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Presentation Slides for Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions Chapter 9: Indoor Air Pollution By Mark Z. Jacobson Cambridge.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Slides for Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions Chapter 9: Indoor Air Pollution By Mark Z. Jacobson Cambridge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation Slides for Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions Chapter 9: Indoor Air Pollution By Mark Z. Jacobson Cambridge University Press (2012) Last update: February 15, 2012 The photographs shown here either appear in the textbook or were obtained from the internet and are provided to facilitate their display during course instruction. Permissions for publication of photographs must be requested from individual copyright holders. The source of each photograph is given below the figure and/or in the back of the textbook.

2 Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Kerosene heater Gas stove Fireplace Car exhaust from garage Sims2.puskala.org Gas heater

3 Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Particle board Plywood Img.epinions.comwww.vintageagainsoutheast.comwww.californiapaints.com Paneling

4 Dust mites Enhs.umn.edu Aura.gaia.com Dust Mite Feces

5 Dust Mite S. Kaulitzki/Dreamstime

6 Pollen specialcomment.wordpress.com Fungal spores Bacteria Viruses

7 Geoscape.nrcan.gc.ca

8 Radioactive Decay Emission

9 First Evidence of Radioactivity From Becquerel's Notes American Institute of Physics Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, William G. Myers Collection

10 Decay of Uranium to Lead (9.1) Decay sequence produces radon, polonium, and lead

11 Zone 1 (red) = high radon

12 Red= high radon Orange=medium radon Yellow=low radon Radon Zones

13 Mineral Asbestos Pancaketom/Dreamstime

14 Asbestos Robert Grieshaber Chrysotile Amosite Crocidolite Chrysotile

15 Asbestos Fire blanket Brake pads Pipe insulation Locomotive insulation Roofing products Lamp wicks Ship insulation Mine oraclesolutionsltd.co.uk Attic insulation Home insulation

16 Health Effects of Asbestos Lung cancer: 4800 deaths/yr US Mesothelioma: 2500/yr Cancer of mesothelial membrane lining lungs Asbestosis: 1400/yr US: Slow, debilitating lung disease Gastro-intestinal cancer: 1200 deaths/yr Reports.ewg.org

17 Libby, Montana Closed Libby vermiculite facilityLibby contaminated soil covered Vermiculite mine, which produced 80% of the world’s vermiculite, opened in W.R. Grace Co. owned the mine from , during which 192 deaths and 375 lung injuries due asbestos were reported.

18 Environmental Tobacco Smoke Mainstream smoke Exhaled smoke Sidestream smoke Emitted from burning cigarette Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) = second-hand smoke Combination of mainstream and sidestream smoke. Contains more than 4000 particle components and gases, over 50 of which are known carcinogens. ETS may cause 17% of lung cancers of nonsmokers. Concentrations One pack of cigarettes ≈ 20  g m -3 of particles in room over 24 hours. Near smoker, concentrations  g m -3

19 Mainstream/Sidestream Smoke R. Kneschke/Henrischmit/Dreamstime

20 Comparison of Cigarette with Automobile Emissions Table 9.3 CONOxParticles Avg. cigarette emission (g/cigarette) Avg. automobile emission (g/mi) Number of cigarettes resulting in same emission as driving one mile Est. U.S. cigarette emiss. (tonnes/day) Est. mobile-source emiss. (tonnes/day)193,00040,60012,200

21 Indoor Cookstove Kacpura/Dreamstime

22 Indoor Workplace Standards

23 Indoor Workplace Standards NAAQS apply to outdoor pollution only in the U.S. No regulations control air pollution in indoor residences. Standards for indoor workplaces set by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Recommendations for standards made by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. (ACGIH). Permissible exposure limits (PELs) - set by NIOSH Maximum allowable indoor workplace concentration over 8-h day Time-weighted average threshold limit value (TWA-TLV) Similar to PELs, but set by ACGIH

24 Comparison of Indoor with Outdoor Standards Table 9.4 Indoor 8-hOutdoor PEL andOutdoor California TWA-TLVNAAQS Standard Gas(ppmv)(ppmv)(ppmv) Carbon monoxide359.0 (8-h)9 (8-h) Nitrogen dioxide1 (15-m)0.053 (annual)0.18 (1-h) Ozone (8-h)0.07 (8-h) Outdoor standards tougher to protect entire population. Outdoor standards for NO 2 (g) tougher since ozone forms outdoors, but not indoors, from NO 2 (g).


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