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Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Train the Trainer

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1 Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Train the Trainer
Terri Sessoms International Center for Leadership in Education

2 Purpose Call to Action Survival Tools and Framework
Leadership Training for Leaders Assist education leaders to understand the need for placing greater emphasis on strategic reading instruction at middle and high school levels.

3 No Child Left Behind Provide focus upon student progress across all groups of learners.

4 Desired Outcomes Leaders will be empowered to initiate a vigorous instructional focus on strategic reading – the reading skills and strategies that promote information literacy across all subjects and functional areas as study skills, test taking, and literacy for the world beyond school.

5 Desired Outcomes Students will be empowered with the skill needed to succeed – the ability to process information effectively. Changes in content area instruction will be reflected in strategies that will serve the vast majority of students by incorporating reading skills instruction across the curriculum.

6 Not Our Purpose… Not here to turn content teachers into full time reading teachers. These comprehension strategies help students better understand your course content which leads to improved content achievement (EOC).

7 Research Shows… Research shows that if content teachers use these strategies minutes (a couple of times each week) students increase reading levels and significantly improve performance on content area standardized testing.

8 Myths vs. Facts Reading as a Homework Assignment = home visits Blame
Partners and Cooperative Learning Walk and Talk Inside/Outside Circles A/B Partners

9 What’s the Big Deal About Content Area Reading?
Trading Spaces…

10 Multiple logistic regression was
used to examine the association between depression screening and the model variables hypothesized to be predictive of screening behavior. For this analysis, all significant variables from the bivariate analysis were entered into the regression as dichotomous variables.

11 Challenges to Reading and Information Gathering in the Content Areas:
Concept Density – more ideas and skills in less time Specialized Vocabulary - unique and multiple meanings Readability – higher than student skill levels Length – longer and more comprehensive Graphs/Charts/Maps – complex information Non-Print Sources – online information

12 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers:
Poor Readers Think understanding occurs from “getting the words right”. Successful Readers Understand that they must take responsibility for constructing meaning using prior knowledge.

13 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers:
Poor Readers Use strategies such as rote memorization, rehearsal, simple categorization (test and forget). Successful Readers Develop repertoire of reading strategies, organizational patterns, and genre.

14 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers:
Poor Readers Successful Readers Think strategically, plan, monitor their comprehension, and revise their strategies.

15 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers:
Poor Readers Successful Readers They have strategies for what to do when they do not comprehend.

16 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers:
Poor Readers Have a relatively low self esteem. Successful Readers Have self confidence that they are effective learners.

17 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers:
Poor Readers Have a relatively low self esteem. Successful Readers See themselves as agents able to actualize their potential.

18 Today’s schools DO NOT directly these comprehension strategies and skills beyond the 6th Grade.

19 Reasons for Raising Reading Requirements
Reading levels of college freshman text is often lower than workplace text levels. Test benchmarks/standards are too low for workplace entry level reading requirements (auto tech, administrative assistants,

20 Customer Focus U.S. Dept. of Education states there are 2 types of reading All workers must be able to do: 1. Comprehend reading materials related to daily core job responsibilities. 2. Read occupational materials related to organizations, trade journals, etc.

21 Adult Reading and Literacy Roles
The 2002 National Assessment of Adult Literacy defines literacy as: using printed and written information to function in society, to achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential.

22 Lexile Chart w/ Jobs (pg. 69-71 Leading with Reading)
Average high school graduate is 1150L Job Reading Requirements Surveyor L Draftsperson 1480L Farm Mechanic 1010L Farmer Hotel Manager 1230 Housekeeper 910L

23 Earning Potential as Relates to Lexile Levels
Between 1000 and 1300L, each additional 150 of reading ability doubles the income expectations of the worker. Do you want your children living at home with you? READ! Students below 1000 will not succeed in the workplace.

24 Testing Standards Debate
Proficiency should not be based upon perceptions of what children can or cannot do, but upon the reading and information proficiencies demanded by the workplace.

25 Workplace Expectations
*Learning to Learn *Listening and Oral Communication *Competencies in Reading, Writing, and Computation *Adaptability thru Creative Thinking and Problem Solving *Personal Management *Group Interpersonal Skills & Teamwork *Organizational Effectiveness & Leadership

26 What’s the Best Way to Improve Reading Performance? Research Says…
Teach Reading through Content Areas Students read rather than teacher lecture Challenge all Readers (Even the Best) Expose to new vocabulary Expose to difficult syntax Expose to challenging literary features Monitor constantly (Reading Logs, class selections, etc.)

