Presentation on theme: "ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE USE, ITS EFFECTS AND INTERVENTIONS AMONG STUDENTS BY ANNE WANJIRU MBWAYO CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST."— Presentation transcript:
ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE USE, ITS EFFECTS AND INTERVENTIONS AMONG STUDENTS BY ANNE WANJIRU MBWAYO CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST
HOW COMMONIS ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG STUDENTS? PREVALENCE: World wide, there is a noted increase in the usage of alcohol, cigarette smoking and other substances of abuse and a drop in the age of initiation. Ogwell et al 2003 found a 31% lifetime prevalence rate of cigarette smoking among primary schools in Nairobi2003
Anne Mbwayo in a study of primary schools and secondary schools in Nairobi and Kiambu found that: -8.3 % of primary schools while had taken alcohol 8.5% had smoked cigarette and 16.8% were using other substances in the last 30 days
Study by SCAD of 1,470 high schools in Nairobi and Kiambu 14-18 years found that 23.2% of current users took their first drink aged below 12 years
CAUSES OF ALCOHOL ABUSE Causes are many and could interact (1) Peer influence- has been found to be the strongest predictor of substance use in adolescence. This involves association with substance- using peer groups (i.e. friends inside or out-side the school class with whom students spend their leisure time in joint activities such as substance use).
Dr. Khasakhala found that the proportions of youths with alcohol use disorders (44.4%) and had peers using alcohol was higher than the proportion of youths with alcohol use disorders (8.3%) but did not have peers using alcohol.
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH PEER INFLUENCE ARE: Adolescents tend to select their peers in the light of their own substance-use habits They also tend to initiate or increase their substance use when associated with substance-using peers – they accept offers of alcohol, they feel pressed to drink, and they submit to the peer- drinking norm or to social modeling
(2 ) Environmental factors: also tend to increase substantially the likelihood of adolescent substance use. This includes: Parental influence – Dr Khasakhala found that Fathers with alcohol use disorders had higher levels of maladaptive paternal parenting behaviour than did fathers without alcohol use disorders.
Youths who had seen their father drunk/using alcohol excessively had high odds (2.82 times greater) of having alcohol dependence than youths who had not seen their father drunk/use alcohol excessively.
easy availability of the alcohol and substances. This can include home, school and the neighbourhood. living in an area where alcohol is readily available – affects everyone’s drinking norms and level of alcohol consumption to some degree
social norms favourable to drinking or an atmosphere in which it is acceptable lead to heavy drinking eg adverts Parents who are not firm on rules at home or where rules do not exist at all, family problems Pressure from expectations of academic performance by parents and the school A mental illness
SIGNS OF ALCOHOL AND SUDSTANCE USE AMONG STUDENTS Dropping academic grades Sudden unexplained change of friends and friends of questionable characters Change of personality Becoming unkempt Discipline problems Wanting to wear long sleeved shirts and cardigans even when hot- could be hiding needle marks
items in the room especially related to drugs magazines, movies, bottles, needles
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH STUDENTS ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE 1.Poor school performance- this will be due to a number of factors: missing schools days with excuses of being unwell Not revising as they will be busy taking alcohol or is sleepy due to alcohol consumption Forgetting Not concentrating in class and is likely to be sent out of class
2. Relationship problems- can become quarrel some and friends do not want him or has behaviours that put off friends or the child wants to be alone so that they are not known tend to change friends often and are unable to maintain long term friendships.
Nobody wants to be such a person and this can lead to other mental health problems 3. Personality changes- For example your talkative son suddenly becomes quite and withdrawn, a loner or the opposite Use of Marijuana/bhangi has been linked to "amotivational syndrome" in which people lose interest in their jobs, friends, and lives.
Drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, and LSD can cause psychosis. 4. Conduct problems Has discipline problems in school and at home. These include: – If using public transport getting to school late – Fighting – Stealing – Foul language All these could lead your son from expelled from school
Increased risks of addiction Increased risks of taking hard drugs as alcohol and cigarette smoking are the gateway to other drugs Family conflicts as each blames the other