Presentation on theme: "Background notes on Ernest Hemingway and The Lost Generation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Background notes on Ernest Hemingway and The Lost Generation THE SUN ALSO RISESBackground notes onErnest Hemingway andThe Lost Generation
2 BACKGROUND ON HEMINGWAY Ernest Hemingway, a giant of American literature, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.Major works are The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), and The Old Man and the Sea (1952).
3 ICEBERG METAPHORHemingway’s writing seems very simple, but he writes using the “Iceberg Theory” (understatement).With an iceberg, 7/8th’s of the iceberg is beneath the surface; this is analogous to Hemingway’s prose, where there is just a little bit above the surface-- most of the meaning is beneath the surface.
4 THE LOST GENERATIONGertrude Stein, a writer who ran a literary “salon” in Paris in the 1920’s, said to Hemingway, “All you people who served in the war, you are all a lost generation.” Originally this term referred to all the young men who died in WWI, but Stein used it to refer to the writers and artists who lived in Paris after the war. They were “lost” in that they eschewed traditional lives.
5 LOST GENERATION continued Violently affected by the carnage of WWI and disillusioned with their society’s values characterized by greed, materialism and provincialism (such as prohibition),these expatriate American writers and artists fled to Paris where they could pursue their art and live a bohemian lifestyle, which meant living life in the fast lane (parties, drinking, relationships, travel).
6 American Expatriates in Paris F. Scott Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby) and his wife, Zelda, like Hemingway, were among the writers and artists who hung out in Paris in the 1920’s.
7 Dominant Belief of the Expatriates After suffering so from the horror that was WWI, the expatriates embraced a philosophy of carpe diem (live life to its fullest now), for after death is death. The converse of carpe diem is “memento mori,” which means remember death and repent (Calvinistic idea).
8 MAJOR CHARACTERS IN THE NOVEL Jake Barnes—the main characteris an American journalist living in post-war Parislikes to drink, fish, watch the bullfightsWas wounded in the war on the Italian frontIs deeply in love with Lady Brett AshleyRobert Cohn—is a sometime writerplays tennisformer Princeton boy who boxed in collegeis a bit of an outsider in his crowd because he’s Jewishis a dilettante (likes to dabble in different things)at the beginning of the novel, he is seeing Frances.
9 MAJOR CHARACTERS CONT. Frances— is a strong-willed American woman speaks fluent Frenchis having an affair at the beginning of the novel with Robert CohnBrett Ashley—a drop-dead gorgeous Englishwomanhas a history with Jakewas a nurse in the waris unconventional (likes to drink, party, flirt, have fun)
10 HEMINGWAY’S CODEThe Hemingway hero has to adhere to a strict code, including:self-disciplinebeing able to hold one’s liquoralways being in control of oneself and able to handle any situationbelief that action matters, not talkbelief that work/skill is what mattersloyalty to a small group of friends (not country or God)enjoying the small things in life
11 THE THREE SECTIONS OF THE SUN ALSO RISES The Paris section, which is a series of loosely linked stories
12 Three Sections continued The fishing trip in northern Spain (is an escape from the city and from women and represents a sort of Edenic paradise).
13 Three Sections finis Fiesta at Pamplona,Spain An aficionado of bull-fighting, Hemingway saw the bullfights as representing man’s struggle against death