5Aromatic Compound Nomenclature phenyl groupbenzene minus one hydrogen2-phenylpropaneCH3 – CH – CH3
6Aromatic Compound Reactions Substitution reaction (atom or group of atoms replaces a H)HBr+ HBr+ Br2FeBr3catalystHCH2CH3+ HCl+ CH3CH2ClAlCl3catalyst
7Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons benzene rings fused together
8Functional Group Chemistry Alcohols contain the hydroxyl functional group and have the general formula R−OH.
9Biological production of ethanol C6H12O6 (aq) CH3CH2OH (aq) + 2CO2 (g)enzymeCommercial production of ethanolCH2 CH2 (g) + H2O (g) CH3CH2OH (g)H2SO4Metabolic oxidation of ethanolCH3CH2OH CH3CHO + H2alcohol dehydrogenaseacetaldehyde
10Functional Group Chemistry Ethers have the general formula R−O−R′.Condensation ReactionCH3OH + HOCH CH3OCH3 + H2OH2SO4catalyst
11Functional Group Chemistry Aldehydes and Ketones contain the carbonyl ( ) functional group.OCR C HOaldehydes have the general formulaR C R′Oketones have the general formulaH C HOH COCH3COCH3H3Cformaldehydeacetaldehydeacetone
12Functional Group Chemistry Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl ( −COOH ) functional group.
13Properties and Reactions of Carboxylic Acids Generally weak acidsReact with alcohols to form estersNeutralizationProduction of acid halides (intermediates in syntheses)
14Functional Group Chemistry Esters have the general formula R′COOR, where R is a hydrocarbon group.Characteristic odors and flavorsHydrolysisAlkaline hydrolysis (saponification)
15Functional Group Chemistry Amines are organic bases with the general formula R3N (RNH2).CH3NH2 + H2O RNH3+ + OH-NeutralizationCH3CH2NH2 + HCl CH3CH2NH3+Cl-
1824.5Cholesterol is a major component of gallstones, and it is believed that the cholesterol level in the blood is a contributing factor in certain types of heart disease. From the following structure of the compound, predict its reaction with (a) Br2, (b) H2 (in the presence of a Pt catalyst), (c) CH3COOH.
1924.5 Strategy To predict the type of reactions a molecule may undergo, we must first identify the functional groups present(see Table 24.4).Solution There are two functional groups in cholesterol: thehydroxyl group and the carbon-carbon double bond.The reaction with bromine results in the addition of bromineto the double-bonded carbons, which become single-bonded.
2024.5 Strategy To predict the type of reactions a molecule may undergo, we must first identify the functional groups present(see Table 24.4).Solution There are two functional groups in cholesterol: thehydroxyl group and the carbon-carbon double bond.(b) This is a hydrogenation reaction. Again, the carbon-carbondouble bond is converted to a carbon-carbon single bond.
2124.5 (c) The acid reacts with the hydroxyl group to form an ester and water. Figure shows the products of these reactions.
22Chemistry In Action: The Petroleum Industry Crude Oil