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Psychological Distress Between American Indian and Majority Culture College Students Regarding the Use of the Fighting Sioux Nickname and Logo By Angela.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychological Distress Between American Indian and Majority Culture College Students Regarding the Use of the Fighting Sioux Nickname and Logo By Angela."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychological Distress Between American Indian and Majority Culture College Students Regarding the Use of the Fighting Sioux Nickname and Logo By Angela LaRocque

2 Introduction The word “Indian” can trigger an array of images. The word “Indian” can trigger an array of images. Unfortunately, society tends to focus on the stereotypic image of American Indians of the past and ignore American Indians of the present and future. Unfortunately, society tends to focus on the stereotypic image of American Indians of the past and ignore American Indians of the present and future. The subset of American society that most reflects inaccuracies are professional, high school, and college athletic teams that choose to use American Indians as mascots, nicknames and logos. The subset of American society that most reflects inaccuracies are professional, high school, and college athletic teams that choose to use American Indians as mascots, nicknames and logos. The imagery is often bias, distorted, and misrepresented. The imagery is often bias, distorted, and misrepresented.

3 Introduction American Indians often view American Indian mascots, nicknames, and logos as stereotypic, offensive and dehumanizing. American Indians often view American Indian mascots, nicknames, and logos as stereotypic, offensive and dehumanizing. Many American Indian students attending schools and universities outside Indian communities are often subjected to racial slurs and attacks because of preconceived attitudes resulting from stereotypes (Hansen & Rouse, 1987). Many American Indian students attending schools and universities outside Indian communities are often subjected to racial slurs and attacks because of preconceived attitudes resulting from stereotypes (Hansen & Rouse, 1987).

4 Introduction Conflict exists over the use of American Indians as sport symbols. Conflict exists over the use of American Indians as sport symbols. Controversy continues to exist about whether the use of American Indians as mascots, nicknames, and logos is an actual honor to American Indian or a form of racism. Controversy continues to exist about whether the use of American Indians as mascots, nicknames, and logos is an actual honor to American Indian or a form of racism. The teams and fans justify their use by proclaiming their team is bringing tradition and honor to American Indians and that they should feel proud about the recognition that these mascots, nicknames, and logos bring (Davis, 1993). The teams and fans justify their use by proclaiming their team is bringing tradition and honor to American Indians and that they should feel proud about the recognition that these mascots, nicknames, and logos bring (Davis, 1993).

5 Studies on American Indian Nicknames and Logos Sigelman (1998) conducted an independent study on the Washington Redskins football team. Sigelman (1998) conducted an independent study on the Washington Redskins football team. Results: No need to discontinue the use of the name. Supporters reported that the name was positive because it is associated with bravery, wisdom, spirituality, courage, and they failed to realize their depictions as racial stereotyping. Results: No need to discontinue the use of the name. Supporters reported that the name was positive because it is associated with bravery, wisdom, spirituality, courage, and they failed to realize their depictions as racial stereotyping. Survey study was done by Fenelon (1999) regarding the Cleveland Indians’ “Chief Wahoo.” Survey study was done by Fenelon (1999) regarding the Cleveland Indians’ “Chief Wahoo.” Results: A distinctive split among ethnic groups. Results: A distinctive split among ethnic groups. -Caucasians wanted to keep the logo at all costs despite protests by American Indians. -African Americans remained neutral. -American Indians wanted a change. Over 50% of Caucasians did not find Wahoo offensive, did not empathize with American Indians, and did not think the logo was stereotypic or racist. Over 50% of Caucasians did not find Wahoo offensive, did not empathize with American Indians, and did not think the logo was stereotypic or racist.

6 Effects of Stereotypes, Discrimination, Prejudice, and Racism Zakhar (1987) examined experiences of American Indians at a Midwestern university. Zakhar (1987) examined experiences of American Indians at a Midwestern university. Conclusions: American Indian students were subjected to stereotyping and racism from the beginning of their elementary education through college. They confronted racism on both a personal level and at an institutional level. Conclusions: American Indian students were subjected to stereotyping and racism from the beginning of their elementary education through college. They confronted racism on both a personal level and at an institutional level. The racism inflicted both emotional and academic hardship. The racism inflicted both emotional and academic hardship.

