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Water – Chapter 12 lecture 6

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1 Water – Chapter 12 lecture 6

2 Properties of Water Polar molecule –Cohesion and adhesion High specific heat Density – greatest at 4 o C Universal solvent

3 Polarity of Water Two hydrogen atoms form polar covalent bonds with an oxygen atom –Because oxygen is more electronegative, the region around oxygen has a partial negative charge. –The region near the two hydrogen atoms has a partial positive charge. Hydrogen bonding holds water molecules together –Number of linked molecules decreases as temperature increases –Generally 4-8 molecules per group in liquid water

4 Moderates Temperatures on Earth What is specific heat? –4.186 J/g What is molar heat of fusion? –6.009 kJ/mole What is molar heat of vaporization? –40.79 kJ/mole Celsius Scale at Sea Level 100 o CWater boils 37 o CHuman body temperature 23 o CRoom temperature 0oC0oCWater freezes Water stabilizes air temperatures by absorbing heat from warmer air and releasing heat to cooler air. Water can absorb or release relatively large amounts of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature.

5 Three-fourths of the earth is covered by water. The water serves as a large heat sink responsible for: Prevention of temperature fluctuations that are outside the range suitable for life. Coastal areas having a mild climate A stable marine environment Specific Heat is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1 o C.

6 Evaporative Cooling The cooling of a surface occurs when the liquid evaporates This is responsible for: –Moderating earths climate –Stabilizing temperature in aquatic ecosystems –Preventing organisms from overheating

7 Density of Water Most dense at 4 o C Contracts until 4 o C Expands from 4 o C to 0 o C The density of water: 1.Prevents water from freezing from the bottom up. 2.Ice forms on the surface firstthe freezing of the water releases heat to the water below creating insulation. 3.Makes transition between season less abrupt.

8 –When water reaches 0 o C, water becomes locked into a crystalline lattice with each molecule bonded to to the maximum of four partners. –As ice starts to melt, some of the hydrogen bonds break and some water molecules can slip closer together than they can while in the ice state. –Ice is about 10% less dense than water at 4 o C. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 3.5

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