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Chapter 6 Annual Equivalence Analysis Annual equivalent criterion Applying annual worth analysis

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Annual Equivalent Worth Criterion AE worth criterion provides a basis for measuring investment worth by determining equal payments on annual basis. Knowing that any lump-sum cash amount can be converted into a series of equal annual payments Find the net present worth of the original series and then multiply this amount by the capital-recovery factor: AE (i)=PW (i) x (A/P, i, N) We use this formula to evaluate the investment worth of projects. Therefore, AE criterion provides basis for evaluating a project that is consistent with the PW criterion.

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Example 6.1 Computing Equivalent Annual Worth $15 $3.5 $5 $12 $ A = $ AE(15%) = $6.946 (A/P, 15%, 6) = $1.835 $ PW(15%) = $6.946 $9.0 $10

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Benefits of AE Analysis In the real world situations, AE analysis is preferred, or demanded, over NPW analysis Consider that even corporations issue annual reports and develop yearly budgets. For these purposes, a company may find it useful to present the annual cost or benefit of ongoing project rather than its overall cost or benefit. More specifically; When consistency of report formats is desired Financial managers and engineering managers use annual reports and submit project analysis annual basis that is easy use by other members of the corporation and stock holders. When there is a need to determine unit costs or profits Projects must be broken into unit cost (or profits) for easy comparison with alternatives. When project lives are unequal

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Annual Equivalent Cost When only costs are involved, the AE method is called the annual equivalent cost method. Revenues must cover two kinds of costs: Operating costs and capital costs. Capital costs Operating costs + Annual Equivalent Costs

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6 Operating costs are incurred by operation of physical plant or equipment needed to provide service; examples include the costs of items; labor, & raw materials. Capital recovery costs ( or ownership costs) are incurred by purchasing assets to be used in production and service. Normally, Capital costs are nonrecurring (one time costs), where as operating costs recur as long as an asset is owned. Annual equivalent of a capital cost is given special name: Capital Recovery cost, designated CR (i).

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Capital (Ownership) Costs Definition: Owning equipment is associated with two transactions - (1) its initial cost (I) and (2) its salvage value (S). Capital costs: Taking these items into account, we calculate the capital costs as: N 0 N I S CR(i)

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SEGMENTBEST MODELSASKING PRICE PRICE AFTER 3 YEARS Compact carMini Cooper$19,800$12,078 Midsize carVolkswagen Passat $28,872$15,013 Sports carPorsche 911$87,500$48,125 Near luxury carBMW 3 Series$39,257$20,806 Luxury carMercedes CLK$51,275$30,765 MinivanHonda Odyssey$26,876$15,051 Subcompact SUVHonda CR-V$20,540$10,681 Compact SUVAcura MDX$37,500$21,375 Full size SUVToyota Sequoia$37,842$18,921 Compact truckToyota Tacoma$21,200$10,812 Full size truckToyota Tundra$25,653$13,083

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Example - Capital Cost Calculation for Mini Cooper Given: I = $19,800 N = 3 years S = $12,078 i = 6% Find: CR(6%) $19,800 $12,

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Example 6.2

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Annual Worth Analysis

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Applying Annual Worth Analysis Unit Cost (Unit Profit) Calculation To obtain a unit profit (or cost), we may proceed as follows: 1.Determine the number of units to be produced (or service) each year over the life of the asset. 2.Identify the cash flow series associated with production or service over the life of the asset. 3. Calculate the present worth of the project cash flow series at a given interest rate and then determine the equivalent annual worth. 4.Divide the equivalent annual worth by the number of units to be produced or serviced during each year.

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Example 6.3 Equivalent Worth per Unit of Time $24,400 $55,760 $27,340 $75,000 Operating Hours per Year 2,000 hrs. PW (15%) = $3553 AE (15%) = $3,553 (A/P, 15%, 3) = $1,556 Savings per Machine Hour = $1,556/2,000 = $0.78/hr.

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14 Summary Annual equivalent worth analysis, or AE, is—along with present worth analysis—one of two main analysis techniques based on the concept of equivalence. The equation for AE is AE(i) = PW(i)(A/P, i, N). AE analysis yields the same decision result as PW analysis. The capital recovery cost factor, or CR(i), is one of the most important applications of AE analysis in that it allows managers to calculate an annual equivalent cost of capital for ease of itemization with annual operating costs.

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15 The equation for CR(i) is CR(i)= (I – S)(A/P, i, N) + iS, where I = initial cost and S = salvage value. AE analysis is recommended over NPW analysis in many key real-world situations for the following reasons: 1. In many financial reports, an annual equivalent value is preferred to a present worth value. 2. Calculation of unit costs is often required to determine reasonable pricing for sale items. 3. Calculation of cost per unit of use is required to reimburse employees for business use of personal cars.

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