Presentation on theme: "MOBILE AND WIRELESS APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT PRESENTED BY: SARAH HAMEED SOPHIA HASAN UMAIR YOUSUF NAZIA HASSAN."— Presentation transcript:
MOBILE AND WIRELESS APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT PRESENTED BY: SARAH HAMEED SOPHIA HASAN UMAIR YOUSUF NAZIA HASSAN
APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Application development, also referred to as software process, software lifecycle and software development, is the development of a software product in a planned and structured process. Application development involves creating a computer program, or set of programs to perform tasks, from keeping track of inventory and billing customers to maintaining accounts, speeding up business process and, in fact, even improving application effectiveness.
MOBILE APPLICATIONS Mobile devices became pervasive objects as soon as people used mobile phones, smart phones and PDAs anywhere and at anytime. However, the design and implementation of mobile applications is still not straightforward. Moreover, decision makers can't easily estimate the risk of a project due to the difficulties to compare the various capabilities of existing software platforms for mobile devices. Beside this, the design and implementation of user interfaces for mobile devices and applications is very different from what is done for desktop PCs due to the different form factors and context of use.
How mobile application development differs Mobile Application development is not as easy as it seems and there are many steps involved before the application development could even start. 1.Choose the Appropriate Platform: Not only are there several categories of devices, but they also use different, and incompatible platforms. For example, in the SmartPhone arena, Nokia, Symbian, and Microsoft all offer different application platforms. In PDAs, Microsoft CE/PocketPC devices and Palm OS-based devices are the market leaders. 2. Choosing the Right/Wrong Network: The pitfall in choosing a network(s) for your application is understanding the capabilities of what’s out there, when its available and whether its right for what you’re trying to accomplish. Networks go hand-in-hand with devices and selection of one often limits or determines the other. 3.Choosing the target market for your application: B2C (Business to Consumer): Consumers will primarily use applications such as SMS, Voice over IPM2M M2M (Machine to Machine) Wireless access built into machines B2E (Business to Education), B2B (Business to Business), B2G (Business to Government): This category encompasses the bulk of mobile workers 3.Taking complete notice of Security Hazards posed by mobile devices: Mobile devices pose significant and increasing security hazards. Organizations must learn to treat these devices as full-fledged clients, and create and apply the same sorts of security policies that they've devised for desktop and laptop computers.
Why the shift to Wireless hasn’t already happened Reaching critical mass for wireless in the enterprise has been a long time coming. Interest in and reliance on wireless technology has crept steadily ahead, but for several years now, wireless has failed to meet past expectations. Certainly, an economic slump has played a major factor, but there are several key technological reasons why enterprise wireless adoption has lagged. 1.Perception. IT departments and organizations, while often tolerant of PDAs and phones, haven't assumed responsibility for them as they have with traditional PCs. That's a mistake, because these devices are not just phones or contact managers any longer—they're full-fledged computing devices, with the attendant support and security risks, and should be treated as such. 2.Accessibility. Wireless coverage has not, until recently, been available in many areas of the country, and it's still spotty. Wireless providers have, so far, not delivered the access and bandwidth to back up the wireless hype. 3.Speed. So far, wireless hype has promised more than it has delivered; still, the bandwidth available for wide-area wireless connectivity is moving beyond the current abysmal speeds. Although access to high- speed connectivity is currently both limited and expensive, it can support full-featured applications as opposed to simple text messaging. 4.Standards. Standards, while improving, are still in flux. Although the network protocols—wired or wireless—should have only minimal impact on developers, they have a huge impact on application performance and interoperability, because the different standards provide different coverage ranges and speeds 5.Cost. The price of wireless data transmission is dropping but is still high compared to wired applications. 6.Downtime. While wireless networks are improving, they have a long way to go before wireless connectivity is as consistent and dependable as wired connectivity. Weather, distance, physical barriers, device failures (such as loss of battery power), and connectivity failures (as simple as driving through a tunnel) all conspire to make wireless applications less robust than wired versions.
Why the shift to Wireless hasn’t already happened 7.Development Tools. The tool sets haven't yet reached the point at which developing for wired and wireless devices in tandem is completely transparent, but that's changing. The split between the wireless and wired worlds is going to disappear. 8.Audience Positioning. The wireless industry has focused the vast majority of its marketing effort on consumers and ISVs. While there are certain obvious strategic reasons for doing so (mainly the size of the audience and the accompanying size of the revenue potential), the effect is that wireless development has not reached the corporate IT mainstream as quickly as it should have.
Who wants wireless Applications Users: Most mobile professionals have a cell phone, and some also have PDAs or RIM Blackberries; therefore, the number of wireless devices among this group probably already outnumbers PCs. Mobile professionals not only want remote connectivity but also that they're rapidly becoming dependent on working in an always-on-always-connected manner. Users may initially buy devices because they want to be able to make personal phone calls or because they like the interactivity and entertainment value of wireless messaging and gaming, or because they want to send and receive emails or manage their contacts while not in the office; as the devices grow in functionality (and that growth is happening exceedingly fast) users increasingly expect to be able to take advantage of a greater subset of their devices' capabilities. Organizations: Providing wireless access to applications solves many corporate mobility problems, saving employees' time, improving real-time access to information, and, ultimately, directly affecting the bottom line. Employees and corporate managers know that the devices they use now to make phone calls manage their contacts and play Tetris could very easily be used to check their corporate email, update their calendars, and access many of the applications they use every day at work—at least, theoretically it would be easy. The hard part—designing and developing new applications suitable for these devices or adding wireless connectivity to existing applications.