7 Effects of Stereotypes, Discrimination, Prejudice, and Racism Huffman (1991) examined cultural, social, economic, academic, and financial problems among American Indian students at a Midwestern university. Huffman (1991) examined cultural, social, economic, academic, and financial problems among American Indian students at a Midwestern university. Results: American Indian students experienced racism in the form of verbal harassment. Remarks ranged from derogatory to general. Results: American Indian students experienced racism in the form of verbal harassment. Remarks ranged from derogatory to general. Verbal remarks were in the form of name-calling and racial slurs stemming from common stereotypes held by non-Indians. Verbal remarks were in the form of name-calling and racial slurs stemming from common stereotypes held by non-Indians.

8 The University of North Dakota Nickname and Logo Conflict LaRocque (2001) conducted a study examining the differences between non-Indian and American Indian college students’ attitudes, beliefs, and reactions to the Fighting Sioux nickname and logo at UND. LaRocque (2001) conducted a study examining the differences between non-Indian and American Indian college students’ attitudes, beliefs, and reactions to the Fighting Sioux nickname and logo at UND. Participants filled out a survey on attitudes, beliefs, and reactions to the “Fighting Sioux” logo/nickname and its surrounding controversy. Participants filled out a survey on attitudes, beliefs, and reactions to the “Fighting Sioux” logo/nickname and its surrounding controversy.

9 The University of North Dakota Nickname and Logo Conflict Results for the American Indians revealed: Results for the American Indians revealed: the nickname did not honor UND or the Lakota/Dakota/Nakota people. the nickname did not honor UND or the Lakota/Dakota/Nakota people. it was used in a disrespectful manner and that it should be changed. it was used in a disrespectful manner and that it should be changed. historically and recently there has been an atmosphere at UND that promotes discrimination. historically and recently there has been an atmosphere at UND that promotes discrimination. they have experienced discrimination. they have experienced discrimination. they felt their personal safety was threatened. they felt their personal safety was threatened. they have experienced cultural clashes from the controversy that lead to levels of tension in classrooms. they have experienced cultural clashes from the controversy that lead to levels of tension in classrooms. they have greater levels of stress and tension resulting from the nickname issue. they have greater levels of stress and tension resulting from the nickname issue.

10 The University of North Dakota Nickname and Logo Conflict Results for the non-Indians were the complete opposite of the American Indian results. Results for the non-Indians were the complete opposite of the American Indian results. They were in support of its continued use and were not affected by the controversy surrounding its use. They were in support of its continued use and were not affected by the controversy surrounding its use.

11 The University of North Dakota Nickname and Logo Conflict Jollie-Trottier (2002) examined differences between American Indians and Caucasians in level of sport fan identification and sport fan motivation at UND. A question regarding the continued use of the nickname and logo was also asked. Jollie-Trottier (2002) examined differences between American Indians and Caucasians in level of sport fan identification and sport fan motivation at UND. A question regarding the continued use of the nickname and logo was also asked. Results: Caucasian participants highly identified with the nickname and were more likely to attend athletic events. They also did not support a name change. Results: Caucasian participants highly identified with the nickname and were more likely to attend athletic events. They also did not support a name change.

12 The University of North Dakota Nickname and Logo Conflict American Indians participants on the other hand, did not identify with the nickname and were not likely to attend athletic events. American Indians participants on the other hand, did not identify with the nickname and were not likely to attend athletic events. Many of the American Indian students reported that they were sport fans, but did not attend games because of the nickname and logo. Many of the American Indian students reported that they were sport fans, but did not attend games because of the nickname and logo. They also reported that the nickname was encouraging racism and supported a name change. They also reported that the nickname was encouraging racism and supported a name change.

13 Purpose of Current Study To investigate to what extent, if any, the “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo affects American Indian and Majority Culture college students emotionally. To investigate to what extent, if any, the “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo affects American Indian and Majority Culture college students emotionally. The study compared American Indian and Majority Culture students differences of emotional reactions and distress to 2 different slide shows using images of the “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo found around campus at UND. The study compared American Indian and Majority Culture students differences of emotional reactions and distress to 2 different slide shows using images of the “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo found around campus at UND.