27 What Works Best in Schools? Why Can’t the English Teachers Do it All?
Marzano says… Involve students in a program of wide reading that emphasizes vocabulary development. Content Reading – Wide reading opportunities each day in different subject areas exposes student to many more words than basal reader or direct vocabulary list instruction (750 – 1500 words vs. 350 words per year).

28 Research on Effects of Poverty on Learning…
Students from Poverty enter kindergarten with one half of the speaking and listening vocabulary that their other classmates bring to school. Students from Poverty “don’t get out much” – background information and vocabulary. By the time students from Poverty enter 9th grade, they have one fourth the vocabulary that their classmates have.

29 Content Area Terms/Vocabulary
Provide direct instruction in vocabulary terms and phrases that are important to specific subject matter content. Exposes student to content rich vocabulary which is directly taught ahead of time to build comprehension. Exposure to integrated and application based vocabulary (higher levels than traditional text book vocabulary) which is directly taught as needed (mini lesson, glossary, dictionary, etc.).

30 Students Read Text All Day, Everyday
Not just for Reading and English teachers anymore. Improved Content Achievement goes Hand in Hand with Reading Achievement. At Risk students should be reading at or below level at least 3 times per day across content areas.

31 Which paradigm will get our kids where they need to be?
We’re going the wrong way, but we’re making good time. Change is good as long as it doesn’t affect me? Kids Need to Be Working Harder Than We Do? (How are we spending the only instructional time we have with students?)

32 Successful Strategies
Content Area Teachers Needed Natural setting for informational reading Successful Strategies Needed Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Boosting Achievement in Grades 7-12 Good Leadership Needed – YOU!

33 Writing Improves Reading and Content Comprehension
At Risk students should be writing about what they have read and learned at least 3 times per day (math, careers, science, social studies, etc.). Strategies in Handbook are perfect for both reading and writing.

34 Most Effective Learning Strategies – McRel
Identifying Similarities and Differences Classification, Categorization Summarizing/Notetaking Cooperative Learning Graphic Organizers Providing Appropriate Practice (Guided & Independent) Setting Objectives and Providing Meaningful Feedback Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

35 William Glasser, The Quality School
Learning Activity Retention Amount of Transfer Teach Others/Use Learning 90% Practice & Real Application 75% 50% Discussion Group 30% Demonstration 20% Audio Visual 10% Reading Lecture 5% William Glasser, The Quality School

36 Framework for Lesson Planning (Reading thru Content Areas)
Before Reading During Reading After Reading

37 Before Reading Activating background knowledge
Investigating Text Structure Setting a Purpose for Reading Predicting text content Reviewing and Clarifying Vocabulary

38 During Reading Establishing the purpose for each part of the reading
Self-Monitoring Visualizing Summarizing Confirming, rejecting predictions Identifying and clarifying key ideas Questioning self

39 After Reading Assessing if purpose of reading was met
Paraphrasing important information Identifying the main idea and details Making comparisons Connecting Drawing conclusions Summarizing Analyzing

40 Connections to the Strategies…
Discipline Applications McRel Connections Values for Students Workplace Connections

41 Strategies from Kit Affinity – pg. 111 Anticipation Guides –pg. 117
Fishbone – pg. 154 Cloze – pg. 122 Paraphrasing – pg. 184 (Text pg. 213) Concept Definition Map – pg. 129 Cornell Graphic Organizer - 137 Minute Paper – pg. 173 RAFT – Pg. 201 Tips on Reading Specific Text – pg Glossary, References, Lexile Library – pg

42 Generate Examples of Text for Your Content Area…
Take 5 minutes with your table and generate the different types of text your students can use to better understand the content you teach. Examples: textbook, rules, steps/procedure Appoint a reporter. Share Out

43 PLACE IN CATEGORIES - Work in silence. Group like “post its” together.
Affinity Diagram POST ITS - Work in silence. Use phrases or sentences to answer the question. PLACE IN CATEGORIES - Work in silence. Group like “post its” together. LABEL CATEGORIES - Talk as a team and use phrases to label the categories.

