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The American Nation Chapter 6 The American Revolution 1775–1783 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Nation Chapter 6 The American Revolution 1775–1783 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Nation Chapter 6 The American Revolution 1775–1783 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 The American Nation Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: Fighting Begins in the North Section 2: The Colonies Declare Independence Section 3: Struggles in the Middle States Section 4: Fighting for Liberty on Many Fronts Chapter 6: The American Revolution 1775–1783 Section 5: Winning the War in the South

3 Chapter 6, Section 1 Fighting Begins in the North How did Congress struggle between peace and war with Britain? What advantages did each side have as it entered the war? How did the Continental Army gain control of Boston?

4 Chapter 6, Section 1 Congress Struggles Between Peace and War The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. Members of Congress looked for a way to avoid a break with Britain. Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III. Congress declared its loyalty to the king. Congress asked the king to repeal the Intolerable Acts. The king was angry. He ordered more troops to the colonies. Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys, a band of Vermonters, took Fort Ticonderoga. They took British cannons and gunpowder and control of a key route into Canada. The Second Continental Congress established the Continental Army.

5 Chapter 6, Section 1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Side Sides Patriots— colonists who favored war with Britain Advantages Many Patriots owned rifles. George Washington was a brilliant commander. Patriots were determined to defend their homes and property. Disadvantages Poorly organized and untrained Few cannons, little gunpowder, no navy Few colonists were willing to enlist for long terms BritishHighly trained and experienced. Best navy in the world. Loyalists—American colonists who remained loyal to British. Far from home Attacked by the colonists in the countryside

6 Chapter 6, Section 1 The Battle of Bunker Hill British troops controlled Boston. Colonial militia surrounded the city. Across the river from Boston, minutemen fired on British ships from Bunker Hill. British troops drew near to attack the colonists. Two times the colonists turned back British attacks. With the third attack the British took Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill, but they suffered heavy losses. The Battle of Bunker Hill showed: Americans could fight bravely. The British would not be easy to defeat.

7 Chapter 6, Section 1 How the Continental Army Gained Control of Boston When Washington reached Boston, he found 16,000 American troops waiting. Washington began to train an army. The cannon that the Green Mountain Boys captured arrived. Washington placed them on Dorchester Heights, overlooking British ships in the harbor. British General Howe spotted the cannon and left Boston for Canada.

8 Chapter 6, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment When the Second Continental Congress first met, the members were hoping to a)drive the British out of Boston. b) establish an independent empire. c) crush the revolt. d) avoid a final break with Britain. One of the Patriots’ advantages was that a) they were fighting for their own homes and property. b) they had an excellent navy. c) Loyalists were on their side. d) many colonists were willing to sign up for long periods of time. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

9 Chapter 6, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment When the Second Continental Congress first met, the members were hoping to a) drive the British out of Boston. b) establish an independent empire. c) crush the revolt. d) avoid a final break with Britain. One of the Patriots’ advantages was that a) they were fighting for their own homes and property. b) they had an excellent navy. c) Loyalists were on their side. d) many colonists were willing to sign up for long periods of time. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

10 Chapter 6, Section 2 The Colonies Declare Independence How did Common Sense influence the colonists? What steps did Congress take to declare independence? What are the main ideas of the Declaration of Independence?

11 Chapter 6, Section 2 Common Sense Influenced the Colonists Thomas Paine wrote an essay—Common Sense—urging the colonies to declare independence. Paine and other radicals— people who want to make drastic changes in society—began to think of creating their own nation. Against IndependenceFor Independence Many colonists felt loyal to Britain. People felt they owed their allegiance to the king. Colonists did not owe loyalty to George III or any other monarch. Colonists did not owe anything to Britain. The British had helped the colonists for their own profit. Staying under British rule would be harmful to the colonies.

12 Chapter 6, Section 2 Congress Declares Independence Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution for independence. Second Continental Congress debated the resolution. Members of Congress worried that the British could hang them as traitors, people who betray their country. Congress appointed a committee to draw up a formal declaration of independence. Thomas Jefferson wrote the final document for the committee. The declaration was read to Congress. The delegates voted to accept the declaration. The declaration was printed and signed. Copies were distributed through the colonies.

13 Chapter 6, Section 2 The Declaration of Independence Preamble Introduction; explains that the declaration will tell why the colonies want to break from Great Britain. First part—Natural rights Rights that belong to all people from birth, such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Governments exist to protect people’s natural rights. Second part—British wrongs Great Britain has committed many wrongs. King George III disbanded colonial legislatures, sent troops, and limited colonial trade. The colonists asked for justice but did not get it. Third part—Independence The colonies are now a free and independent nation—the United States of America.

