Presentation on theme: "Presentation Slides for Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions Chapter 9: Indoor Air Pollution By Mark Z. Jacobson Cambridge."— Presentation transcript:
Presentation Slides for Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions Chapter 9: Indoor Air Pollution By Mark Z. Jacobson Cambridge University Press (2012) Last update: February 15, 2012 The photographs shown here either appear in the textbook or were obtained from the internet and are provided to facilitate their display during course instruction. Permissions for publication of photographs must be requested from individual copyright holders. The source of each photograph is given below the figure and/or in the back of the textbook.
Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Kerosene heater www.chemistryland.com Gas stove www.sispropane.ca Fireplace www.3planesoft.com Car exhaust from garage Sims2.puskala.org Gas heater www.homeinteriorszone.com
Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Particle board www.germes-online.com Plywood www.vgtrading.com.ar Img.epinions.comwww.vintageagainsoutheast.comwww.californiapaints.com Paneling www.cof.orst.edu
Health Effects of Asbestos Lung cancer: 4800 deaths/yr US Mesothelioma: 2500/yr Cancer of mesothelial membrane lining lungs Asbestosis: 1400/yr US: Slow, debilitating lung disease Gastro-intestinal cancer: 1200 deaths/yr Reports.ewg.org
Libby, Montana www.bitsofnews.com Closed Libby vermiculite facilityLibby contaminated soil covered www.home-air-purifier-expert.com Vermiculite mine, which produced 80% of the world’s vermiculite, opened in 1918. W.R. Grace Co. owned the mine from 1963-1990, during which 192 deaths and 375 lung injuries due asbestos were reported.
Environmental Tobacco Smoke Mainstream smoke Exhaled smoke Sidestream smoke Emitted from burning cigarette Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) = second-hand smoke Combination of mainstream and sidestream smoke. Contains more than 4000 particle components and gases, over 50 of which are known carcinogens. ETS may cause 17% of lung cancers of nonsmokers. Concentrations One pack of cigarettes ≈ 20 g m -3 of particles in room over 24 hours. Near smoker, concentrations 500-1000 g m -3
Mainstream/Sidestream Smoke R. Kneschke/Henrischmit/Dreamstime
Comparison of Cigarette with Automobile Emissions Table 9.3 CONOxParticles Avg. cigarette emission (g/cigarette)0.04640.00210.058 Avg. automobile emission (g/mi)4.20.070.01 Number of cigarettes resulting in same emission as driving one mile90.533.30.17 Est. U.S. cigarette emiss. (tonnes/day)612.776 Est. mobile-source emiss. (tonnes/day)193,00040,60012,200
Indoor Workplace Standards NAAQS apply to outdoor pollution only in the U.S. No regulations control air pollution in indoor residences. Standards for indoor workplaces set by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Recommendations for standards made by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. (ACGIH). Permissible exposure limits (PELs) - set by NIOSH Maximum allowable indoor workplace concentration over 8-h day Time-weighted average threshold limit value (TWA-TLV) Similar to PELs, but set by ACGIH
Comparison of Indoor with Outdoor Standards Table 9.4 Indoor 8-hOutdoor PEL andOutdoor California TWA-TLVNAAQS Standard Gas(ppmv)(ppmv)(ppmv) Carbon monoxide359.0 (8-h)9 (8-h) Nitrogen dioxide1 (15-m)0.053 (annual)0.18 (1-h) Ozone0.10.075 (8-h)0.07 (8-h) Outdoor standards tougher to protect entire population. Outdoor standards for NO 2 (g) tougher since ozone forms outdoors, but not indoors, from NO 2 (g).