Presentation on theme: "Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Train the Trainer"— Presentation transcript:
1 Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Train the Trainer Terri SessomsInternational Center for Leadership in Education
2 Purpose Call to Action Survival Tools and Framework Leadership Training for LeadersAssist education leaders to understand the need for placing greater emphasis on strategic reading instruction at middle and high school levels.
3 No Child Left BehindProvide focus upon student progress across all groups of learners.
4 Desired OutcomesLeaders will be empowered to initiate a vigorous instructional focus on strategic reading – the reading skills and strategies that promote information literacy across all subjects and functional areas as study skills, test taking, and literacy for the world beyond school.
5 Desired OutcomesStudents will be empowered with the skill needed to succeed – the ability to process information effectively.Changes in content area instruction will be reflected in strategies that will serve the vast majority of students by incorporating reading skills instruction across the curriculum.
6 Not Our Purpose…Not here to turn content teachers into full time reading teachers.These comprehension strategies help students better understand your course content which leads to improved content achievement (EOC).
7 Research Shows…Research shows that if content teachers use these strategies minutes (a couple of times each week) students increase reading levels and significantly improve performance on content area standardized testing.
8 Myths vs. Facts Reading as a Homework Assignment = home visits Blame Partners and Cooperative LearningWalk and TalkInside/Outside CirclesA/B Partners
9 What’s the Big Deal About Content Area Reading? Trading Spaces…
10 Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the associationbetween depression screeningand the model variableshypothesized to be predictiveof screening behavior. For thisanalysis, all significant variablesfrom the bivariate analysis wereentered into the regression asdichotomous variables.
11 Challenges to Reading and Information Gathering in the Content Areas: Concept Density – more ideas and skills in less timeSpecialized Vocabulary - unique and multiple meaningsReadability – higher than student skill levelsLength – longer and more comprehensiveGraphs/Charts/Maps – complex informationNon-Print Sources – online information
12 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor ReadersThink understanding occurs from “getting the words right”.Successful ReadersUnderstand that they must take responsibility for constructing meaning using prior knowledge.
13 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor ReadersUse strategies such as rote memorization, rehearsal, simple categorization (test and forget).Successful ReadersDevelop repertoire of reading strategies, organizational patterns, and genre.
14 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor ReadersSuccessful ReadersThink strategically, plan, monitor theircomprehension, and revise their strategies.
15 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor ReadersSuccessful ReadersThey have strategies for what to do when they do not comprehend.
16 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor ReadersHave a relatively low self esteem.Successful ReadersHave self confidence that they are effective learners.
17 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor ReadersHave a relatively low self esteem.Successful ReadersSee themselves as agents able to actualize their potential.
18 Today’s schools DO NOT directly these comprehension strategies and skills beyond the 6th Grade.
19 Reasons for Raising Reading Requirements Reading levels of college freshman text is often lower than workplace text levels.Test benchmarks/standards are too low for workplace entry level reading requirements (auto tech, administrative assistants,
20 Customer FocusU.S. Dept. of Education states there are 2 types of reading All workers must be able to do:1. Comprehend reading materials related to daily core job responsibilities.2. Read occupational materials related to organizations, trade journals, etc.
21 Adult Reading and Literacy Roles The 2002 National Assessment of Adult Literacy defines literacy as:using printed and written information to function in society, to achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential.
22 Lexile Chart w/ Jobs (pg. 69-71 Leading with Reading) Average high school graduate is 1150LJob Reading RequirementsSurveyor LDraftsperson 1480LFarm Mechanic 1010LFarmerHotel Manager 1230Housekeeper 910L
23 Earning Potential as Relates to Lexile Levels Between 1000 and 1300L, each additional 150 of reading ability doubles the income expectations of the worker.Do you want your children living at home with you? READ!Students below 1000 will not succeed in the workplace.
24 Testing Standards Debate Proficiency should not be based upon perceptions of what children can or cannot do, but upon the reading and information proficiencies demanded by the workplace.
25 Workplace Expectations *Learning to Learn*Listening and Oral Communication*Competencies in Reading, Writing, and Computation*Adaptability thru Creative Thinking andProblem Solving*Personal Management*Group Interpersonal Skills & Teamwork*Organizational Effectiveness & Leadership
26 What’s the Best Way to Improve Reading Performance? Research Says… Teach Reading through Content AreasStudents read rather than teacher lectureChallenge all Readers (Even the Best)Expose to new vocabularyExpose to difficult syntaxExpose to challenging literary featuresMonitor constantly (Reading Logs, class selections, etc.)