14 Chapter 6, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment The essay Common Sense a)was never printed but was passed on by word of mouth. b) argued that Parliament had a right to make laws for the colonies. c) convinced many people that it was time to separate from Britain. d) urged colonists to remain under British rule. According to the Declaration of Independence, people form governments in order to a) make war and provide jobs. b) make drastic changes in society. c) express their allegiance to a ruler. d) protect their natural rights and liberties. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

15 Chapter 6, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment The essay Common Sense a) was never printed but was passed on by word of mouth. b) argued that Parliament had a right to make laws for the colonies. c) convinced many people that it was time to separate from Britain. d) urged colonists to remain under British rule. According to the Declaration of Independence, people form governments in order to a) make war and provide jobs. b) make drastic changes in society. c) express their allegiance to a ruler. d) protect their natural rights and liberties. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

16 Chapter 6, Section 3 Struggles in the Middle States What battles were fought in New York and New Jersey? How did the Battle of Saratoga mark a turning point in the war? What hardships did the Continental Army suffer at Valley Forge?

17 Chapter 6, Section 3 Battles in New York and New Jersey Battle Battle of Long Island What Happened Americans were outnumbered and defeated. Results The British chased the Americans into Pennsylvania. Battle of Trenton On Christmas night, Washington led a surprise attack on Trenton. The Americans took a force of German soldiers prisoner. Battle of Princeton British General Charles Cornwallis set out to retake Trenton. Washington fooled him and slipped behind his troops to attack other British forces at Princeton. The victories at Trenton and Princeton gave Americans new hope.

18 Chapter 6, Section 3 Saratoga—A Turning Point General John Burgoyne planned to defeat the Americans. Three British armies would march on Albany from different directions and crush American forces. General Howe was supposed to capture Philadelphia first, then march on Albany. Howe retired to Philadelphia instead. Two British armies marched toward Albany. Americans drove one of the British armies back at Fort Stanwix. Only one British army was left to march on Albany. In the Battle of Saratoga, north of Albany, Americans defeated the British. Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire army. The victory boosted American spirits and led France to become one of America’s allies—nations that work together to achieve a common goal.

19 Chapter 6, Section 3 Saratoga—A Turning Point Conflict between France and Britain increases after the French and Indian War France and Britain in conflict for many years Americans appeal to France for support during the Revolutionary War France gives American rebels money and supplies but stays neutral Americans defeat British at Saratoga Victory at Saratoga proves to France that Americans can win France gives military and naval support to American forces

20 Chapter 6, Section 3 The War in the Middle States

21 Chapter 6, Section 3 Hardships at Valley Forge Conditions at Valley Forge were harsh: Mid-winter snow, mud, and slush Damp, drafty huts; frozen ground Soldiers poorly clothed; some did not have shoes or coats. Soldiers suffered from frostbite and disease Poor food

22 Chapter 6, Section 3 Section 3 Assessment One reason the Patriots had to retreat often early in the war was that a) Washington had fewer troops than the British. b) the Patriot navy did most of the fighting. c) Nathan Hale gave away Patriot secrets. d) the war moved away from New England. The American victory at Saratoga was important because it a) tricked British General Howe away from Philadelphia. b) revealed the spy Nathan Hale. c) took by surprise a force of Germans fighting for England. d) convinced the French to be an ally of the United States. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

23 Chapter 6, Section 3 Section 3 Assessment One reason the Patriots had to retreat often early in the war was that a) Washington had fewer troops than the British. b) the Patriot navy did most of the fighting. c) Nathan Hale gave away Patriot secrets. d) the war moved away from New England. The American victory at Saratoga was important because it a) tricked British General Howe away from Philadelphia. b) revealed the spy Nathan Hale. c) took by surprise a force of Germans fighting for England. d) convinced the French to be an ally of the United States. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

24 Chapter 6, Section 4 Fighting for Liberty on Many Fronts What role did women play in the war? What choices did African Americans have? How was the war fought on the frontier and at sea?

25 Chapter 6, Section 4 Women Played a Role in the War Women took on added work at home. Some women joined their husbands at the front. Betsy Ross sewed flags for Washington’s army. A few women took part in battle, for example, Mary Ludwig Hays, known as Molly Pitcher.

26 Chapter 6, Section 4 African Americans Faced Hard Choices Some African Americans served in the United States Army. Some served in the newly formed United States Navy. Some were minutemen. Some enslaved African Americans looked for freedom by following British troops.

