Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: The Information Approach to Decision Usefulness"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5: The Information Approach to Decision Usefulness Ari BenarrochNazish HaqQin LinNikhil Sequeira
2Agenda Overview of the chapter Outline of research problem The Ball and Brown StudyEarnings Response CoefficientsUnusual, Non-Recurring, and Extraordinary ItemsThe “Best” accounting policy
3OverviewAccounting research shows that security prices do respond to accounting informationThe ball and brown in study in 1968 provides the first solid evidence of a securities market reaction to an earnings announcementIn essence information is useful if it changes investor beliefsThe purpose of this chapter is to show that accounting information is useful for decision making.Over the years accounting research has shown that security prices do respond to accounting information, the first evidence of this was provided by the Ball and Brown study in 1968.Since this initial study there have been a lot of other studies that have documented additional aspects of security market responseIf accounting information was not useful for decision making then when users receive this information there would be no revision of beliefs hence no triggering of buy/sell decisions. Which means there would be no trading volume or price changes, but this is not the caseIn essence information is useful if it changes investor beliefs which means it leads to buy/sell decisions which leads to price changes
4DefinitionThe information approach to decision usefulness is an approach that recognizes individual responsibility for predicting future firm performance and that concentrates on providing useful information for this purpose. The approach assumes security market efficiency recognizing that the market will react to useful information from any source, including financial statementsThis leads in the above definitionCan anyone tell me what it implies about investors and accountants??
5What does this mean? Investors want to make their own predictions Research can help accountants determine what information is usefulInvestors want to make their own predictions on the future of security returns and will use all the information available to do this.This is useful accountants to help increase the usefulness of information by letting market response tell them what information is valued by investors.This will help improve their competitive position in the information marketplace by providing useful information
6ExampleOn March 31st 2010 Research in Motion Limited (TSE:RIM) reported earnings of US$4.02 Billion. The expected earnings were $4.18 Billion.What was the effect on RIM share price that day?RIM share price falling on march 31st 2010, fell by around 10% despite the fact that they have strong growth
7Outline of Research Problem Predictions about investor behaviour:Investors have prior beliefs about firms future performanceWhen current income is released some investors will decide to become more informed by analyzing the income numberBuy more shares if believe firm’s performance will increase and sell shares if believe firms performance will declineVolume of shares traded is expected to increase when firm reports net income.To determine what information is useful in predicting market price of a firms share we will need to make certain predictions about investor behaviour.We need to keep in mind for this chapter we use only net income as a source of financial information
8Finding Market Response Efficient market theory implies that the market will react quickly to new informationGood or bad news is evaluated relative to what investors expectedThere are multiple events that affect a firms share price, so finding the effect of net income can be hardEfficient market should react within a narrow window of a few days surrounding the net income announcement date. Researchers use the date income was reported by financial media such as the Wallstreet journal to avoid looking at the volume of shares traded too late or too early.Use MD&AHave to separate firm specific and market wide factors that affect share price
9Separating Market Wide and Firm Specific factors Alpha is the return on the market on a particular day (Day 0) which isThis means that the expected return is for firm J, however the actual return wasThis difference of is an abnormal return (the e symbol) or firm specific return for firm j shares on that day
10Comparing Returns and Income If income announcement is good news then we have a positive abnormal share returnVice versa for bad news income announcement
11The Ball and Brown Study The study was the first to provide convincing scientific evidence that firm’s share returns respond to reported net income.This type of research is called an event study.Methodology is still in used today.
12Methodology of B&B Study The First Task:Use last year’s actual earnings as a proxy for the market expectation.Classify as GN: Actual earnings > Expected earningsClassify as BG: Actual earnings < Expected earningsThe Second TaskEstimate abnormal share return near the time of each earnings announcement (month 0), by using procedure illustrated in Figure 5.2
14B&B ConclusionStock market reacts to accounting information, but begins to anticipate the GN or BN as much as a year early.The important in distinction between narrow and wide window studies.Narrow window: a few days up to one monthWide window: longer than one month
15Causation Vs. Association Narrow Window Study:The accounting information is the cause of the market reactionWide Window Study:The accounting information is associated with the market reactionPrices lead earnings over a wide windowNarrow Window study provides stronger support for decision usefulness.
