Presentation on theme: "Identifying the Application of Rhetorical Terminology."— Presentation transcript:
Identifying the Application of Rhetorical Terminology
Assonance – a repetition of vowel sounds preceded and followed by different consonant sounds Ex. John met his fate by the lake.
Polysendeton – figure of addition and emphasis which intentionally employs a series of conjunctions (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet) not normally found in successive words, phrases, or clauses; deliberate and excessive use of conjunctions Ex. In years gone by, there were in every community men and women who spoke the language of duty and morality and loyalty and obligation
Personification – giving human characteristics to non-human things Ex. Fortune brings in some boats that are not steered
Ellipsis – the omission of understood words Ex. Some people go to priests; others to poetry; I go to my friends. as opposed to Some people go to priests; other people go to poetry; I go to my friends.
Anastrophe – inversion of normal word order Ex. John was a forgotten man. becomes John was a man forgotten.
Asyndeton – use of words or phrases without connectives such as and or so Ex. One cause, one country, and one heart. becomes One cause, one country,_one heart.
Parenthesis – a word or phrase inserted as an explanation or afterthought into a passage which is grammatically complete without it. Ex. Bill – let’s face it – is too young.
Antithesis – placement of contrasting or opposing words, phrases, clauses, or sentences side by side Ex. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.
Simile – a comparison of two unlike things using like, as, or so Ex. The barge she sat in, like a burnished throne, burned on the water
Apposition – a relationship of two (or more) words or phrases, especially noun phrases, such that the two units are grammatically parallel and have the same referent; employing appositives Ex. A portrait of Benjamin Disraeli, the famous statesman, hangs in the foyer.
Parallelism – figure of balance identified by a similarity in syntactical structure of a set of words in successive phrases, clauses, sentences; often occurs with other figures. Ex. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty …pay any price bear any burden meet any hardship…
Cliché – overused expression Ex. There were chills running up and down [Larson’s] spine.
Hyperbole – extreme exaggeration Ex. Oscar has the appetite of a starving lion.
Understatement – a presentation of something as being smaller or less important than it really is. Ex. A scratch, a scratch… ‘tis not so deep as a well, nor as wide as a church-door… In this case from Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio claims that his mortal stab wound is but a scratch.
Pun – a play on words Ex. They went and told the sexton and the sexton tolled the bell.
Anaphora – repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of word groups occurring one after the other Ex. Give me wine, give me women, and give me song. This phrase used above also illustrates the concept of hendiatris, a figure of speech used for emphasis in which three words express one idea. The phrase, which can be traced back to a conceptually similar tetrad from 14 th century Persia ( دویار زیرک و از باده کهن دو منی فراغتی و کتابی و گوشه چمنی ), is common across cultures and expresses the desire for a hedonistic lifestyle.
Epistrophe – figure of repetition that occurs when the last word or set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrase is repeated one or more times at the end of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases. Ex. We are born to sorrow, pass our time in sorrow, and end our days in sorrow.
Epanalepsis – figure of emphasis in which the same word or words both begin(s) and end(s) a phrase, clause, or sentence Ex. A minimum wage that is not a livable wage can never be a minimum wage.
Anadiplosis – figure of speech in which a word or phrase at the end of a sentence, clause, or line of verse is repeated at or near the beginning of the next sentence, clause, or line of verse Ex. The peasant pledged the country his loyalty; loyalty was his only possession.
Climax – high point in a story Ex. In Hamlet, Hamlet and Laertes duel with swords and mortally wound each other.
Something to Remember… Some rhetorical devices or terms can be employed in tandem with other devices or terms. For example, “We are born to sorrow, pass our time in sorrow, end our days in sorrow” can be both an example of epistrophe and asyndeton. BUT When identifying terminology in context on a test, you are always to go with what is making the greatest rhetorical impact. The preceding example is more effective because of the repetition of “sorrow” than it is by leaving out a conjunction.
Some Basic Sentence Types (Q. 2) Simple Sentence: A sentence with only one independent clause Period Sentence: A long and frequently involved sentence, marked by suspended syntax, in which the sense is not completed until the final word--usually with an emphatic climax Cumulative Sentence: An independent clause followed by a series of subordinate constructions (phrases or clauses) that gather details about a person, place, event, or idea. Compound Sentence: A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses. Compound-Complex Sentence: A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.