on theme: "Education Expenditures The State of Education Series February 2013 A Global Report."— Presentation transcript:

1 Education Expenditures The State of Education Series February 2013 A Global Report

2 Contents This presentation includes analysis of: n Share of GDP for education expenditures n Share of total government expenditures for education n Per student education expenditures for primary, secondary and tertiary education as a share of GDP per capita n Recurrent expenditures as a share of total education expenditures n A Country Education Expenditure Profile of Benin

3 Acronyms

4 Share of GDP for Education Expenditures

5 Which countries spend the least on education as a share of GDP? n These countries spend less than 2.5% of GDP on education. n All income groups are represented in this list from Monaco and Liechtenstein (high income) to Myanmar, CAR, Eritrea, and Bangladesh (low income). n Low spending as a % of GDP resulted in net enrolment rates ranging from 35.6% to 94.9%. n Six of 8 countries (with data) have primary net enrolment rates higher than 85%.

6 Which countries spend the most on education as a share of GDP? n The highest spending countries spent between 8 and 13 percent of GDP on education. n Three countries – Denmark, Iceland, and Cyprus – have high GDP and spend a high percentage of it on education. n Primary net enrolment rates for the highest spending countries range from 52% to 99%. Eight countries have NERs higher than 85% and 3 are higher than 98%.

7 Public Education Expenditure as % of GDP ( ) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

8 Which countries have increased expenditures as a % of GDP the most? n These countries have increased their education expenditures as a % of GDP by 2.2 to 5 percentage points over time. n Solomon Islands and Ecuador have both more than doubled their education spending. Comoros was close to doubling its spending. n 35% of the 138 countries with data decreased education expenditures over time.

9 n Low levels of education spending as a % of GDP do not necessarily lead to low primary net enrolment rates (NER). n Cambodia spends 2.6% of GDP on education and has a 98% primary NER while Liberia spends only slightly more (2.7%) and has a 40.8% NER. n High levels of spending also do not necessary lead to high enrolment rates: Djibouti spends 8.4% of GDP on education but has a 51.7% NER. Do high levels of education spending result in high primary enrolment rates?

10 Which countries have high enrollment rates with lower spending? n These countries have primary net enrolment rates higher than 98% with education spending between 2.6 and 5% of GDP. n Rwanda and Cambodia are low income countries with low spending and high enrolment rates. n Cuba also has a high enrolment rate 98.2%, but uses 12.9% of GDP on education.

11 n Most countries spend between 2.5% and 7% of GDP on education, but results from similar levels of spending vary greatly. n Zambia spends 1.3% of GDP on education and has a 103% Primary Completion Rate (PCR) while CAR spends 1.2% and has a 43% PCR. n High levels of spending also do not necessary lead to high primary completion rates: Lesotho, the highest spender, spends 13% of GDP on education but has a 70% PCR. Do high levels of education spending result in high primary completion rates?

12 Which countries have high completion rates with low spending? n These countries have primary completion rates higher than 98% with education spending between 0.8 and 3.1% of GDP. n All countries have PCRs higher than 100% likely because of over/under-aged students entering the last grade of primary for the first time. n Myanmar is the only low income country on the list.

13 Share of Total Government Expenditures for Education

14 Which countries spend the least on education as a share of total expenditures? n These countries spend less than 10% of total public expenditures on the education sector. The average spending of all countries with data is 15.4%. n All these countries (with data) have enrolment rates higher than 85%. n Low spending as a share of total expenditures resulted in primary completion rates ranging from 47% (Angola) to 132% (Monaco).

15 n The highest spending countries spend more than 24% of total expenditures on education. n Primary enrolment rates for the highest spending countries range from 61% (Cote d’Ivoire) to 97% (Oman). n Only Ghana and Oman have primary completion rates higher than 90%. n Despite high spending, at least 1/4 of students in five of these countries are not completing primary school. Which countries spend the most on education as a share of total expenditures?

16 Public Education Expenditure as % of Total Government Expenditure ( ) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

17 Which countries have increased education expenditures the most? n These countries have increased their share of total expenditures for the education sector by 6 to 12 percentage points over time. n The Gambia has more than doubled its spending as a % of total expenditures n Over half (55.8%) of the countries with data decreased spending on education over time.