27 Chapter 6, Section 4 The War in the West and at Sea Northern Frontier Mohawk Indians and Loyalists raided settlements in Pennsylvania and New York. Patriots struck back by destroying Iroquois villages. Middle FrontierGeorge Rogers Clark led Virginians against the British in the Ohio Valley. The British surrendered the fort at Vincennes. Southern FrontierThe governor of Spanish Louisiana supplied the Patriots. Later, he seized British forts along the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico. He drove the British out of West Florida. At SeaCaptain John Paul Jones captured the British warship Serapis.

28 Chapter 6, Section 4 The War in the West

29 Chapter 6, Section 4 Section 4 Assessment Which statement is true of the Patriot army? a) All African Americans could join. b) African Americans could not join at all. c) Free African Americans could join. d) Free African Americans could join, but they could serve only as spies. Which statement is true of the war in the West? a) Native Americans fought for both sides in the war. b) Native Americans were chased into the hills and stayed until after the war. c) Native Americans sided only with the British. d) Native Americans sided only with the Americans. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

30 Chapter 6, Section 4 Section 4 Assessment Which statement is true of the Patriot army? a) All African Americans could join. b) African Americans could not join at all. c) Free African Americans could join. d) Free African Americans could join, but they could serve only as spies. Which statement is true of the war in the West? a) Native Americans fought for both sides in the war. b) Native Americans were chased into the hills and stayed until after the war. c) Native Americans sided only with the British. d) Native Americans sided only with the Americans. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

31 Chapter 6, Section 5 Winning the War in the South Why did Britain decide to start fighting in the South? How did the Americans and French defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown? What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris? What factors helped the Americans win the war?

32 Chapter 6, Section 5 Britain Takes the War to the South Savannah, Georgia Charleston and Camden, South Carolina The British seized these cities in Kings Mountain, South Carolina Patriots took the mountain from a Loyalist force. Showed that Britain could lose in the South. The CarolinasGeneral Nathanael Greene struck the British when he had a geographical advantage and wore them down. Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina Patriot General Daniel Morgan fooled the British into thinking his army was retreating, then turned and fired on the British. Guilford Court HouseA bloody battle. The Americans retreated, but the British suffered great losses. Guerrilla, or hit and run, warfare Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox, led a small band of soldiers that harassed the British in the South.

33 Chapter 6, Section 5 The War in the South

34 Chapter 6, Section 5 The Battle of Yorktown Cornwallis planned to conquer Virginia. American troops under Lafayette kept Cornwallis from succeeding. Cornwallis was ordered to send part of his army to New York. Instead, he retreated to Yorktown peninsula. A combined American and French army trapped Cornwallis on the peninsula. A French fleet kept Cornwallis from escaping by sea. The American and French armies laid siege to Cornwallis’s army, that is, they surrounded and blockaded the enemy position. The British lost the Battle of Yorktown. They surrendered.

35 Chapter 6, Section 5 The Treaty of Paris Congress ratified, or approved, the Treaty of Paris on April 15, The British recognized the United States as an independent nation. The boundaries of the United States extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River and from the Great Lakes to Florida. Florida was returned to Spain. Americans agreed to ask states to pay Loyalists for property they had lost.

36 Chapter 6, Section 5 Why Americans Won the War Geography Americans were fighting at home on familiar ground. The British were far from home in unknown territory. Foreign Help Spanish and French forces fought with the Americans. France, the Netherlands, and Spain loaned money. German and Polish officers provided training. Patriotism Patriots gained skill as soldiers. They didn’t give up. Leaders George Washington’s leadership and military skills were so good that he was respected by Americans and British alike

37 Chapter 6, Section 5 Section 5 Assessment Cornwallis’s army marched throughout the South. How was he finally stopped? a) Loyalists turned against him. b) He sent part of his army to New York, so he didn’t have enough troops. c) Benedict Arnold betrayed his position. d) French and American armies trapped him on a peninsula in the Chesapeake Bay. One provision of the Treaty of Paris was that a) the United States kept Florida. b) Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation c) the states would pay money to France and Spain for their help. d) the United States would pay Great Britain for government property. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.

38 Chapter 6, Section 5 Section 5 Assessment Cornwallis’s army marched throughout the South. How was he finally stopped? a) Loyalists turned against him. b) He sent part of his army to New York, so he didn’t have enough troops. c) Benedict Arnold betrayed his position. d) French and American armies trapped him on a peninsula in the Chesapeake Bay. One provision of the Treaty of Paris was that a) the United States kept Florida. b) Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation c) the states would pay money to France and Spain for their help. d) the United States would pay Great Britain for government property. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.Click here.


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