44 Teacher to Teacher Values of strategy
(Marzano and Glasser) Increase ALT (Academic Learning Time) Determine a piece of text and topic that you can use this strategy with next week. Share out & Record

45 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

46 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

47 Trainer to Trainer Use each strategy in your own classroom before you train to generate student products to share with the teachers you work with. Share one or two new strategies each time within your own department. Have them try out and bring in their own student products to share at next training session.

48 Anticipation Guide Identify concepts you want students to learn from the reading Create 4-6 statements that support or challenge beliefs or experiences Have students check whether they agree or disagree with each statement prior to reading the selection

49 Anticipation Guides Have students explain their responses to each statement Have students read the selection to find evidence that either supports or disconfirms each statement Have students rewrite false statements to make them true (individually, partners, or whole group Discuss what was learned from reading

50 Text: Generalization or Principle Every composite number can be written as a product of prime numbers Anticipation Guide (D, A, NS) ___ 20 = 2 X 2 X ____ 14 = ___39 = 3 X ____154=2 X 7 X 11 ___36 = 3 X 12

51 Math Text: Statistics … Anticipation Guide
___ There are several kinds of averages for a set of data. ___ The mode is the middle # in the set of data. ___ Range tells how far apart numbers are in a set of data. ___Outliers are always ignored. ___Averages are always ignored.

52 Anticipation Guide for Algebra
Chapter 1: Algebra ____ An algebraic expression contains a variable, a number, and at least one operation symbol. ____ Operations that “undo” each other are called inverse operations. ____ The distance a number is from zero is it’s absolute value. ____ The value of the variable that makes the equation true is called the inequality. ____ To find the value of an expression is to evaluate it.

53 Anticipation Guide for Science
Read the following statements. Mark each statement as A= Agree D= Disagree NS= Not Sure. Key characteristics of the African Elephants 1. _________ The trunk is an elongated nose and is used only for breathing. 2. _________ Make African Elephants are known as bulls. 3. _________ Female African Elephants are known as Heifers. 4. _________ Elephants repeatedly teeth grow and can be replaced up to 6 times in a lifetime. 5. _________ The average tusk weight for a sixty year old is Elephant is 36 pounds for a male and 20 pounds for females.

54 Music of the Middle Ages
Mark each: A=Agree D=Disagree NS=Not Sure ________ 1. An early form of musical notation uses symbols called neums. ________ 2. Organum is an early form of harmony with a very specific sound. ________ 3. Secular Music is music written for the Church. ________ 4. Very early forms of music, such as plainsong, were always written with a specific meter. ________ 5. Music for the Church used a triple meter because of its religious significance.

55 Agricultural Terrorism
____ Bovine Encephalopathy is more commonly known as “e coli”. ____The outbreak of Newcastle disease led to the destruction of millions of pigs ____Homeland Security officials have partnered with Agricultural officials to combat bioterror attack on domestic agriculture. ____Anticrop agents can spread quickly by the wind.

56 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

57 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

58 Cloze Directions Read the cloze passage and see how many blanks you can fill in using prior knowledge. Read the complete text passage silently and look for information that would fill in blanks. Turn over the complete passage, read the cloze, and fill in/change blanks. Compare the pre and post reading results.

59 Cloze Math Example The prime is a whole number with exactly two ______ ( _____). _____ is the only even prime number. Every whole number can be written as a ______ of _______. A factor is a whole number that ______ exactly into a given _____ number.

60 Cloze Complete Passage
The prime is a whole number with exactly two divisors (factors). 2 is the only even prime number. Every whole number can be written as a product of primes. A factor is a whole number that divides exactly into a given whole number.

61 Why Banks is Robbed in Texas
Language Arts Cloze Why Banks is Robbed in Texas

62 (Tale of Wild Mustangs)
Band Class Cloze Shackelford Banks (Tale of Wild Mustangs) Wild_______________ have been found on the barrier ______________ of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Virginia since the early _______________ first visited the continent. Some of the horses _______________ to shore as a result of shipwrecks. Others perhaps got ______________ from or were abandoned by ___________________ moving inward. These hardy animals have withstood ____________________, and other harsh conditions. In a few cases they have ____________________ the incursion of man. In 1998, the horses on Shackelford Banks, an uninhabited _______________ in the Outer Banks of ____________ ___________, were going to bee moved elsewhere. However, many _______________ gathered enough support for the horses to _____________ on the island and be ______________. These Mustangs proudly remain and flourish to this day.

63 HIV Human _________virus causes HIV syndrome, which is a long term serious _____ infection. When HIV enters the body, the ________ system fights by producing special molecules called ________. Because this virus spreads quickly, the ______ system becomes __________ from fighting it.

