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Methamphetamine Use Among Adolescents & Young Adults Rachel Gonzales, Pre-Doctoral Fellow UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs NPI - Semel Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "Methamphetamine Use Among Adolescents & Young Adults Rachel Gonzales, Pre-Doctoral Fellow UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs NPI - Semel Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Methamphetamine Use Among Adolescents & Young Adults Rachel Gonzales, Pre-Doctoral Fellow UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs NPI - Semel Institute for Neuroscience

2 Presentation Objectives Examine MA use trends among youth specific to the West Highlight unique gender differences Examine plausible risk factors associated with use Future directions for research

3 What do we know about the problem? Most widely used sources: –National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) –Monitoring the Future Study (MTF) –Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)

4 Past Month Drug Use Rates Source: NIDA, Monitoring the Future, Nat’l Results on Adolescent Drug Use, 2004.

5 Measurement Challenges While beneficial, national surveys tend to underrepresent youth at risk for drug use:  Dropouts and delinquent youth  Homeless and runaways  Foster care youth

6 Other Sources Adolescent Treatment Programs Juvenile Justice System Emergency Room Data –Reveal that MA use is a problem by young people.

7 Primary Drug Problem Among Adolescent & Young Adult Treatment Admissions: years and under18-25 years old Source: LA County ADPA, July 2003-April 2004

8 Juvenile Justice Data Since 2000, a significant proportion of juveniles aged 12 to 18 in CA have tested positive for dangerous drugs (including MA, PCP, and LSD) upon arrest. In the second half of 2002, 22% of male arrestees aged 18 to 21 in Los Angeles County tested positive for MA. Source: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) System

9 Extent of Adolescent Drug Use Mentioned in DAWN ED System, LA-Long Beach, year olds*18-25 year olds* Inhalants72.5%10.0% Marijuana12%11.8% Meth8.1%32.6% Alcohol4.7%17.6% PCP4.4%30.4% Cocaine1.9%15.1% Heroin0%10.0% * Percent of all mentions for each substance

10 Gender Differences MA use has become increasingly problematic among adolescent and young adult females

11 Adolescent (<18) Treatment Admissions by Gender July 2003-April 2004 FEMALES MALES Source: LA county ADP

12 Treatment Studies Research on drug treatment outcome studies among adolescents is limited. Very few published studies specific to MA and youth. Recent articles on MA and youth in Taiwan growing.

13 Matrix Treatment Study N=305 adolescents 13 to 18 years old Source: Rawson et al., 2005 N=90 N=215

14 Matrix Treatment Study found : Older teens (ages 17-18) more likely to use than younger youth. Greater psychological & legal dysfunction than non-MA users. More alcohol and drug use during treatment than non-MA users. Greater drop out rates than non-MA users. No injectors (14% smoke, 12% smoke/snort, 4% snort) Source: Rawson et al., 2005

15 Phoenix House Treatment Found: MA accounted for 42.3% of teen treatment admissions in % increase in MA admissions between 2002 and 2005 (172 to 210). More youth females are presenting for treatment with MA problem than males. YearBoys Girls % 43% % 51% % 53% Source: CBS2 News Story, 2006

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17 MA Admission Trends: LA County Source: LA County ADP, 2006 N=5,527

18 Gender Differences: LA County Source: LA County ADP, 2006 N=5,527

19 MA Use by Ethnicity: LA County Source: LA County ADP, 2006 N=943

20 3 year CASA study on adolescents 8 to 22 years old found: Females became dependent upon MA faster. Females suffered more adverse effects sooner than males. Source: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2003

21 Risk Factors for MA Use Largely understudied area

22 Clinicians indicate low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, & eating disorder make girls especially vulnerable to use and continued misuse of MA Deviant behavioral problems in males – ASPD, ADHD make males vulnerable to MA use (Yen & Chung, 2006) Anecdotal Reports

23 MA Abuse Low Self Esteem Sexual Abuse Depression Weight Concerns Tension Physical Abuse CASA Study: Female Risk Factors Source: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2003

24 Risk Factors among adolescents in Matrix Treatment (Matrix Sample); p<.001

25 Other Factors to Consider Readily available to youth Simple, home-made manufacturing Cheap Easy access to primary chemicals at local merchants

26 Adolescent Story One teen resident at Phoenix House who shared his story of MA addiction said: “When I first tried crystal meth, I automatically fell in love. I had finally found the drug that I was looking for. The stuff was pretty cheap and it was very easy for me to get.” Source: CBS2 News Story, 2006

27 Clinical Characteristics Cognitive dysfunction Rapid mood swings Hyperactivity & Impulsivity Lesion-marked skin Depression Paranoia & Psychoses (auditory hallucinations)

28 Risky Behaviors Agitation & Aggressive Behaviors Partner Violence Multiple sex partners & unprotected sex Suicide

29 Relapse Antecedents for MA Use Social pressure & Social In-adaptation Lack of emotional stability Low educational level Psychiatric Disorder Status Yen & Chang, 2005 (Taiwanese sample, N=60)

30 Summary: Key Points Researchers need to be aware of other critical data sources to understand the scope of MA use among youth It remains unclear which risk factors are occurring for MA use and between the sexes

31 Future Research More studies to look at specific risk factors for MA use & relapse Other study populations should include: –Homeless/runaway youth –Juvenile justice system youth –Child welfare system (foster care) youth Issues of HIV Risk Behaviors and Violence Developmental processes

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33 Acknowledgments Richard Rawson Beth Rutkowski CA Department Alcohol & Drugs LA County Department Alcohol & Drugs Jim Peck

34 For copies of slides or a reference list, please contact me at: (310) ext. 346 Questions?


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