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BB10A: Cells, Biomolecules & Genetics 2003-04 Semester 1 Welcome, again to biochemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "BB10A: Cells, Biomolecules & Genetics 2003-04 Semester 1 Welcome, again to biochemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 BB10A: Cells, Biomolecules & Genetics Semester 1 Welcome, again to biochemistry

2 What is BB10A all about? It is an introduction to university studies in Cell Biology/microscopy Biochemistry/biomolecules Genetics

3 Golgi-Complex Endoplasmic reticulum – Golgi-Complex Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transitional vesicles Convex face, cis face, forming face of Golgi-Complex Concave face, trans face, maturing face of Golgi-Complex It is an introduction to university studies in Cell biology What is BB10A all about?

4 “Hydrophobic Interaction” H-bond Ionic interaction Adapted From Voet & Voet What is BB10A all about? It is an introduction to university studies in Biochemistry & Biomolecules

5 What is BB10A all about? It is also an introduction to university studies in Genetics

6 What is BB10A good for? It is a pre-requisite (along with BB10B) for majors in: biochemistry biotechnology botany environmental biology experimental biology microbiology (option) molecular biology zoology (N.B. BC10M can substitute BB10A/B for some majors)

7 Should I know chemistry and biology before starting? Biology: yes Chemistry:no, but it is needed for majors in the biochemical sciences: biochemistry biotechnology molecular biology

8 Biochemistry & its Applications

9 Biochemistry & its Applications

10 Data for UK only Source: The Biochemist Feb 2002 Biochemistry & its Applications

11 What is BB10A good for? Pre-requisite for majors in: biochemistry biotechnology botany environmental biology experimental biology microbiology (option) molecular biology zoology Biochemistry & its Applications

12 Biotechnology: the application of biochemical, microbiological and molecular biological knowledge for benefit. Biochemistry & its Applications

13 Biotechnology: Biochemistry & its Applications

14 Biotechnology: Biochemistry & its Applications

15 Biotechnology: Biochemistry & its Applications

16 Biotechnology: Biochemistry & its Applications

17 Biotechnology: THE BIOREMEDIATION OF RUM DISTILLERY WASTE USING Cryptococcus curvatus by Kisha McLeod Supervisor: A. G. M. Pearson Biochemistry Section Department of Basic Medical Sciences Biochemistry & its Applications

18 Biotechnology: The use of microorganisms to render sewage safer. The use of microorganisms in food preservation. Biochemistry & its Applications

19 Biotechnology: The use of immobilised enzymes (biochemical reactors) to carry out precise reactions. The production of pharmaceuticals. Biochemistry & its Applications

20 Biotechnology: The production of bulk biomolecules, e.g. EthanolAcetic acidCitric acid Ascorbic acidAmino acids Dietary supplementsVitamins etc. Biochemistry & its Applications

21 Molecular Biology: Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) GMOs:genetically modified organisms Biochemistry & its Applications

22 Molecular Biology: Recombinant DNA technology Modified enzymes : with greater stability making new product molecules better reaction kinetics Biochemistry & its Applications

23 Molecular Biology: Forensic applications (DNA fingerprinting) Genetic diseases Understanding fundamental biochemistry Biochemistry & its Applications

24 Biochemistry Synthesis of useful biomolecules Characterisation of new reactions Biochemistry & its Applications

25 Biochemistry Poorly understood biochemistry: Insects Fish Nematodes Plants Most microorganisms Biochemistry & its Applications

26 The same biochemistry is used by all living cells that have been studied. Electrons, protons and energy are the fundamental components of biochemistry and bioenergetics.

27 Essential cellular processes

28 Chemistry fundamentals: Elements all have different nuclei. Atomic nuclei are formed of : protons (+ve charge) neutrons (no charge) electrons (-ve charge) are roughly equal in number to the no. of protons in the nucleus. Covalent bonds are the sharing of electrons between consenting nuclei.

29 Chemistry fundamentals:

30 The s and p orbitals of electrons closest to the nuclei of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen, are those most frequently of importance in biochemical bonds, reactions and molecules.

31 The ability of carbon, oxygen & nitrogen to form “double” bonds gives rise to π- bonding molecular orbitals.

32 How strong are chemical bonds a) relative to each other? b) relative to other energies?

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36 H-bonds Electrostatic Interactions Van der Waal’s

37 Chemistry fundamentals:

38 Far UV = 1200 kJ.mol -1 UV = 480 to 343 kJ.mol -1 Near IR = 120 kJ.mol -1 H-bonds Electrostatic Interactions Van der Waal’s visible

39 Far UV = 1200 kJ.mol -1 UV = 480 to 343 kJ.mol -1 Near IR = 120 kJ.mol -1

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46 Unlike covalent bonds, “hydrogen bonds” are a sharing of a proton between electro- negative nuclei, typically of oxygen or nitrogen. Recall that they are much weaker.

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49 It is the “weakness” of H-bonds that makes them so useful to biomolecular interactions. H-bonds are: easily broken easily formed of variable strength of variable orientation

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55 Chemistry fundamentals: Hydrogen nuclei (protons), like electrons, can exist independently. Protons tend to dissociate from “acids” in aqueous media. Protons tend to associate with “bases” in aqueous media. Electrons readily associate with and dissociate from “redox couples” such as: Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ; Cu + /Cu 2+.

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57 The tenacity with which a molecule holds onto its dissociable protons (the pKa value) is related to the proton concentration (the pH value) of its environment. pH = pKa + log [unprotonated] [protonated]

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59 There is supplementary material on pH, pK and buffers in your lab handbook, including the url for a self-paced, web-based tutorial on pH, pK and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. You will be expected to perform calculations using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

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