14 Hypotheses American Indians will have more negative affect as a result of viewing the neutral images of the Fighting Sioux nickname/logo than Majority Culture participants. American Indians will have more negative affect as a result of viewing the neutral images of the Fighting Sioux nickname/logo than Majority Culture participants. Majority Culture participants will experience more negative affect as a result of viewing the controversial images than American Indian participants. Majority Culture participants will experience more negative affect as a result of viewing the controversial images than American Indian participants. American Indian participants will have higher levels of psychological distress than non-Indian participants. American Indian participants will have higher levels of psychological distress than non-Indian participants.

15 Hypotheses The Orthogonal Theory of Biculturalism was utilized to examine how the nickname/logo affects bicultural, traditional, assimilated and marginal American Indian students. The Orthogonal Theory of Biculturalism was utilized to examine how the nickname/logo affects bicultural, traditional, assimilated and marginal American Indian students. Traditional American Indian participants will have higher scores of negative affect and psychological distress than Assimilated American Indians after viewing the Neutral slide show. Traditional American Indian participants will have higher scores of negative affect and psychological distress than Assimilated American Indians after viewing the Neutral slide show.

16 Methodology Participants: 36 Majority Culture and 33 American Indian students attending UND. Participants: 36 Majority Culture and 33 American Indian students attending UND. Materials: Research packet consisted of 1)informed consent form 2) a demographic questionnaire 3) three Multiple Affect Adjective Checklists (MAACL-R) and 4) the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale (NLDS). American Indian participants also filled out the Northern Plains Biculturalism Inventory (NPBI). Materials: Research packet consisted of 1)informed consent form 2) a demographic questionnaire 3) three Multiple Affect Adjective Checklists (MAACL-R) and 4) the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale (NLDS). American Indian participants also filled out the Northern Plains Biculturalism Inventory (NPBI).

17 Methodology Recruitment consisted of soliciting students from psychology and Indian studies classes, sending an message to American Indian students, and research assistants approaching American Indian students at the American Indian Center. Recruitment consisted of soliciting students from psychology and Indian studies classes, sending an message to American Indian students, and research assistants approaching American Indian students at the American Indian Center. The study was conducted in a lab in the Psychology building. Each participant was run separately. The study was conducted in a lab in the Psychology building. Each participant was run separately.

18 Methodology Participants read through the consent form and signed it if they chose to participate-a copy was also given to them. They were then given specific instructions about the study. Participants read through the consent form and signed it if they chose to participate-a copy was also given to them. They were then given specific instructions about the study. They first completed the demographic questionnaire and American Indians also filled out the NPBI. Participants then filled out the first MAACL-R to establish a baseline for each participant. They first completed the demographic questionnaire and American Indians also filled out the NPBI. Participants then filled out the first MAACL-R to establish a baseline for each participant. They then viewed either the Neutral slide show or the Controversial slide show. The slide shows were counterbalanced. They then viewed either the Neutral slide show or the Controversial slide show. The slide shows were counterbalanced. After viewing each slide show, participants were instructed to fill out the MAACL-R to measure if there was a change in emotional state. After viewing each slide show, participants were instructed to fill out the MAACL-R to measure if there was a change in emotional state.

19 Methodology After the last MAACL-R was completed, they were then instructed to fill out the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale. The study lasted approximately 45 minutes. After the last MAACL-R was completed, they were then instructed to fill out the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale. The study lasted approximately 45 minutes. Upon completion of the study, each participant was thanked for their time and were awarded either one hour of extra credit towards their class or five dollars for their participation. Upon completion of the study, each participant was thanked for their time and were awarded either one hour of extra credit towards their class or five dollars for their participation.

20 Results Pearson Product Moment correlations were conducted to examine the relationships between variables and the NLDS as well as with the MAACL-R. See handout Pearson Product Moment correlations were conducted to examine the relationships between variables and the NLDS as well as with the MAACL-R. See handout Two (group) X 3 (MAACL-R) mixed factor ANOVA for each subscale of the MAACL-R. Two (group) X 3 (MAACL-R) mixed factor ANOVA for each subscale of the MAACL-R. Independent t-tests to see if there were significant differences on mean scores on the NLDS (American Indians vs Majority Culture, Traditional vs Assimilated). Independent t-tests to see if there were significant differences on mean scores on the NLDS (American Indians vs Majority Culture, Traditional vs Assimilated).