18 n Low levels of education spending as a % of total expenditures do not necessarily lead to low primary net enrolment rates (NER). The four lowest spenders have NERs higher than 94%. n Georgia spends 7.7% on education and has a 98% primary NER while Cote d’Ivoire spends 24.6% and has a 61.5% NER. Do high levels of education spending result in higher primary enrolment rates?

19 Which countries have high enrollment rates with low spending? n These countries have primary net enrolment rates higher than 98% with education spending between 7.7 and 12% of total expenditures. n Japan and Georgia spend less than 10% of total expenditures on education and have achieved universal primary education. n Tunisia also has a high enrolment rate (98.5%), but uses 22.7% of total expenditures on education.

20 n Seven countries spend less than 9% on education; Those countries have primary completion rates (PCRs) ranging from 47% (Angola) to 132% (Monaco). Low spending does not necessarily lead to low completion rates. n High levels of spending also do not necessary lead to high completion rates: Benin, the 2nd highest spender, spends 28% of govn’t expenditure on education but has a 75% PCR. Do high levels of education spending result in higher primary completion rates?

21 Which countries have high completion rates with low spending? n These countries have primary completion rates higher than 98% with education spending between 7.7 and 10.8% of total government expenditures. n Countries have PCRs higher than 100% likely because of over/under-aged students entering the last grade of primary for the first time.

22 Expenditures on Primary Education

23 Which countries spend the least per student on primary education? n The average spending per primary school student is 16.7% of per capita GDP. These countries spend between 3.5 and 7 percent of GDP per capita on each primary school student. n Five of the 10 lowest spending countries are in SSA. Two are classified as high income countries. n 5 countries have net enrollment rates higher than 90%. n DRC is the only country with low primary spending and very high private enrollment share (82.5%).

24 Which countries spend the most per student on primary education? n Serbia spends over half of per capita GDP on each primary student, and all other countries in the list spend more than a quarter. n Eight of the listed countries have primary net enrolment rates (NER) higher than 90%. n These countries have low private enrolment shares ranging from 0.1 to 14%.

25 Public Expenditure per Pupil as a % of GDP per capita. Primary ( ) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

26 Expenditures on Secondary Education

27 Which countries spend the least per student on secondary education? n On average, countries spend 24.4% of per capita GDP per secondary education student. These countries spend between 5.5 and 9.4%. n 5 of the 10 countries are in LAC and 3 are in EAP. n Brunei Darussalam is the only country on the list with a net enrollment rate in the top half of countries. n More than half of secondary enrollments are in private schools in Guatemala and more than ¼ are in private schools in Venezuela and Peru.

28 Which countries spend the most per student on secondary education? n 5 of the 10 countries are in SSA. n Niger, Angola, and Mozambique have high per student sending and three of the lowest secondary net enrolment rates of all countries. n Honduras spends the most as a share of pc GDP by far, but also has the highest share of students enrolled in private schools (27%).

29 Public Expenditure per Pupil as a % of GDP per capita. Secondary ( ) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

30 Expenditures on Tertiary Education

31 Which countries spend the least per student on tertiary education? n On average, countries spend 91% of per capita GDP per tertiary student. The median spending is 30%. These countries spend between 3.5 and 12%. n Three countries are in ECA and 3 are in EAP. n Korea, Rep. has the 12 th lowest spending level, but has a 103% gross enrollment rate. n Six of 9 countries have private enrollment shares higher than 50%.

32 Which countries spend the most per student on tertiary education? n All the listed countries are in Sub-Saharan Africa. n These countries spend from 2 to 18 times GDP per capita on each tertiary student. n Despite high spending, all the countries in the list have gross enrollment rates less than 8%. These countries are all within the bottom 20 countries in tertiary enrolment rates.

33 Public Expenditure per Pupil as a % of GDP per capita. Tertiary ( ) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

34 Salaries and Recurrent Education Expenditures

35 Which countries spend the most on recurrent expenditures? n 9 of 10 countries spend 100% of public expenditures on pre- tertiary education on recurrent expenditures like salaries, textbooks, and teaching/learning supplies. n 100% of pre-tertiary expenditures in Jordan and Zimbabwe go to paying salaries. Five other countries spend more than 90% of total expenditures on salaries. n High recurrent expenditures leave little or no room in public spending for school construction and other capital programs.