27 What Works Best in Schools? Why Can’t the English Teachers Do it All? Marzano says…Involve students in a program of wide reading that emphasizes vocabulary development.Content Reading – Wide reading opportunities each day in different subject areas exposes student to many more words than basal reader or direct vocabulary list instruction (750 – 1500 words vs. 350 words per year).
28 Research on Effects of Poverty on Learning… Students from Poverty enter kindergarten with one half of the speaking and listening vocabulary that their other classmates bring to school.Students from Poverty “don’t get out much” – background information and vocabulary.By the time students from Poverty enter 9th grade, they have one fourth the vocabulary that their classmates have.
29 Content Area Terms/Vocabulary Provide direct instruction in vocabulary terms and phrases that are important to specific subject matter content.Exposes student to content rich vocabulary which is directly taught ahead of time to build comprehension.Exposure to integrated and application based vocabulary (higher levels than traditional text book vocabulary) which is directly taught as needed (mini lesson, glossary, dictionary, etc.).
30 Students Read Text All Day, Everyday Not just for Reading and English teachers anymore.Improved Content Achievement goes Hand in Hand with Reading Achievement.At Risk students should be reading at or below level at least 3 times per day across content areas.
31 Which paradigm will get our kids where they need to be? We’re going the wrong way, but we’re making good time.Change is good as long as it doesn’t affect me?Kids Need to Be Working Harder Than We Do? (How are we spending the only instructional time we have with students?)
32 Successful Strategies Content Area Teachers NeededNatural setting for informational readingSuccessful Strategies NeededStrategic Reading in the Content Areas: Boosting Achievement in Grades 7-12Good Leadership Needed – YOU!
33 Writing Improves Reading and Content Comprehension At Risk students should be writing about what they have read and learned at least 3 times per day (math, careers, science, social studies, etc.).Strategies in Handbook are perfect for both reading and writing.
34 Most Effective Learning Strategies – McRel Identifying Similarities and DifferencesClassification, CategorizationSummarizing/NotetakingCooperative LearningGraphic OrganizersProviding Appropriate Practice (Guided & Independent)Setting Objectives and Providing Meaningful FeedbackReinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
35 William Glasser, The Quality School Learning Activity RetentionAmountof TransferTeach Others/Use Learning90%Practice & Real Application75%50%Discussion Group30%Demonstration20%Audio Visual10%ReadingLecture5%William Glasser, The Quality School
36 Framework for Lesson Planning (Reading thru Content Areas) Before ReadingDuring ReadingAfter Reading
37 Before Reading Activating background knowledge Investigating Text StructureSetting a Purpose for ReadingPredicting text contentReviewing and Clarifying Vocabulary
38 During Reading Establishing the purpose for each part of the reading Self-MonitoringVisualizingSummarizingConfirming, rejecting predictionsIdentifying and clarifying key ideasQuestioning self
39 After Reading Assessing if purpose of reading was met Paraphrasing important informationIdentifying the main idea and detailsMaking comparisonsConnectingDrawing conclusionsSummarizingAnalyzing
40 Connections to the Strategies… Discipline ApplicationsMcRel ConnectionsValues for StudentsWorkplace Connections
42 Generate Examples of Text for Your Content Area… Take 5 minutes with your table and generate the different types of text your students can use to better understand the content you teach.Examples: textbook, rules, steps/procedureAppoint a reporter.Share Out
43 PLACE IN CATEGORIES - Work in silence. Group like “post its” together. Affinity DiagramPOST ITS - Work in silence. Use phrases or sentences to answer the question.PLACE IN CATEGORIES - Work in silence. Group like “post its” together.LABEL CATEGORIES - Talk as a team and use phrases to label the categories.
44 Teacher to Teacher Values of strategy (Marzano and Glasser)Increase ALT (Academic Learning Time)Determine a piece of text and topic that you can use this strategy with next week.Share out & Record
45 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
46 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
47 Trainer to TrainerUse each strategy in your own classroom before you train to generate student products to share with the teachers you work with.Share one or two new strategies each time within your own department. Have them try out and bring in their own student products to share at next training session.