21 Results Descriptive Analyses for Entire Sample N=69: 36 Majority Culture (19 females & 17 males); 33 American Indian (19 females & 15 males). N=69: 36 Majority Culture (19 females & 17 males); 33 American Indian (19 females & 15 males). Mean age was (SD=6.20). Mean age was (SD=6.20). 32% were freshman, 22% were sophomores, 17% juniors, 20% were seniors, and 9% were graduate students. 32% were freshman, 22% were sophomores, 17% juniors, 20% were seniors, and 9% were graduate students. Majors: 15% psychology; 12% nursing; 10% elementary education, and 9% aviation. Majors: 15% psychology; 12% nursing; 10% elementary education, and 9% aviation. Years attended UND: Mean length was 2.33 (SD=1.78). Years attended UND: Mean length was 2.33 (SD=1.78).

22 Results Descriptive Statistics for Dysphoria Composite Scale Ethnic GroupMSDN Baseline Majority Culture American Indians Total Neutral Majority Culture47.61* American Indians67.48* Total Controversy Majority Culture67.19* American Indians77.90* Total *=significant at α=.05

23 Results Main effect of MAACL-R Main effect of MAACL-R [F(2,67)=66, p=.000] α=.05 MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction [F(2,67)=5.77, p=.000] α=.05 Main effect of Ethnic Group Main effect of Ethnic Group [F(1,67)=14.16, p=.000] α=.05

24 Results Descriptive Statistics for PASS Composite Scale Ethnic GroupMSDN Baseline Majority Culture American Indians Total Neutral Majority Culture48.97* American Indians36.54* Total Controversy Majority Culture42.30* American Indians31.48* Total *=significant at α=.05

25 Results Main effect of MAACL-R Main effect of MAACL-R [F(2,67)=49.94, p=.000] α=.05 MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction [F(2,67)=11.88, p=.000] α=.05 Main effect of Ethnic Group Main effect of Ethnic Group [F(1,67)=14.16, p=.000] α=.05

26 Results Descriptive Statistics for Anxiety Subscale Ethnic GroupMSDN Baseline Majority Culture American Indians Total Neutral Majority Culture45.08* American Indians51.30* Total Controversy Majority Culture American Indians Total *=significant at α=.05

27 Results Main effect of MAACL-R Main effect of MAACL-R [F(2,67)=3.23, p<.043] α=.05 MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction [F(2,67)=2.20, p>.118] α=.05 Main effect of Ethnic Group Main effect of Ethnic Group [F(1,67)=2.51, p>.117] α=.05

28 Results Descriptive Statistics for Depression Subscale Ethnic GroupMSDN Baseline Majority Culture American Indians Total Neutral Majority Culture46.61* American Indians63.12* Total Controversy Majority Culture51.05* American Indians64.18* Total *=significant at α=.05

29 Results Main effect of MAACL-R Main effect of MAACL-R [F(2,67)=18.99, p= ] α=.05 MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction [F(2,67)=7.51, p<.001] α=.05 Main effect of Ethnic Group Main effect of Ethnic Group [F(1,67)=16.29, p=.000] α=.05

30 Results Descriptive Statistics for Hostility Subscale Ethnic GroupMSDN Baseline Majority Culture American Indians Total Neutral Majority Culture54.80* American Indians81.24* Total Controversy Majority Culture95.58* American Indians111.09* Total *=significant at α=.05

31 Results Main effect of MAACL-R Main effect of MAACL-R [F(2,67)=70.13, p= ] α=.05 MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction MAACL-R *Ethnic Group Interaction [F(2,67)=3.31, p<.039] α=.05 Main effect of Ethnic Group Main effect of Ethnic Group [F(1,67)=44.84, p=.000] α=.05

32 Results-Traditional vs Assimilated Scatter plot reflecting American Indian participant’s data points according to the Orthogonal Theory of Biculturalism. Scatter plot reflecting American Indian participant’s data points according to the Orthogonal Theory of Biculturalism. Bicultural (n=4), Traditional (n=11), Marginal (n=4), Assimilated (n=10). Bicultural (n=4), Traditional (n=11), Marginal (n=4), Assimilated (n=10).