36 Which countries spend the least on recurrent expenditures? n 5 of 10 countries are in SSA and 2 are high income countries. n Low recurrent expenditures can leave room in public expenditures for capital projects like school construction, but can leave less fiscal space for teachers’ salaries, textbooks, teaching and learning materials, etc. n The majority of recurrent expenditures in many of these countries is dedicated to salaries (which includes both teachers and administrative salaries).

37 Recurrent education expenditures as a % of total education expenditures on public institutions. Primary, Secondary, and Post-Sec./Non-Tertiary (ISCED 1-4) ( ) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

38 Country Education Expenditure Profile: Benin Data extracted from the World Bank Education Expenditure Database

39 Data Source and Notes The Benin Country Education Expenditure Profile highlights a few of the hundreds of indicators available in the World Bank Education Expenditure Database. The database allows users to search for education expenditure data published in World Bank expenditure documents. The data for the Benin Country Expenditure Profile was extracted from Benin’s 2004 Public Expenditure Review. World Bank Education Expenditure Database The Benin Country Expenditure Profile is an example of the types of analysis that can be completed using the World Bank Education Expenditure Database. Note: The data in the World Bank Education Expenditure Database are not internationally comparable because there is no standard method of calculation for most of the indicators. Users should not compare the data across countries.

40 Education Expenditure Summary: Benin n Benin spends around 1/5 of all government expenditures on the education sector. n Of the education spending, Benin prioritizes primary education, but the share for primary decreased from almost 50% in 1998 to less than 40% in The tertiary share has been rising. n Half of all of Benin’s expenditures go to salaries and around 20% go toward capital expenditures.

41 Total Education Expenditures in Benin n Total expenditures on education in Benin almost doubled between 1998 and 2003 from 40 to 75 billion CFAF. n The share of total public expenditures for the education sector initially dropped from 20.4% in 1998 to 19.7% in 2000 and 2001 before rising to 22.1% in 2003.

42 Share of Total Education Expenditures for Educational Levels n Primary receives the highest share of expenditures, but the share declined over time by 11 percentage points. n Secondary has received a consistent share of around 16% over time. n The shares for tertiary and technical/vocational education have risen by 7.5 and 6 percentage points respectively. n Administration received equal funding to secondary and tertiary in 1999, but dropped by 25% in 2003.

43 Share of Total Education Expenditures by Type n Recurrent expenditures accounted for almost 90% of total expenditures in 1999, but dropped to 80.6 in n The salary share of total expenditures has also dropped from 64% to 51%, leaving more space for non-salary expenditures like textbooks and teaching/learning materials. n Capital expenditures rose from 12% in 1999 to 26% in 2001 before dropping to 19.4% in 2003.

44 Per Student Education Expenditures in Benin n Recurrent per student expenditures are highest on tertiary education in Benin. Tertiary students cost 17 times more than primary students in 1998 and 14 times more in n Students in Technical/Vocational education also cost 5.5 to 6 times more than primary students. n Per student recurrent spending on primary, technical/vocational and tertiary education decreased between 1998 and Source: World Bank Public Education Expenditure Database, Sept 2009

45 Education Budget Execution Rates in Benin n Total budget execution rates have varied greatly over time in Benin from 75% to 92%, but have never reached 100%. n Salaries and recurrent expenditures generally have higher execution rates. The only budget that was fully executed was salaries in n Both domestically- and internationally-financed capital have low execution rates over time, but rates have improved from around 35% in 1997 to 73 and 54% in 2003 respectively. Source: World Bank Public Education Expenditure Database, Sept 2009

46 This presentation utilizes the following data sources: 1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query u The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release that included 2011 data for most indicators and 2012 data for Singapore and Brunei only. u Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in the EdStats Query metadata.EdStats Query 2) The Benin Country Profile was created in August 2009 with data extracted from the 2004 Benin Public Expenditure Review. The data was accessed via the World Bank Education Expenditure Database.World Bank Education Expenditure Database Data Sources

47 The State of Education Series The following State of Education presentations are available on the EdStats website:EdStats website Educational Levels: n Pre-Primary Education Pre-Primary Education n Primary Education Primary Education n Secondary Education Secondary Education n Tertiary Education Tertiary Education Topics: n Access Access n Quality Quality n Expenditures Expenditures n Gender Gender n Literacy Literacy n Equity Equity


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