Presentation on theme: "Ritual Chapter 3- Week 5 Miner- Body Ritual Among the Nacirema"— Presentation transcript:
1Ritual Chapter 3- Week 5 Miner- Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Gordon- Female Circumcision in Egypt …
2Ritual Rituals involve: Turner’s definition Durkheim’s definition PredictabilitySome times changeTurner’s definition“Ritual is a stereotyped sequence of activities involving gestures, words & objects, performed in a sequestered place & designed to influence magical forces on behalf of actor’s goals & interests.”Durkheim’s definition“True nature of religion is ritual participation.”Wallace’s definition“Ritual is the primary phenomenon of religion, religion in action; the cutting edge of the tool.”
3Types of RitualsRites of passage: passage from one state of life to a new state of lifeInvolves recognition of change3 stages involving separating, luminal space, outside normal, aggregation to normal.SeparationLiminalAggregationRites of intensificationcontinuously reoccurRecognition of the continuality of life
4Wallace’s five ritual categories Technological ritual- control natureTherapy & anti-therapy rituals- control healthIdeological rituals- try to control behaviorRites of passageRites of intensificationTaboosRites of rebellionSalvation rituals- control one’s fate/destiny, control one’s identityRevitalization rituals- control community’s fate, identity.
5Rituals as Performance Ritual as a theaterActing but not “just pretending”Games, sports, theater and rituals share basic qualitiesEfficacy Entertainment Performance
6Rites of PassageMark the transition from one stage of life, season, or event to another.“Life cycle” or “Life Crisis” ritualsi.e. birth, initiation, marriage & death.Threefold structureSeparation transition incorporationPreliminal liminal postliminal
7Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Chapter 3 Lehman & MyerBy Horace Miner
8Body Rituals Among the Nacirema Nacirema Culture-poorly understood-background-ritual activity-focus on the physical body
9Body Ritual Among the Nacirema -underlying approach to the body-daily ceremonies and rites-shrines-charms and magical potions-specialized practitioners-rites of ablution
10Body Ritual Among the Nacirema “Holy-Mouth-Men”-Nacirema oral fixation-social impact-mouth-rites-specialist ceremonial treatment-masochistic tendencies?
11Body Ritual Among the Nacirema Latipso-temples of the medicine men-ritual purification-gifts and payment-exposing the body-temple ceremonies-faith
12Body Ritual Among the Nacirema The “Listener”-witch doctor-susceptibility of children-curses and “counter-magic”Conclusions-practices based on an aversion to the body-functions ritualized and distorted-magic-ridden culture-self-imposed burdens-position of insight?
13Article by Daniel Gordon Chapter 3- Ritual Female Circumcision in Egypt and Sudan: A Controversial Rite of PassageArticle by Daniel GordonChapter 3- Ritual
14Outline Female Circumcision in the Arab World -limited literature -growing awareness/activism of “female genital mutilation”-concerns about passivity
15Female Genitalia Operations Literal circumcision, sunna, “duty” in ArabicExcision or clitoridectomy & “intermediate circumcision”Pharaonic circumcision, tahara forowniyya, “infibulation”Rural and urban approaches to operationGeographic prevalence infoEgyptless survey infolower prevalence/more moderate proceduresexcept Nubian south
16El Dareer’s Survey -extensive statistical survey (1977-81) -Northern Sudan-type prevalence-education level as a factor-dayas
17Recognized Women’s Health Concern Egyptian and Sudanese statutes against radical formsEl Dareer’s work to educatedifficult to assess extent of health problemsculture specific issuescomplications described (not quantified)immediate and chronic concernschildbirth, sexmedical and psychological sequelae
18Endurance of the Practice -public resistance to enforcement-religion and tradition-based rationales-evidence of religious validation?-interplay between doctrine and cultural sense of propriety-rite of passage?
19Cultural Issues Arabic Code of Modesty Women Advocates separation and seclusion for womenculturally conceived idea of female sexualitygenital operations as substitutes for total seclusionissues of patrilineal purity and changing conditionsWomen Advocatesrole of the dayafocus on fertility and de-emphasizing sexuality“enclosedness”assertive and symbolic act controlled by women
20Other Issues Issues for Opponents Changing Conditions culturally embedded solutionsperipheral incorporation into health care systemWHO “passive stance”Changing Conditionsmothers as a barometer for changeeffects of Westernization/urbanization
21Cross-Cultural Ethics -integrating concerns and methods-position of advocacy-anthropological perpetuation of a “cover-up”-female genital operations as a test case-a new integrative model?-advocating a positioned approach