33 Results-Repeated Measures Mixed Design The results revealed that there was no significant difference between the Traditional and Assimilated American Indians on the Dysphoria Composite Scale’s mean scores (negative affect).

34 Results Independent t-Test An independent t-Test was conducted between American Indian and Majority Culture participant’s mean scores on the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale. An independent t-Test was conducted between American Indian and Majority Culture participant’s mean scores on the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale. There was a statistically significant difference between the total scores [t(67)=-5.95, p=.000] at α=.05. There was a statistically significant difference between the total scores [t(67)=-5.95, p=.000] at α=.05. American Indians had a mean score of 15(SD=5.6) and Majority Culture had a mean score of 8.8 (SD=2.67) American Indians had a mean score of 15(SD=5.6) and Majority Culture had a mean score of 8.8 (SD=2.67) The higher mean score indicates that American Indian participants had higher levels of distress due to the “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo. The higher mean score indicates that American Indian participants had higher levels of distress due to the “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo.

35 Results-Traditional vs Assimilated Independent t-Test Traditional and Assimilated American Indians did not differ in terms of psychological distress from the nickname/logo {t(19)=-2.01,p<.058}. Traditional and Assimilated American Indians did not differ in terms of psychological distress from the nickname/logo {t(19)=-2.01,p<.058}. Traditional (M=19.20, SD=4.61), Assimilated (M=14.72, SD=5.46). Traditional (M=19.20, SD=4.61), Assimilated (M=14.72, SD=5.46). Because of the small number of participants in each group, conclusions are hard to make. Because of the small number of participants in each group, conclusions are hard to make.

36 Discussion Results supported the first hypotheses that American Indian participants would have higher mean scores of negative affect than Majority Culture participants after viewing the Neutral slide show. Results supported the first hypotheses that American Indian participants would have higher mean scores of negative affect than Majority Culture participants after viewing the Neutral slide show. In fact, the American Indian group’s mean score after viewing the Neutral slide show was in the range for experiencing moderate distress whereas the Majority Culture participants still had scores in the normal range. In fact, the American Indian group’s mean score after viewing the Neutral slide show was in the range for experiencing moderate distress whereas the Majority Culture participants still had scores in the normal range. The supportive evidence for the current hypothesis becomes even clearer when the PASS Composite Scale mean scores are examined. The supportive evidence for the current hypothesis becomes even clearer when the PASS Composite Scale mean scores are examined.

37 Discussion The second hypothesis that Majority Culture participants would have more negative affect as a result of viewing the Controversial images of the “Fighting Sioux” nickname/logo than American Indians was not supported. The second hypothesis that Majority Culture participants would have more negative affect as a result of viewing the Controversial images of the “Fighting Sioux” nickname/logo than American Indians was not supported. Probably the most interesting result of the study is the findings from the examination of the Hostility subscale. The findings indicate that there was a significant difference between American Indian and Majority Culture participants on Hostility mean scores after each slide. Probably the most interesting result of the study is the findings from the examination of the Hostility subscale. The findings indicate that there was a significant difference between American Indian and Majority Culture participants on Hostility mean scores after each slide.

38 Discussion The American Indian group’s mean score after the Neutral slide show put American Indians in the extremely significant range for hostility and remained there after viewing the Controversial slide show. The American Indian group’s mean score after the Neutral slide show put American Indians in the extremely significant range for hostility and remained there after viewing the Controversial slide show. The Majority Culture participants mean score hit the extremely significant range after they viewed the controversial slide show. The Majority Culture participants mean score hit the extremely significant range after they viewed the controversial slide show. The extremely high scores indicate proneness to violence according to the MAACL-R manual. The extremely high scores indicate proneness to violence according to the MAACL-R manual. The findings suggest that the American Indian participants left the study feeling depressed, angry, and with a total loss of positive affect. The findings suggest that the American Indian participants left the study feeling depressed, angry, and with a total loss of positive affect.