16Research Paper“ The Effect of CEO ownership on the information content of Reported Earnings” By: Aloke Ghosh, Doocheol Moon.This paper examines the relation between capital market perceptions of earnings quality and CEO Equity ownership.The research concludes that the earnings response coefficients (ERCs) decline across higher levels of CEO ownership with an inflection point around 25% ownership.The result suggests that, for low levels of CEO ownership, earnings are more informative about future firm performance
17QuestionsQ1. Does amount of abnormal share price change correlate with:Amount of GN/BN? Yes/NoWith Quarterly Earning Reports? Yes/NoQ2. Narrow window studies show that financial statement information is associated with security price change. True/False
18Efficient Response Coefficient (ERC) Why do movie go-ers respond to changes in movie opening dates?Study by: Linar Einav and Abraham Ravid
19Efficient Response Coefficient (ERC) Measures the extent of a securities abnormal market return in response to the unexpected component of reported earnings of the firm issuing that security
20Reasons for Differential Market Response Beta: if the firms earnings are risky, the value to a risk adverse investor will be lower = lower ERCThe opposite is true for a diversified investorInvestors will react less to a security with very risky future returns
21Reasons for Differential Market Response Capital Structure: an increase in earnings adds strength/safety to a bond holder or other debt holder = lower ERC“Good” news goes to a debt holder instead of a shareholderEarnings Quality: the higher the persistency of changes in unexpected earnings changes, the higher the ERCs
223 Types of Earning Events 1) Permanent: expected to last indefinitely2) Transitory: affecting earrings in the current year only3) Price Irrelevant: zero persistency
23Reasons for Differential Market Response Growth Opportunities: current good news in earnings suggest growth opportunities = higher ERCSimilarity of Investor Expectations: a common info source for investor’s will create more similarities in their interpretation of a firm’s next period earnings = higher ERCThe more precise the analysts’ forecasts the more similar an investors’ earnings expectations
24Reasons for Differential Market Response Informativeness of Price: the more informative the price, the less informative the content of current accounting earnings = lower ERC
25Unusual, Non-Recurring , Extraordinary Items Extraordinary Items Characteristics (All are required to be considered extraordinary)1. They are not expected to occur frequently or over several years2. They do not typify the normal business activities of the entity3. They do not depend primarily on decisions or determinations by managers or owners
26Classificatory Smoothing Definition: Management would choose to classify unusual items above or below the operating earnings line; a.k.a smoothing out earnings.Characteristic 3 (from previous slide) was put into place for this reason in 1989
272 Problems from Section 34801) Overestimate the persistence of operating income, due to the fact that unusual and non-recurring items are not fully disclosed.2) Amounts and timing of unusual and non-recurring items are subject to strategic manipulation by management.Ex: If management chooses to recognize an unusual loss currently, income from continuing operations is reduced. If this occurs over many years then previous years earnings can be overstated.
28Theory in PracticeHave we improved financial reporting with Section in place?Many companies were incurring substantial expenses and revenue losses due to the September 11th terrorist attacks.Ex: Airlines were unable to fly for two daysFASB did not allow attacks to be considered extraordinary because it was too hard to differentiate between direct costs (loss of revenue for the 2 day shut down period) and indirect costs ( consumer fear of flying for safety reasons).
295.6 A Caveat About the “Best” Accounting Policy Public Good: A good such that consumption by one user does not affect the use of it for another user, whereas a private good eliminates the usefulness for other consumers.Ex: More than one investor can use annual reports without affecting another investor.It’s hard to charge for such products because it wouldn’t attract many consumers. One annual report can be distributed to many users.Because of this public goods are often supplied by governmental or quasi-governmental agencies.