64 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

65 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

66 Word Activities and Cooperative Learning
Word Walls – Read My Mind Semantic Webs and Word Sorts (Human, Table, Walls) Partner Finds (Terms, Definitions, Examples)

67 Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort
Category Term Category Term Concept Category Term Category Term

68 Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort
3-D Figures 2-D Figures Square Rectangle Rhombus Cone Prism Cube Geometry Measurement Angles Circumference Radius Volume Right Acute Obtuse

69 Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort
Magnets Currents Alternating-AC Direct-DC Attract Repel Rotational North South Electric Motors Parts Inside a 2 Pole DC Household Armature – Rotor Brushes Axle Field Magnet Toys Refrigerator Dishwasher

70 Concept Definition Map
Write the term “virus” (concept) in the center of your concept map. Read the text about viruses (concept) to find information to fill in the parts of the concept map. Compare your map with a partner’s map, use text to defend, and adjust as needed. Debrief with class and then write a one paragraph definition of “virus”.

71 Virus What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples:
What is it different from?

72 Concept Definition Map
Percents Percents Examples: Discounts Test Scores Interest Rates Category: Number Concept Fraction w/denominator of 100 (per 100) Properties Percents can be written in fraction or decimal form Benchmark Percents: 10% 50% 25% Comparisons: Ratios Fractions

73 Pets What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples:
Animals Tame Dogs Cats Birds They live in or around our homes. Pets We play with them. What is it different from? Zoo Animals

74 Fuel Injection What category is it in? What are its properties?
Examples: Fuel Injection What is it different from?

75 What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples: Simple Interest Loans What is it different from?

76 What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples: Freezing Foods What is it different from?

77 What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples: Excel Spreadsheet What is it different from?

78 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

79 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

80 Minute Paper What are the most significant points?
What are your unanswered questions? What are your ah-ha’s?

81 Cornell Graphic Organizer
With a partner or group, survey passage. (Title, subheadings, captions, pictures, first and last sentences) Develop questions from the above and write in the first column. Read passage and highlight details that will help answer questions. When you finish reading, use information to answer questions (second column).

82 Cornell Graphic Organizer
As a group, discuss the details/answers you recorded in the second column and determine a main idea (What do all of these details have in common?) and write the main idea in the third column. Use the self evaluation key and code your details and questions. Prepare a group presentation for the class on your section of the reading passage.

83 Sample Solution Cornell Method Graphic Organizer ________________ Questions Details Main Idea Self Assessment Key: Check mark = I know this. ? = I have a question about this. = I need to review this more.

84 Cornell Math Text Example
What are Polygons? A polygon is a simple, closed, plane figure made up of three or more line segments. There are no dangling parts. Some examples of a polygon are: *rectangle *triangle *hexagon *pentagon *trapezoid

85 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

86 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

87 Fishbone – Cause and Effect
Read the text on your own, looking for details as they relate to the bones. Fill in details on bones/categories as your read. Work with a partner to compare your fishbones. Use text to defend and adjust details in each category. Share your results with another set of partners. When your foursome has agreed on the details, be ready to share with the class.

88 World War II Causes People Government Social,Legal, Ethical World
Economy Key Events

89 Math Example Essential Characteristics Non Essential Characteristics
May be one to one Has a domain and range Real Life Uses May be linear (has a straight Line graph) Set of ordered pairs with no 2 pairs Having the same first element Function y < x F(x) = 2x + 1 Perimeter of a Rectangle with a given area y = lxl Examples Non Examples

90 Boat Engine Won’t Crank
Engine Parts Tools Service Feesl Properly Working Engine Troubleshooting Guide Key Events

91

92 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

93 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

94 Minute Paper Process Read selection silently.
Pass out half slips of paper. Ask students to respond to the 3 questions and pass in as they leave. Teacher reviews responses and uses responses to design tomorrow’s instruction to affirm correct points, reteach misconceived points, and to address unanswered questions.

95 Minute Paper What are the most significant points?
What are your unanswered questions? What are your ah-ha’s?

96 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

97 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

98 Paraphrasing Write the subheading for the section in the first blank.
Read the section silently. Close the book and write what you remember about that section. Write your thoughts or connections about the section (prior knowledge, ah-ha, etc.) Reread and see if your paraphrase was accurate. Adjust as needed. Repeat the process until you have finished the text selection.