39 Discussion Interestingly, American Indian participants had higher baseline scores on the negative affect scales of the MAACL-R. Interestingly, American Indian participants had higher baseline scores on the negative affect scales of the MAACL-R. Why? Why? Suggestions: Suggestions: American Indian students could have initial higher levels of distress due to being a minority student in a predominately Caucasian university (Huffman, 1991; Zakhar 1987). American Indian students could have initial higher levels of distress due to being a minority student in a predominately Caucasian university (Huffman, 1991; Zakhar 1987). American Indian students experience a level of discrimination, racism, and prejudice that affects their daily emotional state (LaRocque, 2001). American Indian students experience a level of discrimination, racism, and prejudice that affects their daily emotional state (LaRocque, 2001). American Indians are a higher risk for psychological instability due to historical trauma (Walker; 2001, Lester; 1999; Bryon1997). American Indians are a higher risk for psychological instability due to historical trauma (Walker; 2001, Lester; 1999; Bryon1997).

40 Discussion American Indian students on campus may have higher levels of psychological distress on a daily basis simply from seeing images of the “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo. American Indian students on campus may have higher levels of psychological distress on a daily basis simply from seeing images of the “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo. Seeing images may also make them more prone to hostility and feelings of depression. Seeing images may also make them more prone to hostility and feelings of depression. Controversial images contribute to even higher levels of negative affect and psychological distress. Controversial images contribute to even higher levels of negative affect and psychological distress. Negative affect experienced at that level can contribute to American Indian students having a hard time functioning in their daily living. Negative affect experienced at that level can contribute to American Indian students having a hard time functioning in their daily living.

41 Discussion Limitations Limitations -the content of the controversial slide show -the slide show may have had images that may have been offensive to one group and not the other. -small amount of participants that were Lakota/Dakota/Nakota. -participants were not randomly selected.

42 Conclusions This study provides evidence that American Indian students and Majority culture students are experiencing negative affect and psychological distress due to the “Fighting Sioux” nickname/logo and its surrounding controversy but at different levels. This study provides evidence that American Indian students and Majority culture students are experiencing negative affect and psychological distress due to the “Fighting Sioux” nickname/logo and its surrounding controversy but at different levels. This is without even considering the added hype that occurs when a controversial issue is brought up on campus about the “Fighting Sioux” nickname/logo. This is without even considering the added hype that occurs when a controversial issue is brought up on campus about the “Fighting Sioux” nickname/logo.

43 Conclusions Although this study provided some significant results, further research regarding the effects of American Indian stereotypical images is clearly needed. Although this study provided some significant results, further research regarding the effects of American Indian stereotypical images is clearly needed. More specific and meaningful research needs to be done in this area, other than offering opinion polls. More specific and meaningful research needs to be done in this area, other than offering opinion polls. More evidence needs to be obtained regarding the direct psychological impact of using American Indians as nickname, logos, and mascots, not only on college campuses, but on a national level as well. More evidence needs to be obtained regarding the direct psychological impact of using American Indians as nickname, logos, and mascots, not only on college campuses, but on a national level as well.

44 Conclusions It is clear that this is a serious issue that needs more attention since the findings of the current study do not contribute to a healthy learning environment for American Indian students. It is clear that this is a serious issue that needs more attention since the findings of the current study do not contribute to a healthy learning environment for American Indian students. If this problem is not addressed, this issue will continue to contribute to the many problems American Indians face and assist in hindering their psychological well-being. If this problem is not addressed, this issue will continue to contribute to the many problems American Indians face and assist in hindering their psychological well-being.

45 Conclusions This study did not offer any potential solutions to the “Fighting Sioux” nickname/logo issue, but it did offer an area that needs to be addressed in regards to the seriousness of how American Indian students are being affected. This study did not offer any potential solutions to the “Fighting Sioux” nickname/logo issue, but it did offer an area that needs to be addressed in regards to the seriousness of how American Indian students are being affected. Hopefully, this study will contribute to the issue by providing further research in this area and by helping find a resolution to a long standing issue among schools, universities, and professional athletic teams. Hopefully, this study will contribute to the issue by providing further research in this area and by helping find a resolution to a long standing issue among schools, universities, and professional athletic teams.


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