Presentation on theme: "Earthquake Engineering. What is the Damage Quakes can cause?"— Presentation transcript:
What is the Damage Quakes can cause?
Direct Effects Ground failures: Vibration of soil Fault rupture Liquefaction Ground lurching Differential settlement Lateral spreading
Indirect Effects Tsunamis Seiches Landslides Floods Fires Release of hazardous material
What is earthquake engineering?
Earthquake Engineering It is a branch of engineering devoted to prevent earthquake hazards and its after effects
Why is there Earthquake Engineering? Quakes demonstrated they destroy cities and people faster than Brandon can.
Basic Goals To prevent non- structural damage, structural damage and collapsing of buildings in earthquakes
Quiz 1.What is earthquake engineering? It is a branch of engineering devoted to prevent earthquake hazards and its after effects
Now do you want earthquake safe buildings?
Seismic Retrofit brings older buildings/structures up to more current seismic standards without having to completely rebuild them.
Sliding Old structures may not be strongly bolted into the foundation Corrosion weakens attachments These structures could be bolted to the foundation. We ak Fo un dat ion
Shock Absorbers A device for reducing the effect of a sudden shock by the dissipation of the earthquakes shock energy
Base Isolation Allows the ground to move while the building remains in place. This method allows a building to move
Isolation Isolation pads are used to let the ground shake, but have the building not move
Dampers Converts the energy of motion in a building into heat. Are for buildings rigidly attached to the ground; will protect from resonance vibrations.
Wall composed of braced panels Flexible Counters the effects of swaying on a structure
Shorter buildings can resist seismic forces. Instead of adding stories, expand the first floor of your home.
Water in tank sloshes back and forth during an earthquake Prevents resonance in buildings Extra heat in building is absorbed
Tuned Mass Dampers A device mounted in structures to prevent damage or outright structural failure by vibration.
Stone veneer or cement More resistant to earthquakes so crack easily Use other lighter materials to replace
Reinforcement Exterior concrete columns Infill shear trusses Massive exterior structure. It is not beautiful but it works.
Quiz-y! 2. What is seismic retrofitting?
Quiz-y! 3. At what college are the dorms reinforced? UC BERKELEY!!!
Time for SEISMIC DESIGN! Everyone smile because its so exciting!
Traditional Seismic Design Lower stories are stronger than upper stories, meaning it is more prevalent to reinforce taller buildings and higher stories.
Quiz-y! 4. What is traditional seismic design? Lower stories are stronger than upper stories, meaning it is more prevalent to reinforce taller buildings and higher stories.
Floor Diaphragm Wooden building floors are made on joints to prevent beams from tipping.
Sliding Off Foundation Older homes can be bolted to their foundation to prevent major damage in an earthquake.
Hot Rivet Replacement The rivet was replaced with a heat-treated high-strength locator bolt and nut
Lattice Beam Conversion Beams were replaced with bolted steel plates. Also, face plates were added to the large diagonal beams
Diagonal Reinforcement Diagonal box beams are added to the upper and lower decks of the bridges
Expansion Rockers allow the bridge expand and contract with temperature changes
Bay Bridge Structure During the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (7.1 on the Richter Scale). A 50-foot section of the bridge collapsed.
Bay Bridge Retrofit! the strengthening of bents and columns on the east viaduct and the piers, bents, and trusses
Fill & Overpass Elevated roadways are built on sections of elevated earth supported with vertical columns
ROADS! Soil is tested to see if it can hold weight, then asphalt is added
Cypress Freeway Viaduct Collapse During the Loma Pieta Earthquake, the Cypress Structure collapsed. This roadway was not properly reinforced. After the quake the structure was removed and a new roadway was built.
Overpasses Pillars: –Spiral steel girders support columns and prevent bending of steel rods in the highway Con struc tion of Pillar s
Add size and weight to bridges footing Anchor with metal rods (pilings) Jacket of steel around column Thick cables help hold together Top: Brid ge Com pone nts Left: Cabl e Syst em
OMG! Its UNDERWATE R TUBES! It makes you all giddy!
Underwater Tubes Safety depend on soil conditions, the materials used, and the maximum predicted earthquake expected.
BART! yay! BART trans-bay tube was constructed at the bottom of San Francisco Bay
What does BART have? two inner tunnels a central tunnel an outer oval shell encompassing the three inner tubes
Quiz! 5. _____ trans-bay tube was constructed at the bottom of San Francisco Bay. BART! [gasp!]