99 Paragraph/Subheading: My Paraphrase:
My Thoughts:

100 Paraphrasing Math Text Example
What are Polygons? A polygon is a simple, closed, plane figure made up of three or more line segments. There are no dangling parts. Examples of a polygon? *rectangle *pentagon *triangle *hexagon *pentagon *trapezoid Think??? Why Can’t a Cube be a Polygon?

101 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

102 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

103 RAFT: Role-Audience-Format- Topic
Connect what you read with a real life profession. (Role) Determine the best ways this person might pass along the information to another (audience). Determine the most appropriate format (technical reports, memo, brochure, video, presentations, etc.). Create final topic and present.

104 Math Applications: RAFT
Newspapers, Magazines, Business Surveys: Build a Dream Team (Research Athlete Stats for given sport) Best Buys Teen Publication: Clothing Discounts Music Movies Cars (Financed or Not)

105 Concert Review RAFT Role: You are a Music Magazine Columnist
Audience: Readers of your Music Magazine who may or may not have heard the Butner-Stem Middle School Band Concert Format: Write a concert review in the form of a magazine article. Topic: Butner-Stem Middle School Bands’ performance.

106 “I Just Kept on Smiling”
ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC Dom Francis Public Classified “Have you seen these books? Michael Byrne Plea Letter Don’t punish all of us “I” Himself Journal Why I did it all… Anthony Ford Freddy Oake Note What should we do to Nicky?

107 RAFT Examples Role Audience Format Topic
Repeating Set of Rational Petition Prove You Decimals Numbers Belong to this Set Chemist Chemical Company Instructions Dangerous Combinations Frontier Woman Self Diary Hardships in the West Newspaper Readers in the 1870’s Obituary Qualities of Reporter Gen. Custer

108 RAFT Examples Role Audience Format Topic
Mozart Prospective Job Composer Employer Interview Qualities Joseph George Orwell Book Response Stalin Review to Animal Farm Square Root Whole Number Love Letter Explain Relationship

109

110 Ideas for Student Products
Design a brochure Write an action plan Develop a proposal Design a flyer Write an employee handbook section Write a letter of recommendation Prepare a multimedia presentation Write a speech

111 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need:
Generate examples for people you will train:

112 Trainer to Trainer Anticipate questions/responses: Responses to these:

113 Application Affinity Anticipation Guide Cloze
Word Work Activities (Semantic Web, Word Wall, etc.) Concept Definition Map Cornell Graphic Organizer Fishbone Minute Paper Paraphrasing RAFT

114 Tiered Learning to Differentiate for Ability Levels
Everyone do the Anticipation Guide to set purpose for reading content. Low Ability Students complete Paraphrasing strategy Average Ability Students Complete the Cloze Above Average Students complete Concept Definition Map

115 Presentation Tips… Always use the strategy before you train others – you need real examples to share. Never argue with a participant. Learn to deflect and defer (OK to say “I don’t know”). Never let a participant abuse others’ time. Value the time participants spend with you. Be real, practical, and patient. Remember change is difficult even when it is good change – don’t take it personally.

116 How to Handle Difficult Participants
Validate when you can. Ignore when you can’t. Acknowledge person’s comment and move on (“Wow”, “Interesting”, “Hmmm”.) Deflect comments to break time (“I’d like to talk with you more about this, see me at break time or after the training”). Body Language. Don’t take it personally! Don’t beat dead horses – let your administrator handle.

117 Implementation Model No more than 1 hour per session
No more than 2 new strategies at each session Have participants try the 2 new strategies and bring student products to next session Help participants identify text they can use with new strategies & provide materials Can be done during dept. or faculty meetings

118 Logistics Dates for training sessions? Support group for cadre?
Materials for trainers to use and provide for participants to use strategies? CEU’s?

119 Tools for Implementation Constancy of Purpose
Plan out the sessions – Action Plan Sheet Organize and Do. Weekly Meetings – Planning Sheet This isn’t going away! Administrative Walk-thru Forms What Gets Measured, Gets Done This and That – Reflection Sheet for Creating Time and Buy In

120 Resources PowerPoint and Handouts are available from district contact.
Strategic Reading in Content Areas Kit Materials, Directions, Examples, Blacklines

121 Close Outs This and That Evaluations Thank you!
I will do more of this… I will do less of that… Evaluations Thank you!


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