48 Anticipation GuideIdentify concepts you want students to learn from the readingCreate 4-6 statements that support or challenge beliefs or experiencesHave students check whether they agree or disagree with each statement prior to reading the selection
49 Anticipation GuidesHave students explain their responses to each statementHave students read the selection to find evidence that either supports or disconfirms each statementHave students rewrite false statements to make them true (individually, partners, or whole groupDiscuss what was learned from reading
50 Text: Generalization or Principle Every composite number can be written as a product of prime numbersAnticipation Guide (D, A, NS)___ 20 = 2 X 2 X ____ 14 =___39 = 3 X ____154=2 X 7 X 11___36 = 3 X 12
51 Math Text: Statistics … Anticipation Guide ___ There are several kinds of averages for a set of data.___ The mode is the middle # in the set of data.___ Range tells how far apart numbers are in a set of data.___Outliers are always ignored.___Averages are always ignored.
52 Anticipation Guide for Algebra Chapter 1: Algebra____ An algebraic expression contains a variable, a number, and at least one operation symbol.____ Operations that “undo” each other are called inverse operations.____ The distance a number is from zero is it’s absolute value.____ The value of the variable that makes the equation true is called the inequality.____ To find the value of an expression is to evaluate it.
53 Anticipation Guide for Science Read the following statements. Mark each statement asA= Agree D= Disagree NS= Not Sure.Key characteristics of the African Elephants1. _________ The trunk is an elongated nose and is used only for breathing.2. _________ Make African Elephants are known as bulls.3. _________ Female African Elephants are known as Heifers.4. _________ Elephants repeatedly teeth grow and can be replaced up to 6 times in a lifetime.5. _________ The average tusk weight for a sixty year old is Elephant is 36 pounds for a male and 20 pounds for females.
54 Music of the Middle Ages Mark each: A=Agree D=Disagree NS=Not Sure________ 1. An early form of musical notation uses symbols called neums.________ 2. Organum is an early form of harmony with a very specific sound.________ 3. Secular Music is music written for the Church.________ 4. Very early forms of music, such as plainsong, were always written with a specific meter.________ 5. Music for the Church used a triple meter because of its religious significance.
55 Agricultural Terrorism ____ Bovine Encephalopathy is more commonly known as “e coli”.____The outbreak of Newcastle disease led to the destruction of millions of pigs____Homeland Security officials have partnered with Agricultural officials to combat bioterror attack on domestic agriculture.____Anticrop agents can spread quickly by the wind.
56 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
57 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
58 Cloze DirectionsRead the cloze passage and see how many blanks you can fill in using prior knowledge.Read the complete text passage silently and look for information that would fill in blanks.Turn over the complete passage, read the cloze, and fill in/change blanks.Compare the pre and post reading results.
59 Cloze Math ExampleThe prime is a whole number with exactly two ______ ( _____)._____ is the only even prime number.Every whole number can be written as a ______ of _______.A factor is a whole number that ______ exactly into a given _____ number.
60 Cloze Complete Passage The prime is a whole number with exactly two divisors (factors).2 is the only even prime number.Every whole number can be written as a product of primes.A factor is a whole number that divides exactly into a given whole number.
61 Why Banks is Robbed in Texas Language Arts ClozeWhy Banks is Robbed in Texas
62 (Tale of Wild Mustangs) Band Class ClozeShackelford Banks(Tale of Wild Mustangs)Wild_______________ have been found on the barrier ______________ of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Virginia since the early _______________ first visited the continent. Some of the horses _______________ to shore as a result of shipwrecks. Others perhaps got ______________ from or were abandoned by ___________________ moving inward.These hardy animals have withstood ____________________, and other harsh conditions. In a few cases they have ____________________ the incursion of man.In 1998, the horses on Shackelford Banks, an uninhabited _______________ in the Outer Banks of ____________ ___________, were going to bee moved elsewhere. However, many _______________ gathered enough support for the horses to _____________ on the island and be ______________. These Mustangs proudly remain and flourish to this day.
63 HIVHuman _________virus causes HIV syndrome, which is a long term serious _____ infection. When HIV enters the body, the ________ system fights by producing special molecules called ________. Because this virus spreads quickly, the ______ system becomes __________ from fighting it.
