Presentation on theme: "UNIT ONE Theoretical Foundations"— Presentation transcript:
1UNIT ONE Theoretical Foundations CHAPTER TWOClassical Theories of Organizations
2PREVIEW Review Chapter One Theoretical Relevancy Minimizing MisunderstandingsClassical Theories of OrganizationsTaylor’s Theory of Scientific ManagementFayol’s Administrative TheoryWeber’s Theory of Bureaucracy
3Organizational Communication Foundations REVIEW “…the process of creating, exchanging, interpreting (correctly or incorrectly), and storing oral, nonverbal, and written messages within (and across the boundaries of) a system of interrelated and interdependent people working to accomplish common tasks and goals within an organization.”MESSAGE-CENTERED DEFINITION
4Assumptions and Features Communication is central to the existence of the organizationOrganizational communication is a complex process (creating, exchanging, interpreting, and storing messages)Misunderstandings occur
5Misunderstandings“Instances in which people who are communicating don’t share meanings as well as situations in which features of organizational life serve to impinge upon the efficient and effective functioning of organizational members.”
6Three Important Constructs Organizational Identification (process & product)An active process by which individuals link themselves to elements (people, policies, products, services, customers, values) in the social scene.Involves an individual’s sense of membership in and connection with an organization.Job SatisfactionThe degree to which employees feel fulfilled by their job and related experiences.A pleasurable or positive emotional state from the appraisal of one’s job or experiencesLinked to absenteeism and turnoverCommunication SatisfactionThe degree to which employees feel that communication is appropriate and satisfies their need for information and work relationships
7Communication Satisfaction (CSQ) Eight Factors concerned with communication information, relationships, channels, and climateCommunication ClimateRelationship to SupervisorsOrganizational IntegrationMedia QualityHorizontal and Informal CommunicationOrganizational PerspectiveRelationship with SubordinatesPersonal FeedbackCommunication satisfaction is often considered the “sum” of an individual’s satisfaction with the above dimensions.
8Primary GoalReduce misunderstandings through communication.
9Theory An explanation for how or why something occurs. . . Question: What is the most efficient and effective means of running an organization?
10Functions of Theory Describe Explain Predict Control Classical approaches to organizational management and early organizational theories were designed to predict and control behavior in organizations.
11Classical Theories of Organizations Emerged in early part of the twentieth century.Models were military and the Catholic Church.FeaturesStrict CONTROL of workersAbsolute CHAINS of COMMANDPREDICTABILITY of behaviorUNIDIRECTIONAL downward influence
12Classical Theories of Organizations: Relevancy and Metaphor How and Why does studying classical theory help us to understand how modern organizations function and particularly the role that communication plays in effective organizing?What is the metaphor which characterizes the classical approach to organizations?
13The Metaphor of the Machine Organizations are viewed as if they are machines.Managerial principlesModes of operationTreatment of workersCommunication in the organizationProperties of MachinesVery predictableRarely deviates from the normReplace defective parts with other “standard” partsSpecific rules exist regarding repair and specific rolesOrganizational ApplicationWorkers behave predictably-management knows what to expectWorkers operating outside expectations are replaced
14Minimizing Misunderstandings Simple: Promote principles of SPECIALIZATION, STANDARDIZATION, and PREDICTABILITYSTRICT RULES & REGULATIONS regarding . . .how work is accomplished,who could speak to whom and when, andmanaging through fear.PROBLEMSCreativity and intelligence are underutilizedIncreased dissatisfactionDecreased motivation and commitment to task and organizationDecreased communication effectiveness and satisfaction
15Distinguishing Classical Theories “Creative Application Skit”Theory “Matchbook Definition”Describe the theory “in a nutshell”Principles of ManagementMajor Elements of the TheoryApplication in the Modern WorkplacePersonal Example(s)How are misunderstandings minimized?What new forms of misunderstandings are created?Unintentional by-productsContributions to occurrences of different problems
16Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management Frederick Taylor ( )“The Father of Scientific Management”Maximize worker capacity and profitsPROBLEM: Get employees to work at their maximum capacityPRIMARY FOCUS: TASKSSystematic SoldieringDeliberately working slowly as to avoid expanding more effort than deemed necessaryReasonsReduction in workforce due to decreased needPiecework system of remuneration - raise production requirements without increasing payRule of thumb training methods - inefficient
17Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management Elements of Scientific ManagementScientific design of every aspect of every taskTime and Motion StudiesCareful selection and training of every taskProper remuneration for fast and high-quality workMaximize output - increase payEqual division of work and responsibility between worker and managerUnderlying ThemesManagers are intelligent; workers are and should be ignorantProvide opportunities for workers to achieve greater financial rewardsWorkers are motivated almost solely by wagesMaximum effort = Higher wagesManager is responsible for planning, training, and evaluating
18Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management Application in the Modern WorkplaceAssembly Line Plants as Prototypical Examples“Prisoners of Taylorism”System of Remuneration (quotas - commission)Re-Design - ReengineeringBenchmarkingData are used to refine, improve, change, modify, and eliminate organizational processesLean Manufacturing
19Fayol’s Administrative Theory Henri Fayol ( )General and Industrial ManagementPrinciples and Elements of Management - how managers should accomplish their managerial dutiesPRIMARY FOCUS: Management(Functions of Administration)More Respect for Worker than TaylorWorkers are motivated by more than moneyEquity in worker treatmentMore PRESCRIPTIVE
20Fayol’s Administrative Theory Five Elements of Management -- Managerial ObjectivesPlanningOrganizingCommandCoordinationControlKeep machine functioning effectively and efficientlyReplace quickly and efficiently any part or process that did not contribute to the objectives
21Fayol’s Administrative Theory Fourteen Principles of Management (Tools for Accomplishing Objectives)Division of work - limited set of tasksAuthority and Responsibility - right to give ordersDiscipline - agreements and sanctionsUnity of Command - only one supervisorUnity of Direction - one manager per set of activitiesSubordination of Individual Interest to General InterestRemuneration of Personnel - fair price for servicesCentralization - reduce importance of subordinate’s roleScalar Chain - Fayol’s bridgeOrder - effective and efficient operationsEquity - kindliness and justiceStability of Tenure of Personnel - sufficient time for familiarityInitiative - managers should rely on workers’ initiativeEsprit de corps - “union is strength” “loyal members”
22Fayol’s Administrative Theory Positioned communication as a necessary ingredient to successful managementApplication in the Modern WorkplaceFayol’s elements of management are recognized as the main objectives of modern managersPlanning - more participatoryOrganizing - human relationships and communicationIMPORTANT TABLE 2.1 Comparison of Managerial Skills (p. 32)Especially applicable for large organizations (military)
23Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy Max Weber ( )German SociologistTheory of Social and Economic Organization (1947)Principles and Elements of Management - describe an ideal or pure form of organizational structure (general policy and specific commandsPRIMARY FOCUS: Organizational StructureWorker should respect the “right” of managers to direct activities dictated by organizational rules and proceduresMore DESCRIPTIVE
24Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy Bureaucracy allows for the optimal form of authority - “rational authority”Three types of Legitimate AuthorityTraditional Authority - past customs; personal loyaltyCharismatic Authority - personal trust in character and skillsRational Authority - rational application of rules or laws
25Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy Tenets of BureaucracyRulesSpecified sphere of competenceHierarchySpecialized TrainingWorkers do not own technologyNo entitlement to “official position” by incumbentEverything written downMaintenance of “ideal type” - bureaucracy
26Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy Concerned with describing the ideal structure of an organizationCornerstone: existence of written rulesThe rational application of written rules ensures the promotion of legitimate authority and the effective and efficient functioning of the organization.
27Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy Application in the Modern WorkplaceLarge organizations guided by countless rules are bureaucraciesLinked with inefficient, slow-moving organizationsOrganizations have several characteristics of bureaucracies
28SUMMARY Classical Theories of Organizations (p. 36) Taylor’s Theory of Scientific ManagementFayol’s Administrative TheoryWeber’s Theory of BureaucracyAll 3 theories attempt to enhance management’s ability to predict and control the behavior of their workersConsidered only the task function of communication (ignored relational and maintenance functions of communication)Designed to predict and control behavior in organizations
29NEXT WEEK Human Relations Theory Human Resources Theory Read CHAPTER 3: Humanistic Theories of Organizations(pp )Human Relations TheoryThe Hawthorne StudiesMcGregor’s Theory X and Theory YHuman Resources TheoryLikert’s Systems Theory (Four Systems of Management)Blake and Mouton’s (a.k.a. Blake and McCanse) Managerial Grid