Mobile platforms For the different devices their have been various platforms developed on which the applications operate. A few of the most commonly used platforms include: Symbian J2ME Android
SYMBIAN Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) targeted at mobile phones that offers a high-level of integration with communication and personal information management (PIM) functionality. Symbian OS combines middleware with wireless communications through an integrated mailbox and the integration of Java and PIM functionality (agenda and contacts). The Symbian OS is open for third-party development by independent software vendors, enterprise IT departments, network operators and Symbian OS licensees. Symbian OS is a proprietary operating system designed for mobile devices, with associated libraries, user interface, frameworks and reference implementations of common tools, developed by Symbian Ltd. It is a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors although a non-productized x86 port exists.
J2ME In J2ME, the Java runtime environment is adapted for constrained devices - devices that have limitations on what they can do when compared to standard desktop or server computers. For low-end devices, the constraints are fairly obvious: extremely limited memory, small screen sizes, alternative input methods, and slow processors. High-end devices have few, if any, of these constraints, but they can still benefit from the optimized environments and new programming interfaces that J2ME defines. Short for Java 2 Platform Micro Edition. J2ME is Sun Microsystems' answer to a consumer wireless device platform. J2ME allows developers to use Java and the J2ME wireless toolkit to create applications and programs for wireless and mobile devices. J2ME consists of two elements – Configurations provide a set of libraries and a virtual machine for a category of wireless device. There are two configurations for J2ME, one for fixed wireless devices and one for mobile wireless devices. Profiles are APIs built on top of configurations to provide a runtime environment for a specific device, such as a PDA, cellphone, or set-top box. The profile manages the application, user interface, networking and I/O.
STAKEHOLDERS As in every development project there are key stakeholders who influence the design process. 1.The parent Organization: 2.The Development Team 3.The Hardware team 4.The Users Meeting the requirements and expectations of these stakeholders is critical for the successful implementation and acceptance of the application and every concern of these groups must be kept in mind when developing the Application.
What Corporate Wireless Applications are Available now So far, most wireless application programming efforts at the corporate level have been directed toward building special-purpose machines for vertical applications. Such efforts have been under way for several years. United Parcel Service, which first armed its delivery personnel with analog mobile technology more than 10 years ago, but has since built special-purpose wireless digital devices, and is incorporating Bluetooth and 802.11b technology into its next-generation systems. Other companies are capitalizing on wireless in completely different ways. With the advent of cheap and easy Wi-Fi access points, Starbucks (via T-Mobile) now offers HotSpot connectivity at many of its stores, letting users reach the Internet, send email, and chat while sitting in comfort and buying more coffee. In addition, Starbucks managers, who typically manage several stores and travel between them, are able to communicate with employees, get reports, do paperwork, and generally work more efficiently by taking advantage of those same access points. The city of Bellevue, WA, which is giving city employees wireless technology that improves customer satisfaction. But it is having unexpected side benefits as well. For example, city parks employees are able to shut off sprinkler systems remotely during rainstorms—providing both water cost savings to the city and convenience to the employees.
Application Trends Microsoft is launching the windows mobile 6.5 and an improved developer site called the Windows Marketplace for mobile. Windows Marketplace for Mobile will be available to those with Windows Mobile 6.5-based devices and via PCs to anyone with a LiveID. This website will also help developers to distribute the applications and provide them to customers. an improved touch interface, a new home screen and customizable widgets for accessing specific applications, Ballmer said in a webcast press briefing. "It is no longer about how the phone works by itself, but how it works in conjunction with the PC and Internet."
Shift from E to M There has been a shift from e-commerce to m-commerce. Mobile commerce- use of wireless technology to transfer the ownership of goods and services using mobile devices. Mobile ticketing – tickets can be cancelled or booked using mobile devices. Mobile banking- involves the use of bank services such as accessing account information and even making transactions using mobile phones. Mobile government- extension of e- government where government services can be used through mobiles.
TechnologyE-CommerceM-Commerce DevicePC Smartphones, pagers, PDAs, Operating SystemWindows, Unix, Linux Symbian (EPOC), PalmOS, Pocket PC, proprietary platforms. Presentation StandardsHTML HTML, WML, HDML, i- Mode Browser Microsoft Explorer, Netscape Phone.com UP Browser, Nokia browser, MS Mobile Explorer and other micro browsers Bearer Networks TCP/IP & Fixed Wireline Internet GSM, GSM/GPRS, TDMA, CDMA, CDPD, paging networks
Benefits To businesses Improved business to employee communications: Employees on the move will be able to communicate directly through your Intranet via wireless devices, updating and upgrading information. Improved B2B options: The empowerment of wireless can offer new options in Supply Chain Management and working with your Business Partners, Vendors, OEMs, Associates etc. Enhanced customer interactions: Customers can use their mobile devices to get information, make purchases, and interact/communicate with your corporate systems.
To users Ubiquity: The use of wireless device enables the user to receive information and conduct transactions anywhere, at anytime. Accessibility: Mobile device enables the user to be contacted at virtually anytime and place. The user also has the choice to limit their accessibility to particular persons or times. Convenience: The portability of the wireless device and its functions from storing data to access to information or persons. Localization: The emergence of location-specific based applications will enable the user to receive relevant information on which to act. Instant Connectivity (2.5G): Instant connectivity or "always on" is becoming more prevalent will the emergence of 2.5 G networks, GPRS or EDGE. Users of 2.5 G services will benefit from easier and faster access to the Internet. Personalization: The combination of localization and personalization will create a new channel/business opportunity for reaching and attracting customers. Personalization will take the form of customized information, meeting the users’ preferences, followed by payment mechanisms that allow for personal information to be stored, eliminating the need to enter credit card information for each transaction. Time Sensitivity – Access to real-time information such as a stock quote that can be acted upon immediately or a sale at a local boutique.