2BACKGROUNDBy the end of the Spanish-American War, the U.S. was occupying four of Spain’s former colonies“Imperialists” saw this as an opportunity. They believed the U.S. should take its own colonies before European countries got them all.Because other powers were competing for naval supremacy, many in the U.S. thought the U.S. must be able to compete.
3THE BIG QUESTIONSWhat strategic and political factors led America to become an imperial power?What were the main consequences of American imperialism?
4ANTI-IMPERIALISTSBecause the U.S. had itself been colonies, many Americans felt uneasy about forcing colonial rule on othersOpponents felt imperialism violated the basic democratic principles of self-government on which the U.S. was foundedSome formed the American Anti-Imperialist League in 1898 to oppose colonial acquisitions
5REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM (COLONIAL EXPANSION) THE NEED FOR RAW MATERIALS AND MARKETS – Colonies could provide needed raw materials for factories, guaranteed markets, and places for farmers to sell their surplus cropsSTRATEGIC REASONS – Colonies would promote American naval strength. America could have a more powerful navy with bases throughout the worldNATIONALISM – Would show the U.S. was a great and powerful nationATTITUDES TOWARD OTHER PEOPLE – Belief in Anglo-Saxon superiority, spreading American institution could help others, and converting people to Christianity
6IMPERIAL TERRITORIESAfter the Spanish-American War, the U.S. acquired a colonial empire consisting of the Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, Samoa, and Midway in the Pacific and Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Virgin Islands, and the Panama Canal Zone in the Caribbean.
7AMERICA IN THE PACIFICTHE PHILIPPINES – Fought the United States until 1902 for independence, since they were disappointed that the U.S. did not grant them independence after the Spanish-American WarGUAM – Was taken from Spain by the U.S. during the Spanish-American War in It was an important port-of-call crossing the Pacific. Today, it is an unincorporated territory of the U.S.SAMOA AND MIDWAY – Midway became an American possession in 1867, even before the Sp.-Am. War. In 1899, Samoa was divided between Germany and the U.S. These Pacific islands provided valuable naval bases and refueling stations for American ships traveling to Asia
8CONTINUED…The Hawaiian islands once provided a refueling station for American ships.American settlers built sugar and pineapple plantationsMissionaries were sent to convert the natives to ChristianityIn the 1890s, Queen Liliuokalani tried to take political power back from American landownersShe was overthrown in 1893
9CONTINUED…Sandford B. Dole led the provisional government while it worked out plans for the U.S. to annex itPresident Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii because the planters had seized power, so Dole served as Hawaii’s PresidentAfter the Spanish-American War broke out, congress voted to annex HawaiiDole served as governor from 1900 – 1903
10ASSIGNMENT: Title your map: U.S. Colonial Possessions Locate Pacific Island territories gained by the United States. Color each one a different color and add the year it was annexedOn the back of the map, create a comparison table listing arguments for and against Imperialism.Ex.Arguments for Imperialism:Arguments against Imperialism:
11AMERICA AND EAST ASIAGeography placed America in an advantageous position for trade with East AsiaClipper ships brought Chinese tea and other goods from East Asia to the U.S.After 1898, control of several Pacific Islands gave the U. S. greater influence in the PacificPacific island acquisitions increased American opportunities for trade with both China and Japan
12CHINAIn the 1850s, European powers had created “spheres of influence” (areas where they had special privileges)Though the U.S. had no sphere of influence, they had carried on trade in China for some timeU.S. Secretary of State, John Hay, announced the “Open Door” Policy, giving equal trading rights to all foreign nations in China (he declared this by sending notes to all major powers)
13CONTINUED…Shortly after Hay announced the Open Door Policy, the Boxer Rebellion broke out in China (the Boxers were opposed to Western influence in China)The Boxers threatened the lives of foreigners in ChinaThe U.S. participated in an international army that crushed the rebellion.Hay announced that the U.S. would oppose any attempt by other nations to use the Boxer rebellion as an excuse to interfere in China.
14JAPANThe U.S. opened Japan who was an isolationist country to Western trade and influenceCommodore Matthew Perry landed there with American gun ships in 1853By 1890s, Japan had adopted Western waysIt became the first Asian industrial powerAdopted imperialist ways (defeated China in 1894, and Russia in 1905)President Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize when he helped Russia and Japan negotiate a peaceful settlement in the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)
16REASONS FOR U.S. INTEREST IN THE CARIBBEAN HEMISPHERIC SECURITY – U.S. sought to keep foreign powers out of the Caribbean because they might pose a threat to U.S. security (Monroe Doctrine)ECONOMIC INTEREST – Caribbean was an important supplier of agricultural products (sugar) and provided a valuable market for American goods and investmentNEED FOR A CANAL – The U.S. needed easier access by water between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This could most likely be achieved by building a canal in Central America
17PUERTO RICOBecame an American possession after the Spanish-American WarIn May of 1900, the U.S. government established a civil government in Puerto RicoStructure: a governor, upper house of delegates (picked by the President and approved by Congress), and a lower house (elected by popular vote)
18CUBA Largest island in the Caribbean Became a “protectorate” under American control after the Sp.-Am. WarForces remained on the island and American businesses invested heavily in CubaForced to agree to the Platt Amendment giving U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban affairs at any time (repealed in 1930)
19PANAMA Narrowest point in Central America Part of Columbia – The U.S. and Columbia entered into negotiations but could not reach a deal for PanamaT. Roosevelt struck a deal with Panamanian rebels to help them win independenceSent a warship to protect the rebels and recognized Panama as a new countryIn return, Panama gave the U.S. complete control of a 10-mile strip of rainforest through Panama, known as the canal zone
21ASSIGNMENTAdd the Caribbean territories to your map of Imperialism by locating and coloring each territory and adding the date it was annexed (Puerto Rico, Cuba, Panama, The Virgin Islands)
22AMERICAN POLICIES IN LATIN AMERICA The Monroe Doctrine (1823) – prevented Europeans from establishing new colonies in the Western HemisphereRoosevelt Corollary (known as the Big Stick Policy – “walk softly but carry a big stick”)declared that the U.S. would act as an “international police power” in Latin American affairs.was often used to justify sending U.S. troops to the West Indies and Central America (Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Dominican Republic)Was deeply resented by Latin Americans
23CONTINUED…TAFT AND DOLLAR DIPLOMACY – Taft encouraged bankers to invest in Caribbean countriesDollar Diplomacy – American investments were used to promote American foreign policy goalsIf Latin American countries couldn’t repay loans on time, U.S. troops were sent in to ensure paymentWILSON’S LATIN AMERICAN POLICY – wanted to turn from the bullying tactics of previous presidentsSent troops to Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Domincan Republic to protect American interestsPurchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917
24CONTINUED… THE PROBLEM WITH MEXICO Was undergoing a violent revolution when Wilson became PresidentWilson adopted a policy of “watchful waiting”Retaliated against Pancho Villa when he murdered American in New Mexico and retreated across the borderWilson sent an American Expeditionary Force into Mexico under General John J. Pershing to apprehend VillaVilla eluded capture and the force was withdrawn in 1917, when the U.S. entered WWI in Europe
25ASSIGNMENTComplete the graphic organizer comparing presidential policies in Latin America
26ASSIGNMENTCreate a political cartoon depicting American Imperialism in the Pacific or Imperialist policy in East Asia