64 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
65 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
66 Word Activities and Cooperative Learning Word Walls – Read My MindSemantic Webs and Word Sorts (Human, Table, Walls)Partner Finds (Terms, Definitions, Examples)
67 Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort CategoryTermCategoryTermConceptCategoryTermCategoryTerm
68 Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort 3-D Figures2-D FiguresSquareRectangleRhombusConePrismCubeGeometryMeasurementAnglesCircumferenceRadiusVolumeRightAcuteObtuse
69 Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort MagnetsCurrentsAlternating-ACDirect-DCAttractRepelRotationalNorthSouthElectricMotorsParts Inside a2 Pole DCHouseholdArmature – RotorBrushesAxleField MagnetToysRefrigeratorDishwasher
70 Concept Definition Map Write the term “virus” (concept) in the center of your concept map.Read the text about viruses (concept) to find information to fill in the parts of the concept map.Compare your map with a partner’s map, use text to defend, and adjust as needed.Debrief with class and then write a one paragraph definition of “virus”.
71 Virus What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples: What is it different from?
72 Concept Definition Map PercentsPercentsExamples:DiscountsTest ScoresInterest RatesCategory:Number ConceptFraction w/denominator of 100 (per 100)PropertiesPercents can be written in fraction or decimal formBenchmark Percents:10% 50%25%Comparisons:RatiosFractions
73 Pets What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples: AnimalsTameDogsCatsBirdsThey live in oraround ourhomes.PetsWe play withthem.What is it different from?Zoo Animals
74 Fuel Injection What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples:FuelInjectionWhat is it different from?
75 What category isit in?What are itsproperties?Examples:SimpleInterestLoansWhat is it different from?
76 What category isit in?What are itsproperties?Examples:FreezingFoodsWhat is it different from?
77 What category isit in?What are itsproperties?Examples:ExcelSpreadsheetWhat is it different from?
78 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
79 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
80 Minute Paper What are the most significant points? What are your unanswered questions?What are your ah-ha’s?
81 Cornell Graphic Organizer With a partner or group, survey passage. (Title, subheadings, captions, pictures, first and last sentences)Develop questions from the above and write in the first column.Read passage and highlight details that will help answer questions.When you finish reading, use information to answer questions (second column).
82 Cornell Graphic Organizer As a group, discuss the details/answers you recorded in the second column and determine a main idea (What do all of these details have in common?) and write the main idea in the third column.Use the self evaluation key and code your details and questions.Prepare a group presentation for the class on your section of the reading passage.
83 Sample SolutionCornell Method Graphic Organizer ________________QuestionsDetailsMain IdeaSelf Assessment Key:Check mark = I know this.? = I have a question about this.= I need to review this more.
84 Cornell Math Text Example What are Polygons?A polygon is a simple, closed, plane figure made up of three or more line segments. There are no dangling parts. Some examples of a polygon are:*rectangle*triangle*hexagon*pentagon*trapezoid
85 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
86 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
87 Fishbone – Cause and Effect Read the text on your own, looking for details as they relate to the bones.Fill in details on bones/categories as your read.Work with a partner to compare your fishbones. Use text to defend and adjust details in each category.Share your results with another set of partners.When your foursome has agreed on the details, be ready to share with the class.
88 World War II Causes People Government Social,Legal, Ethical World EconomyKey Events
89 Math Example Essential Characteristics Non Essential Characteristics May be one to oneHas a domain and rangeReal Life UsesMay be linear (has a straightLine graph)Set of ordered pairs with no 2 pairsHaving the same first elementFunctiony < xF(x) = 2x + 1Perimeter of aRectangle witha given areay = lxlExamplesNon Examples
92 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
93 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
94 Minute Paper Process Read selection silently. Pass out half slips of paper.Ask students to respond to the 3 questions and pass in as they leave.Teacher reviews responses and uses responses to design tomorrow’s instruction to affirm correct points, reteach misconceived points, and to address unanswered questions.
95 Minute Paper What are the most significant points? What are your unanswered questions?What are your ah-ha’s?
96 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
97 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
98 Paraphrasing Write the subheading for the section in the first blank. Read the section silently.Close the book and write what you remember about that section.Write your thoughts or connections about the section (prior knowledge, ah-ha, etc.)Reread and see if your paraphrase was accurate. Adjust as needed.Repeat the process until you have finished the text selection.
99 Paragraph/Subheading: My Paraphrase: My Thoughts:
100 Paraphrasing Math Text Example What are Polygons?A polygon is a simple, closed, plane figure made up of three or more line segments. There are no dangling parts.Examples of a polygon?*rectangle *pentagon*triangle *hexagon*pentagon *trapezoidThink??? Why Can’t a Cube be a Polygon?
101 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
102 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
103 RAFT: Role-Audience-Format- Topic Connect what you read with a real life profession. (Role)Determine the best ways this person might pass along the information to another (audience).Determine the most appropriate format (technical reports, memo, brochure, video, presentations, etc.).Create final topic and present.
104 Math Applications: RAFT Newspapers, Magazines, Business Surveys:Build a Dream Team (Research Athlete Stats for given sport)Best Buys Teen Publication:Clothing DiscountsMusicMoviesCars (Financed or Not)
105 Concert Review RAFT Role: You are a Music Magazine Columnist Audience: Readers of your Music Magazine who may or may not have heard the Butner-Stem Middle School Band ConcertFormat: Write a concert review in the form of a magazine article.Topic: Butner-Stem Middle School Bands’ performance.
106 “I Just Kept on Smiling” ROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPICDom FrancisPublicClassified“Have you seen these books?Michael ByrnePlea LetterDon’t punish all of us“I”HimselfJournalWhy I did it all…Anthony FordFreddy OakeNoteWhat should we do to Nicky?
107 RAFT Examples Role Audience Format Topic Repeating Set of Rational Petition Prove YouDecimals Numbers Belong to thisSetChemist Chemical Company Instructions Dangerous CombinationsFrontier Woman Self Diary Hardships inthe WestNewspaper Readers in the 1870’s Obituary Qualities ofReporter Gen. Custer
108 RAFT Examples Role Audience Format Topic Mozart Prospective Job ComposerEmployer Interview QualitiesJoseph George Orwell Book ResponseStalin Review to AnimalFarmSquare Root Whole Number Love Letter ExplainRelationship
110 Ideas for Student Products Design a brochureWrite an action planDevelop a proposalDesign a flyerWrite an employee handbook sectionWrite a letter of recommendationPrepare a multimedia presentationWrite a speech
111 Trainer to Trainer Materials you will need: Generate examples for people you will train:
112 Trainer to TrainerAnticipate questions/responses:Responses to these:
113 Application Affinity Anticipation Guide Cloze Word Work Activities (Semantic Web, Word Wall, etc.)Concept Definition MapCornell Graphic OrganizerFishboneMinute PaperParaphrasingRAFT
114 Tiered Learning to Differentiate for Ability Levels Everyone do the Anticipation Guide to set purpose for reading content.Low Ability Students complete Paraphrasing strategyAverage Ability Students Complete the ClozeAbove Average Students complete Concept Definition Map
115 Presentation Tips…Always use the strategy before you train others – you need real examples to share.Never argue with a participant.Learn to deflect and defer (OK to say “I don’t know”).Never let a participant abuse others’ time.Value the time participants spend with you.Be real, practical, and patient.Remember change is difficult even when it is good change – don’t take it personally.
116 How to Handle Difficult Participants Validate when you can.Ignore when you can’t.Acknowledge person’s comment and move on (“Wow”, “Interesting”, “Hmmm”.)Deflect comments to break time (“I’d like to talk with you more about this, see me at break time or after the training”).Body Language.Don’t take it personally!Don’t beat dead horses – let your administrator handle.
117 Implementation Model No more than 1 hour per session No more than 2 new strategies at each sessionHave participants try the 2 new strategies and bring student products to next sessionHelp participants identify text they can use with new strategies & provide materialsCan be done during dept. or faculty meetings
118 Logistics Dates for training sessions? Support group for cadre? Materials for trainers to use and provide for participants to use strategies?CEU’s?
119 Tools for Implementation Constancy of Purpose Plan out the sessions – Action Plan SheetOrganize and Do.Weekly Meetings – Planning SheetThis isn’t going away!Administrative Walk-thru FormsWhat Gets Measured, Gets DoneThis and That – Reflection Sheet for Creating Time and Buy In
120 Resources PowerPoint and Handouts are available from district contact. Strategic Reading in Content Areas KitMaterials, Directions, Examples, Blacklines
121 Close Outs This and That Evaluations Thank you! I will do more of this…I will do less of that…EvaluationsThank you!